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sweetness of her father, that her counte- Sir Har. I do: but what then? Ennance, though mournful, was highly pleaf- gagements of this kind, you know ing. The maids and thepherds of the Riv. So then, you do know I have neighbouring plains gathered round, and promised her to Mr. Sidney? called her Pity. A red-breast was ob- Sir Har. I do--but I also know that served to build in the cabin where she was matters are not finally settled between Mr. born; and while the was yet an infant, a Sidney and you ; and I moreover know, dove pursued by a hawk few into her that his fortune is by no means equal to borom. This nymph had a dejected ap- mine; thereforepearance, but so soft and gentle a mien, Riv. Sir Harry, let me ask you one that she was beloved to a degree. of eno question before you make your consethusiasm. Her voice was low and plain- quence. tive, but inexpreslibly sweet: and the loved Sir Har. A thousand, if you please, to lie for hours together on the banks of Sir. some wild and melancholy stream, singing Riv. Why then, Sir, let me ask you, to her lute. She taught men to weep, for what you have ever observed in me, or my she took a strange delight in tears; and conduct, that you desire me fo familiarly often, when the virgins of the hamlet were to break my word ? I thought, Sir, you assembled at their evening sports, she would considered me as a man of honour ? steal in amongst them, and captivate their Sir Har. And so I do, Sir-a man of hearts by her tales, full of a charming the nicest honour. sadness. She wore on her head a garland Riv. And yet, Sir, you ask me to viocomposed of her father's myrtles twisted late the fanctity of my word; and tell with her mother's cypress.

me directly, that it is my interest to be a One day, as she sat muling by the wa- rascal! ters of Helicon, her tears by chance fell in- Sir Har. I really don't understand you, to the fountain; and ever since the Muses' Colonel : I thought, when I was talking spring has retained a strong taste of the in- to you, I was talking to a man who knew fusion. Pity was commanded by Jupiter the world; and as you have not yet to follow the steps of her mother through fignedthe world, dropping balm into the wounds Riv. Why, this is mending matters she made, and binding up the hearts she with a witness! And so you think, behad broken. She follows with her hair cause I am not legally bound, I am under loose, her bosom bare and throbbing, her no necessity of keeping my word! Sir garments torn by the briars, and her feet Harry, laws were never made for men of bieeding with the roughness of the path. honour: they want no bond but the rectiThe nymph is mortal, for her mother is tude of their own sentiments : and laws so; and when she has fulfilled her destined are of no use but to bind the villains of course upon the earth, they shall both ex- fociety. pire together, and Love be again united Sir Har. Well ! but


dear Colonel, to Joy, his immortal and long-betrothed if you have no regard for me, shew some bride.

Aikin's Miscell. little regard for your daughter.

Riv. I shew the greatest regard for my § 14. Scene between Colonel Rivers and daughter, by giving her to a man of ho

Sir HARRY; in which the Colonel, from nour; and I must not be insulted with any Principles of Honour, refuses to give bis farther repetition of your proposals. Daughter to Sir HARRY.

Sir Har. Insult you, Colonel ! Is the Sir Har. Colonel, your most obedient: offer of my alliance an insult! Is my reaI am come upon the old business ; for, un- diness to make what settlements you think less I am allowed to entertain hopes of

proper Miss Rivers, I shall be the most miserable

Riv. Sir Harry, I should consider the of all human beings,

offer of a kingdom an insult, if it were to Riv. Sir Harry, I have already told be purchased by the violation of my word. you by letter, and I now tell you person. Besides, though my daughter shall never ally, I cannot listen to your proposals. go a beggar to the arms of her husband, I Sir Har. No, Sir !

would rather see her happy than rich; and Riv. No, Sir: I have promised my if she has enough to provide handsomely daughter to Mr. Sidney. Do you know for a young family, and something to spare that, Sir ?

for the exigencies of a worthy friend, I shall


think her as affluent as if the were mistress ridiculously too little to a tradesman, who of Mexico,

aks ridiculously too much for his goods ; Sir Har. Well, Colonel, I have done; but we do not haggle with one who only but I believe

alks a juft and realonable price. Riv. Well, Sir Harry, and as our con- Abject flattery and indiscriminate affentference is done, we will, if you please, re- ation degrade, as much as indifcriminate tire to the ladies. I shall be always glad contradiction and noisy debate disguft. But of your acquaintance, though I cannot re- a modest affertion of one's own opinion, and ceive you as a son-in-law; for a union of a complaisant acquiescence in other peo

a intereit I look upon as a union of ditho- ple's, preserve dignity. nour, and consider a marriage for money Vulgar, low expressions, aukward moat best but a legal prostitution.

tions and addre's, vilify, as they imply § 15. On Dignity of Manners. .

either a very low turn of mind, or low

education, and low company. There is a certain dignity of manners Frivolous curiosity about trifles, and a absolutely necesiary, to make even the most laborious attention to little objects, which valuable character either respected or re- neither require nor deserve a moment's fpectable.

thought, lower a man; who from thence Horse-play, romping, frequent and loud is thought (and not unjustly) incapable of fits of laughter, jokes, waggery, and in- greater matters.

