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in his power. This is the kind of witchcraft that has existed all along, and which has cost many poor helpless creatures their lives at the stake.

Topography. In dealing with the literature of the Highlands we cannot overlook the topography of the country. It is to be regretted that in Scotland we have no such MS. remains, containing topographical terms with their origin, as are to be found in Ireland, nor have we any work on the subject of topography possessed of the slightest authority. But we have numerous ancient charters containing names of places, and we have what are called the retours, connected with the succession to property throughout the country, and these contain extensive lists with the spelling adopted for the names at different periods. These names belong to different languages. There is apparently an original language, if not more than one, which is now lost. Without this assumption there is no accounting for many of the names applied to natural objects. Then there is the old Norse and the Anglo-Saxon, the one using wick for a bay, as in Caithness, and the other for a town, as in Roxburghshire; then there is the British, as in the old Strathclyde territory, and the Gaelic. The Gaelic, in its The Gaelic, in its topographical distribution, does not occupy the same field with that occupied by it as a spoken tongue. The spoken language and the topography of Galloway are quite at variance; so with Lewis and others of the Western Isles. The spoken language of Galloway is Scottish, the topography is almost wholly Gaelic. The spoken language of Lewis, Harris, Skye, &c., is Gaelic, the topography is almost wholly old Norse. But one thing is manifest, that Gaelic names are distributed over the whole surface of Scotland, although not in equal proportions. These names contain a history, could it be evolved. They speak of races distinct and successive, although their testimony as to dates is difficult to read. The county names of Scotland in Gaelic are suggestive:—

Shetland.... Sialluinn. Orkney






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Renfreudh. Siorramachd Adhar. Kirkcudbright Cillechuibeirt.

This list does not include Peebles (which is probably Celtic), Selkirk, Roxburgh, and Berwick, as there are no Gaelic terms for them, but in the other cases it will be seen to what an extent the county names are really Gaelic. The same is true of names of parishes, which are, to a large extent, Gaelic both in the north and in the south.

It is to be observed that the Gaelic topography of Scotland differs widely from that of Ireland. The Irish sliabh, for a mountain, rarely occurs in Scotland, where the word in use chiefly is beinn. It does occur, but the instances are few, while the Scottish ben is as rare in Ireland. Baile, a township, is sufficiently frequent in Scotland, but not so much so as the Irish bally. The word strath, for a great valley, occurs but rarely in Ireland; in Scotland it abounds over the whole kingdom. The abers and pits and invers of Scotland are rare in Ireland, or altogether unknown, while there is little resemblance in the names of rivers. These two systems of topography may have originated with the same people, but in one of the sections there were influences manifestly at work which were unknown in the other. Even in the Dalriadic kingdom of Argyll there are features which indicate a marked distinction between the topography

and that of Ireland. The study of this subject is full of interest, and is capable of producing important results both linguistic and historical. The field is as yet unoccupied, and affords much to encourage the judicious and painstak ing student.

Names of Persons.-The literature of the Highlands may be held further to include the names of persons as well as those of places. Indeed some of the older MSS. are filled with pedigrees, sometimes of kings, sometimes of lesser persons. Many of these ascend up to Noah, and even to Adam, showing at least that they date since the conversion of the Gael to Christianity. There are several interesting genealogical lists in the volume of transactions published by the Iona Club, and there are MSS. in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, which contain several lists of a similar kind. The descent of family representatives is in these traced up to the original source, which in many cases is found among the ancient Scottish kings. The preparing and continuing of these pedigrees was one of the duties of the ancient bards and sennachies, who transmitted their knowledge of family history from generation to generation. It may be believed that these officials would have a measure of bias in favour of their own patrons, and this may have, in some cases, influenced their accounts of family history; but, upon the whole, there seems to be a large amount of truth in what they have transmitted to us, back to a certain date. The rest is pure fiction. A specimen may be given, extracted from the genealogy of the family of Argyll.

Genelach mac Cailin Gillespic mac Cailin anann mac Gillespic mac Donch anagha mac Cailin mac Gillespic ruoidh mac Cailin oig mac Neill mac Cailin moir mac Gillespic mac Dubgaill, &c., and so on through King Arthur up to Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. In English this is-The genealogy of Mac Cailin: Gillespick, son of Colin, son of Gillespick, son of Duncan the fortunate, son of Colin, son of Gillespick the red, son of Colin the young, son of Neil, son of Colin the great, son of Gillespick, son of Dougal, &c. So far the genealogy corresponds nearly with the usual genealogies of the family historians of the house of Argyll. Similar pedigrees are furnished of most of the Highland clans.

The names of persons among the Gaelic races are for the most part patronymic.


