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are excellent, being instructed to the letter: whose praise is out of the law; 19 and be con- not from men, but from God. fident that thou thyself art a CH. III. 1" WHAT advanguide of the blind, a light to tage then hath the Jew? those who are in darkness, 20 what is the benefit of circumcian instructer of the unwise, a sion?" 2 "Much every way: teacher of babes, having the but chiefly, because to the Jews form of knowledge and of the were committed the oracles of truth in the law; 21 thou who God. 3 For what if some had teachest another, teachest thou not faith? shall their want of not thyself? thou who preach- faith make the faithfulness of est that a man should not God without effect? 4 By no steal, dost thou steal? 22 thou means: yea, let God be true, who sayest, a man should not but every man a liar: as it is commit adultery, dost thou written; That thou mightest commit adultery? thou who be justified in thy words, and abhorrest idols, dost thou com- mightest overcome when thou mit sacrilege? 23 thou who art judged.' 5 But if our gloriest in the law, through the unrighteousness enhance the breaking of the law dishonour-righteousness of God"—"What est thou God? 24 (For" the shall we say? Is God unrightename of God is evil spoken of ous who inflicteth punishment? among the gentiles, through (I speak according to the manyou;" as it is written.) ner of men.) 6 By no means: for then how shall God judge the world." 7" For if the truth of God hath abounded to his glory, through my unfaithfulness, why am I still condemned as a sinner?" 8 "And why say ye not, (as it is slanderously spoken of us, and as some affirm we say,) 'Let us do evil, that good may come?' whose condemnation is just."

25 For circumcision profiteth indeed, if thou keepest the law: but if thou art a transgressor of the law, thy circumcision becometh uncircumcision. 26 If therefore the uncircumcision keep the righteous ordinances of the law, shall not the uncircumcision of such be counted for circumcision? 27 and shall not the uncircumcision which by nature fulfilleth the law, condemn thee as a transgressor of law, though a Jew by the literal circumcision? |

28 For he is not a Jew, who is one outwardly; nor is that circumcision, which is outward, in the flesh: 29 but he is a Jew, who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not according

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* Gr. Greeks.


9 What then? do we excel the gentiles? No, surely for we have before brought a charge against Jews and gentiles,* that they are all under sin: 10 as it is written, "There is none righteous, no, not one: 11 there is none [that] understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. 12 They are all gone out

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of the way, they are altogether |fied of free bounty, even by his become worthless : there is favour, through the redemption which is by Christ Jesus; 25 whom God hath set forth as a mercy seat, [through faith,] in his own blood;* to show his method of justification, concerning the remission of past sins, through the forbearance of God; 26 to show his method of justification at this present time: that he might be just, when justifying him who is of the faith [of Jesus].

27 Where then is boasting? It is excluded. By what law? Of works? No: but by the law of faith. 28 For we conclude that man is justified through faith, without the works of law. 29 Is God the God of the Jews only? is he not of the gentiles also? Yes; of the gentiles also: 30 since there is one God, who will justify those of the circumcision by faith, and those of the uncircumcision through faith. 31 Do we then make void law through faith? By no means: yea, we establish law.

CH. IV. 1 WHAT advantage then, shall we say, Abraham, our father as to the flesh, found? 2 For if Abraham was justified by works he hath whereof to boast:" "but not before God. 3 For what saith

none that doth good, no not even one. 13 Their throat is like an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips: 14 their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness: 15 their feet are swift to shed blood: 16 destruction and misery are in their ways; 17 and the way of peace they have not known : 18 there is no fear of God before their eyes." 19 Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to those who are under the law: so that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world become subject to the judgment of God. 20 For by the works of law: no one can be justified in his sight: for through law is the knowledge of sin.

21 Bur now, God's method of justification, without a law, is manifested; being attested by the law and the prophets; 22 even God's method of justification through faith in Jesus Christ, unto all, [and upon all,] who believe: for there is no difference: 23 for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 24 being justi

"The words dia AIOTEws through faith; are omitted in the Alexandrian and some other manuscripts, and they obscure the sense. The apostle represents Christ as a mercy-seat, conse crated by his own blood; upon which the goodness of God, as it were, takes its stand, and declares his gracious purposes and dispensations to mankind. See Locke; and Taylor's judicious note upon the text. The word inaσrnglov never signifies" propitiation," as it is translated in the common version; but it is always used wherever it occurs, both in the Old Testament and the New, to express the mercy-seat; which was the golden lid of the ark upon which the Shechinah or cloud of glory rested, and from which oracles were dispensed. See Exod. xxv. 22; Numb. vii. 8, 9; Lev. xvii. 2; Heb. ix. 5. It must be evident to every unprejudiced person, that this beautiful allusion of the apostle, which is intended to represent Christ as the messenger of divine mercy, and the medium of divine communications to mankind, gives no countenance to the commonly received doctrine of atonement by vicarious suffering; though many lay great stress upon this text, misled by the common translation." Im. Ver. Note.

the scripture? Abraham believed God; and it was counted to him for righteousness.' 4 Now to him who worketh, the reward is not counted a matter of favour, but of debt. 5 But to him who worketh not, but believeth in Him who justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. 6 As David also describeth the happiness of the man to whom God counted righteousness without works; 7 saying, Happy are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered: 8 happy is the man to whom the Lord will not count sin.""


or to his offspring, that he should be heir of the world, but through a righteousness of faith.

14 For if those who are under a law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is made of none effect; 15 because law produceth punishment: for where no law is, there is no transgression. 16 Therefore righteousness is from faith, that it might be through favour; so that the promise might be sure to all the offspring, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, 17 (as it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations,') in the sight of that God whom he believed, who giveth life to the dead, and calleth those things which are not, as though they were. 18 He, contrary to hope, believed with hope, so that he became the father of many nations; according to that which was spoken, Thus shall thine offspring be:' 19 and because he was not weak in faith; he considered [not] his own body now dead, when he was about an hundred years old, nor the deadness of Sarah's womb: 20 nor did he stagger at the promise of God, through unbelief; but was strong in faith, and gave glory to God; 21 and was fully persuaded, that what God had promised, he was also able to perform.