Cardinal de Rætz, very discriminate familiarity, will fink both me- jagaciously, marked out Cardinal Chiri rit and knowledge into a degree of con- for a little mind, from the moment he tempt. They compose at most a merry told him he had wrote three years with fellow; and a merry fellow was never yet the same pen, and that it was an excellent a respectable man. Indiscriminate famili- good one ftill. arity either offends your fuperiors, or else A certain degree of exterior seriousness dubs you their dependent and led captain, in looks and motions gives dignity, withIt gives your inferiors juít, but trouble

out excluding wit and decent cheerfulness, fome and improper claims of equality. A which are always serious themselves. A joker is near akin to a buffoon, and nei- constant smirk upon the face, and a whifther of them is the least related to wit. Aing activity of the body, are strong indiWhoever is admitted or fought for, in cations of futility. Whoever is in a hurry, company, upon any other account than thews that the thing he is about is too big that of his merit and manners, is never for him-haste and hurry are very different respected there, but only made use of. We things. will have such, for he sings prettily; I have only mentioned some of those we will invite such-a-one to a ball, for he things which may, and do, in the opinion dances well; we will have such-a-one at of the world, lower and sink characters, in supper, for he is always joking and laugh- other respects valuable enough; but I have ing; we will ask another, because he plays taken no notice of those that affect and deep at all games, or because he can drink fink the moral characters: they are suffia great deal. Thefe are all vilifying dis- ciently obvious. A man who has patiently tinctions, mortifying preferences, and ex

been kicked, may as well pretend to couclude all ideas of esteem and regard.

rage, as a man blafted by vices and crimes, Whoever is had (as it is called) in com- to dignity of any kind.' But an exterior pany, for the fake of any one thing singly, decency and dignity of manners, will even is singly that thing, and will never be con- keep such a man longer from sinking, than fidered in any other light; confequently otherwise he would be: of such consequence never respected, let his merits be what they is the to opetov, or decorum, even though may.

affected and put on.

Lord Chefter

field. This dignity of manners, which I recommend so much to you, is not only as

$ 16. On Vulgarity. different from pride, as true courage is A vulgar, ordinary way of thinking, actfrom blustering, or true wit from joking, ing, or speaking, implies a low education, but is absolutely inconsistent with it; for and a habit of low company. Young peonothing vilifies and degrades more than ple contract it at school, or among servants

, pride. The pretensions of the proud man with whom they are too often used to conare oftener treated with sneer and con- verse; but, after they frequent good comtempt, than with indignation ; as we offer pany, they must want attention and observa



tion very much, if they do not lay it quite beast along with it. He calls the earth afide; and, indeed, if they do not, good yearth; he is ebleiged, not obliged to you. company will be very apt to lay them aside. He goes to wards, and not towards such a The various kinds of vulgarisms are infi- place. He sometimes affects hard words, nite; I cannot pretend to point them out by way of ornament, which he always to you; but I will give some samples, by mangles. A man of fashion never has re. which you may guess at the rest.

courle to proverbs and vulgar aphorisms; A vulgar man is captious and jealous; uses neither favourite words nor hard eager and impetuous about trifles: he fuf- words; but takes great care to speak very pečts himself to be slighted; thinks every correctly and grammatically, and to proining that is said is meant at him; if the nounce properly; that is, according to the company happens to laugh, he is persuaded usage of the belt companies. they laugh at hiin; he grows angry and An awkward address, ungraceful attitely, says something very impertinent, and tudes and actions, and a certain left-handdraws himself into a scrape, by thewing edness (if I may use that word) loudly what he calls a proper spirit, and asserting proclaim low education and low company; himself. A man of fathion does not sup- for it is impossible to suppose, that a man pole himself to be either the fole or prin- can have frequented good company, withcipal object of the thoughts, looks, or out having catched something, at least, of words of the company; and never suspects their air and motions. A new-raised man that he is either ilighted or laughed at, is distinguished in a regiment by his awkunless he is conscious that he deserves it. wardness; but he must be impenetrably And if (ivhich very seldom happens) the dull, it, in a month or two's time, he cancompany is absurd or ill bred enough to not perform at least the common manual do either, he does not care two-pence, un- exercise, and look like a soldier. The less the insult be so gross and plain as to very accoutrements of a man of fashion require satisfaction of another kind. As are grievous incumbrances to a vulgar he is above trifes, he is never vehement man. He is at a loss what to do with his and eager about them; and wherever hat, when it is not upon his head: his they are concerned, rather acquiesces than cane (if unfortunately he wears one) is at wrangles. A vulgar man's conversation perpetual war with every cup of tea or always favours strongly of the lownels of coffce he drinks; destroys them first, and his education and company: it turns then accompanies them in their fall. His chiefly upon his domestic affairs, his fer. sword is formidable only to his own legs, vants, the excellent order he keeps in his which would posibly carry him fast enough own fimily, and the little anecdotes of the cut of the way of any sword but his own. neighbourhood; all which he relates with His cloaths fit hin fo ill, and constrain emphalis, as interesting matters.--He is a him so much, that he seems rather their man-gosip.