The first name in its earlier form is usually descriptive, as Donnghal, Dubhghal, Donnachadh, Gillespuig,-Donald, Dougal, Duncan, Gillespick,-the brown man, the black man, the brown-faced man, the servant of the bishop; often it is taken from the Scriptures, as Eoin John, Seumas James, Tomas or Tabhas Thomas, Peadar Peter, &c.; some of the names come from the Norse, as Torcuil Torquil, Tormaid Norman, Aulaidh Olave, Leod Leod, and some are borrowed from the Normans, as Uilleam William, Eanraic Henry, The surnames are for the most part patronymics, as Eoin Mac Neill, John the son of Neil; and in case there should be another John M'Neil, another step is introduced, as Eoin Mac Neill mhic Dhomhnaill, and perhaps a third until the person is thoroughly identified. Sometimes there is a reduplication of the sonship, as Mac Mhic Alasdair, Mac Mhic Ailein, the son of the son of Alexander or Allan, names of important Highland chiefs. In other cases the surname is descriptive, as Dubh black, Eoin dubh Black John, Beag little, Mor big, Buidh yellow, Crom bent, Ruadh red, &c., whence many well known English names are derived. A large number of Highland names and surnames are ecclesiastical, as those derived from St John, St Columba, St Cattan, St Bridget, and others, and thus become helps to historical inquiry. One thing is somewhat remarkable, that there is not an O', in accordance with Irish nomenclature, among the Scottish Celts. The old O'Duinn of Argyle is lost, and the patronymic of the Celt is marked by the uniform use of mac, representing a son, as O' does a grandThe age of fixed family names seems no older than the age of charters. Previous to that patronymics universally prevailed, but when charters were taken fixed names were essential to their value.


Proverbs. From names of persons we may pass to proverbs as a part, and a very curious part, of Gaelic literature. Few languages so abound in proverbs, and proverbs of a very clever and popular caste. A Highlander seldom gives expression to an important sentiment without backing it with a proverb, and these give force and pungency to what he says. A collection of these proverbs was made, in the

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year 1819, by the Rev. Donald Mackintosli, and, to form some idea of the number of them, it is only necessary to observe that, under the letter "I" alone, they reach the number of 382 in the first edition of the book. A large number of these proverbial sayings escaped the notice of Mr Mackintosh, and additions were made in the second edition, while some of the very best are not recorded even yet. Proverbial sayings in English are represented by sayings of a different kind in Gaelic, having the same meaning. "There is many a slip between the cup and the lip" is represented by Is le duine an ni a shluigeas e, ach cha leis an ni a chagaineas e, What a man swallows is his own, but not what he chews." "It never rains but it pours" is represented by An uair a theid a' chailleach 'n a ruith, theid i 'n a deann-ruith, "When the old woman takes to running, she runs with a will." "Sour grapes "-Mionnan a' bhaird ris a' chaisteal, cha téid mi fhéin do'n chaisteal bhreun, cha teid, cha leig iad ann mi, "The bard's oath to the castle, 'I wont go to the vile castle; no, they won't let me in.' The Gaelic proverbs are full of interest, and add much to the power of either speech or writing when skilfully used. Sgeulachdan, or Tales of Fiction. These at one time abounded in the Highlands, and had much in common with the tales collected and published by Grimm and Dasent, from the German and the Norse. Until lately, these tales were entirely oral, and were little known beyond certain portions of the West Highlands. Recently they have been collected, translated, and edited, with peculiar care and skill, by Mr J. F. Campbell, in four 8vo volumes. This is a real addition to Gaelic literature, and Mr Campbell has laid every friend of that literature under obligation, One real service it has done in preserving for us admirable specimens of the most idiomatic and popular forms of the Gaelic language. We have it there as used by the tellers of popular tales among the people for generations. Whence many of these tales have come it is hard to say, but tales have been collected in the small islands south of Barra, where the people seldom tread the soil of even their main island, containing ideas and forms of thought which never could have originated there, and the preservation of which, in such a locality, is a remarkable fact. Are they relics of a higher civilization existing in ages long gone by? It is remarkable that the Thomas the Rhymer of Lowland tradition is well known in the traditions of the Highlands, and that stories of him related on the borders in broad Scotch are related in the Highlands in Gaelic as tales of great antiquity.