9 Cometh this happiness then upon those of the circumcision only, or upon those of uncircumcision also? For we say that faith was counted to Abraham for righteousness. 10 How then was it counted? when he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. 11 And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness arising from the faith which he had, being yet uncircumcised; that he might be the father of all those who believe, though in a state of uncircumcision, that righteousness might be counted to them also; 12 and the father of circumcision to those who are not of the circumcision only, but also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had, being yet uncircumcised. 13 Besides, not 22 Wherefore Abraham's through a righteousness of law, faith was counted to him for the promise was to Abraham, righteousness. 23 Yet it was

that it was counted to him; 24 but for the sake of us also, to whom faith will be thus counted, if we believe in him who raised up Jesus, our Lord, from the dead; 25 who was delivered up for our offences;* and was raised from the dead for our justification.

not written for his sake only, | Christ died for us. 9 Much more therefore, having been now justified in his blood, we shall be saved from anger through him. 10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God, through the death of his Son, much more, being thus reconciled, shall be saved in his life. 11 And not only so, but we boast likewise in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation.


CH. V. 1 THEREFORE, having been thus justified, by faith, in this method of justification, we have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ; 2 through whom we have access also [by faith] into this favour, wherein we stand, and boast, in the hope of the glory of God. 3 (And not only so, but we boast also in afflictions; knowing that affliction worketh patience; 4 and patience, experience; and experience, hope. 5 And hope will not make us ashamed: for the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts, through the holy spirit which is given us.)

6 For though we were weak, still Christ died, in due season, for the ungodly. 7 For scarcely for a righteous man will any one die (yet perhaps for a good man some would even dare to die:) 8 but God commended his love towards us, in that, while we were still sinners,

12 For this reason, as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin; and thus [death] hath passed upon all men, inasmuch as all have sinned: 13 (for until the law, sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed, when there is no law: 14 nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had [not] sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a resemblance of him who was to come:) 15 yet the free gift likewise is not so, as was the offence; for if through the of fence of one, the many died; much more, the favour of God, and the gift, which is through the favour of one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded to the so, many.§ 16 Neither is the gift

* Christ was delivered up for our offences; not to bear the punishment of them, nor to appease the anger of God; but to abolish the dispensation by which men were condemned as sinners, and to introduce a new and better dispensation by which they should be justified and treated as righteous. Thus he rose for their justification. See Eph. ii. 14-16.

† It renders the sense here much more consistent by supposing the comma, in the Greek, to be placed after ovv, instead of being placed after OTES, which is here connected with Elgnvnv peace. "Jesus was raised for our justification: therefore, being justified, we now, by faith in this justification have peace with God." It is well known that the apostles wrote without points, especially commas.

This also refers to God's method of justification spoken of ch. i. 17; see above, ver. 1.
Oi won, the many, "the great body of mankind. See ver. 18, 19." Newcome.

ing of favour and [of the gift] of justification, will reign in life through one, even Jesus Christ.

as it was through one who sin-ye not that as many of us as ned: for the judgment was of have been baptized into Jesus one offence to condemnation, but Christ, have been baptized into the free gift is of many offences his death? 4 We were thereto justification. 17 For if, through fore buried with him, through the offence of one, death reign- baptism, into his death; that, as ed through one; much more, Christ was raised from the dead, those who receive the abound-by the glorious power of the Father, so we also should walk in newness of life. 5 For if we have been planted together in 18 So then, as through the the likeness of his death, ceroffence of one, judgment came tainly also we shall be in the upon all men to condemnation; likeness of his resurrection: 6 so likewise, through the righte-knowing this, that our old man ousness of one, the free gift hath hath been crucified with him, come upon all men to justifica- that the body of sin might be detion of life. 19 For as through stroyed, that we should no longthis disobedience of one the er be servants to sin. 7 For he many were made sinners, so who is dead, is freedt from sin. likewise through the obedience of one the many will be made righteous.* 20 Now the law entered in, privily, so that of fences abounded. But where sin abounded, the favour of God, hath much more abounded: 21 that, as sin hath reigned in death, so favour likewise might reign, through justification, to aionian life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

CH. VI. 1 WHAT shall we say then? shall we continue in sin, that the favour of God may abound? 2 By no means. How shall we, who have died to sin, live any longer in it? 3 Know

8 Since then we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him: 9 knowing that Christ, having been raised from the dead, dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over him. 10 For in that he died, he died to sin once: but in that he liveth, he liveth to God. 11 In like manner, reckon ye yourselves also to be indeed dead to sin, but alive to God, in Christ Jesus.

12 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that ye should obey it: 13 nor yield your members to sin, as instruments of unrighteousness;

"Though the construction of this paragraph is intricate and obscure, nothing can be more obvious than this, that it is the apostle's intention to represent all mankind, without exception, as deriving greater benefit from the mission of Christ, than they suffered injury from the fall of Adam. The universality of the apostle's expressions is very remarkable. The same " many," who were made sinners through the disobedience of the one, are made righteous through the obedience of the other. If all men are condemned through the offence of one, the same all are justified through the righteousness of the other. These universal terms, so frequently repeated, and so variously diversified, cannot be reconciled to the limitation of the blessings of the gospel to the elect alone, or to a part only of the human race. Compare 1 Cor. xv. 22, 23. See Chauncy on Universal Salvation. Prop. iv. p. 22, etc." Im. Ver. note.

† Gr. justified.

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