prisoner than their proprietor. He preVuigarism in language is the next, and sents himself in company like a criminal distinguishing characteristic of bad com- in a court of justice; his very air condemns pany, and a bad education. A man of him; and people of fashion will no more fashion avoids nothing with more care than connect themselves with the one, than peothis. Proverbial expressions and trite say. ple of character will with the other. This ings are the flowers of the rhetoric of a repulse drives and finks him into low comvulgar man. Would he say, that men dif- pany; a gulph from whence no man, after fer in their tastes; he both supports and a certain age, ever emerged. adorns that opinion, by the good old say

Lord Chapterfield. ing as he respectfully calls it, that “what is one man's meat is another man's

17. On Good-breeding. poison." If any body attempts being A friend of yours and mine has very smart, as he call it, upon him; he gives justly defined good-breeding to be, “ the them tit for tat,, ay, that he does. He result of much good sense, some goodhas always some favourite word for the nature, and a lit:le self-denial for the sake time being; which, for the sake of using of others, and with a view to obtain the often, he commonly abuses. Such as, fame indulgence from them.” Taking vaftly angry, vastly kind, vaftly handsome, this for granted (as I think it cannot be and vastly ugly. Even his pronunciation disputed) it is astonishing to me, that any of

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proper words carries the mark of the body, who has good sense and good-na

ture, vate,

ture, can effentially fail in good-breeding. to thew, in an easy, unembarrassed, and As to the modes of it, indeed, they vary graceful manner. This is what observa. according to persons, places, and circum- tion and experience must teach you. ftances; and are only to be acquired by In mixed companies, whoever is admit. observation and experience; but the sub- ted to make part of them, is, for the time ftance of it is every where and eternally at least, supposed to be upon a footing of the same. Good manners are, to parti. equality with the rest; and, consequently, cular focieties, what good morals are to as there is no one principal object of awe fociety in general, their cement and their and respect, people are apt to take a security. And as laws are enacted to en- greater latitude in their behaviour, and force good morals, or at least to prevent to be less upon their guard; and so they the ill effects of bad ones; so there are may, provided it be within certain bounds, certain rules of civility, universally im- which are upon no occasion to be tranfplied and received, to enforce good man- grefied. But, upon these occasions, though ners, and punith bad ones. And, indeed, no one is entitled to distinguished marks of there seems to me to be less difference both respect, every one claims, and very justly, between the crimes and punishments, than every mark of civility and good breeding. at first one would imagine. The immoral Ease is allowed, but carelefitness and negman, who invades another's property, is ligence are strictly forbidden. If a man justly hanged for it; and the ill-bred man accosts


and talks to you ever so dully who, by his ill-manners, invades and dif- or frivolously; it is worse than rudeness, turbs the quiet and comforts of private it is brutality, to shew him, by a manifest life, is by common consent as justly banish- inattention to what he says, that you think ed society. Mutual complaisances, atten- him a fool or a blockhead, and not worth tions, and sacrifices of little convenien. hearing. It is much more so with regard cies, are as natural an implied compact be- to women; who, of whatever rank they tween civilized people, as protection and are, are entitled, in consideration of their obedience are between kings and subjects; sex, not only to an attentive, but an offi. whoever, in either case, violates that com- cious good breeding from men. Their pact, jully forfeits all advantages arising little wants, likings, dislikes, preferences, from it. For my own part, I really think, antipathies, and fancies, must be officiously that, next to the consciousness of doing a attended to, and, if possible, guessed at and good action, that of doing a civil one is anticipated, by a well-bred man. You the most pleasing; and the epithet which must never usurp to yourself those conveI should covet the moit, next to that of niencies and gratifications which are of Arillides, would be that of well-bred. common right; such as the best places, the Thus much for good-breeding in general; best dishes, &c. but, on the contrary, al. I will now consider fome of the various ways decline them yourself, and offer modes and degrees of it.

them to others; who, in their turns, will Very few, scarcely any, are wanting in offer them to you: so that upon the the respect which they should new to those whole, you will, in your turn, enjoy your whom they acknowledge to be infinitely share of the common right. It would be their superiors; such as crowned heads, endless for me to enumerate all the partiprinces, and public persons of distinguished cular instances in which a well-bred man and eminent posts. It is the manner of thews his good-breeding in good comThewing that respect which is different. pany; and it would be injurious to you to The man of fashion, and of the world, ex- suppose, that your own good sense will not presses it in its fullest extent; but naturally, point them out to you; and then your own easily, and without concern: whereas a good-nature will recommend, and your man, who is not used to keep good com- Telf-intereit enforce the practice. pany, exprefies it awkwardly; one fees There is a third sort of good-breeding, that he is not used to it, and that it costs in which people are the most apt to fail, him a great deal: but I never saw the from a very mistaken notion that they worst-bred man living guilty of lolling, cannot fail at all. I mean, with regard to w histling, scratching his head, and fuch- one's most familiar friends and acquaintlike indecencies, in conipanies that he re- ances, or those who really are our inferiors; spected. In such companies, therefore, and there, undoubtedly, a greater degree the only point to be attended to is, to of ease is not only allowed, but proper, and few that respect which every body means contributes much to the comforts of a pri.

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vate, social life. But ease and freedom by one of yours in the sale of some rum, have their bounds, which must by no means I never cared to have any thing to do be violated. A certain degree of neg- with them afterwards. Yet I took up the ligence and carelessness becomes injuri. hatchet for them with the rest of my tribe ous and insulting, from the real or sup- in the war against France, and was killed posed inferiority of the persons; and that while I was out upon a scalping party. deligheful liberty of conversation among But I died very well satisfied: for my a few friends, is soon destroyed, as liberty friends were victorious, and before I was often has been, by being carried to licen- hot I had scalped seven men and five wotiousness. But example explains things men and children. In a former war I had best, and I will put a pretty strong cale: done fill greater exploits. My name is -Suppose you and me alone together; The Bloody Bear: it was given to me io I believe you will allow that I have as express my fierceness and valour. good a right to unlimited freedom in your Duellift. Bloody Bear, I respect you, company, as either you or I can poflibly and am much your humble servant. My have in any other; and I am apt to be- name is Tom Pulhwell, very well known lieve too, that you would indulge me in at Arthur's. I ain a gentleman by my that freedom, as far as any body would. birth, and by profeflion a gameiter, and But, notwithstanding this, do you imagine man of honour. I have killed men in that I should think there was no bounds fair fighting, in honourable single combat, to that freedom? I assure you, I thould but do not understand cutting the throats not think so; and I take myself to be as of women and children. much tied down by a certain degree of Savage. Sir, that's our way of making good manners to you, as by other degrees war. Every nation has its own customs. of éhem to other people. The moit fa. But by the grimness of your countenance, miliar and intimate habitudes, connec- and that hole in your breast, I presume tions, and friendships, require a degree of you were killed, as I was myself, in some good-breeding, both to preserve and ce- scalping party. How happened it that ment them. TI best of us have our bad your enemy did not take off your scalp? sides; and it is as imprudent as it is ill- Duellift. Sir, I was killed in a duel, bred, to exhibit them. I shall not use A friend of mine had lent me some moceremony with you; it would be mis- ney; after two or three years, being in placed between us: but I shall certainly great want himself, he asked me to pay observe that degree of good breeding with him; I thought his demand an affront to

I you, which is, in the firit place, decent, my honour, and sent him a challenge. and which, I am sure, is absolutely neces. We met in Hyde-Park; the fellow could sary to make us like one another's com- not fence: I was the adroitest swordsman pany long

Lord Chesterfield. in England. I gave him three or four

wounds; but at last he ran upon me with § 18. A Dialogue betwixt Mercury, such impetuosity, that he put me out of

an English Duellift, and a North-Americ my play, and I could not prevent him can Suvage.

from whipping me through the lungs. I

died the next day, as a man of honour Duellift. Mercury, Charon's boat is on should, without any fnivelling signs of rethe other side of the water; allow me, pentance: and he will follow me foon, for before it returns, to have some conversa- liis furgeon has declared his wound to be tion with the North-American Savage, mortal. It is said that his wife is dead of whom you brought hither at the same her fright, and that his family of seven time as you conducted me to the shades. children will be undone by his death. So I never saw one of that species before, I am well revenged; and that is a comand am curious to know what the animal fort. For my part, I had no wife. I is. He looks very grim.-Pray, Sir, what always hated marriage: my whore will is

your name? í underkand you speak take good care of herself, and my chilEnglish.

dren are provided for at the Foundling Savage. Yes, I learned it in my child- Hospital. hood, having been bred up for some years Savage. Mercury, I won't go in a boat in the town of New York: but before I with that fellow. He has murdered his was a man I returned to my countrymen, countryman; he has murdered his friend. the valiant Mohawks; and being cheated I say, I won't go in a boat with that fellow,


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