Clan History.-A portion of the literature of the Gaelic Celt consists of clan history. The clan system does not seem to be very ancient. In all probability it dates from the period when the Gaelic kingdom of Scotland ceased to exist. It has been already said to date from the era of charters. But the two eras are pretty nearly identical. Down to the reign of Malcolm III. the Gaelic kingdom appears to have been to a large extent homogeneous. There were no elements in it but what were Celtic, as it never really embraced within it the Scandinavian sections. Then the land was governed by its maormors and toiseachs, men who represented the central governing power. It would seem that when, in the reign of David I., the kingdom became largely Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman, the Gaelic people became estranged from their native kings, and gathered themselves in sections under the sway of their own chiefs; and hence came chiefs and clans, instead of a king and his subjects forming a united nation. The change was a serious one for the Gaelic people, as they never became again what they had been before. Clan names appear at an early period, and in some form or other must have existed before the time of the Saxonized kings; but not one of the great clans of Highland history-the Macdonalds,

the Macleans, the Campbells, the Macleods, the Mackenzies, the Mackintoshes, or others-appears at all. In the book of Deer, supposed to be of the 11th or 12th century, the names of two clans-the clan Morgan and the clan Cananappear; but it is very questionable whether these represent any clan existing now, although clan Morgan is said to be the old name of the Mackays of Strathnaver. But the names in that interesting record are for the most part purely patronymic, and do not indicate any connexion with existing clans. The fact is that, till very recently, the clan name was confined to the chief, as records of old deeds and processes at law serve to show.

The Gaelic historical literature of one kind or another is of considerable extent, and consists of relics, written and traditional, of the old sennachies or family historians. In certain sections of the country the local traditions are full of the stories of old feuds, and, though not to be implicitly relied on, contain usually an element of truth. In Sutherland the feuds of the Sutherlands and the Mackays, in Lewis those of the Mackenzies and Macleods, in Skye the feuds of the M'Leods and the Macdonalds, in eastern Invernessshire those of the Mackintoshes and Cummings, in Lochaber those of the Mackintoshes and the Camerons, in Perthshire those of the Campbells and the Macgregors, and others in other quarters are largely related. Native accounts of the clans were sometimes committed to writing, a specimen of which appears in the transactions of the Iona Club. For a good deal of what is historical regarding the Highlands, recourse must be had to the Irish Annals, which occasionally refer to events occurring in Scotland.

MS. Literature. The written Gaelic literature was at its earlier period so mixed up with that of Ireland that it is not easy in every instance to distinguish them. The early church of both countries was one, and the early literature was the offspring of the early church. The very first notices we have of the church, whether among the mission institutes of Ireland or in Iona, indicate the existence and extensive cultivation of a native literature. The transcription or translation of portions of the Scriptures is shown to have been one of the frequent exercises of the early missionaries, and they all learned to write the same dialect and make use of the same letters. Many of the MSS. written in Iona may be credited to Ireland, and vice versa; and writings found in Continental libraries may be presumed to have been the work of Scottish as truly as of Irish writers. The early treatises, and glosses upon Latin treatises, on theological and other subjects still existing in the early Gaelic dialect are numerous, and have afforded materials for the acute and masterly criticism of Zeuss, De Nigra, Stokes, and others; and these are accompanied by treatises on grammar, history, medicine, astrology, metaphysics, poetry, and similar subjects, which are of much interest. Most of these remains are found in the collections in Trinity College, Dublin, and in the library of the Irish Royal Academy; but there are numerous remains in the Edinburgh Advocates' Library, which prove at least that there were in Scotland persons who valued and collected this literature. There can be no doubt that there were many contributors to it as well.

The earliest specimen of Gaelic writing, which can be pronounced to be Scottish beyond any question, is the Book of Deer, said already to be a work of the 11th or 12th century. The book itself consists of portions of the New Testament written in Latin. The Gaelic portiou consists of historical references, with notices of grants of land bestowed on the old monastery of Deer, in Aberdeenshire. These references and notices are, for the most part, written on the margin. They show that, at the time the book was written, the Gaelic language was used, both for speaking and writing, in the district around Deer, where it is now un


known except in the topography. There is not a shade of difference between the language of the Book of Deer and the language of the Irish writings of the same age. The following specimen of the notices of grants of land may be interesting:-Donchad mac mec bead mec hided dorat achad madchor docrist acus drostan acusdocholuimcille insóre gobrád malechi acuscómgell acusgille crist mac fingúni innáienasi intestes, &c. "Duncan, son of MacBeth, son of Idid, gave Achad Madchor to Christ, and to Drostan, and to Columcille, in freedom for ever; Malechi, and Comgall, and Gilchrist, son of Fingon, witnesses in proof of it." The notice of grauts continue in similar form, being records kept within the monastery of what had been given. The Book of Deer is a work of much interest to the Gaelic scholar, and his best thanks are due to the Spalding Club and the late Dr John Stuart for the excellent volume they have published, containing all that is interesting in the original, with a full and learned account of it.

Of the period immediately after the Book of Deer there are several MS. remains of Scottish Gaelic writing in existence. There is the Glenmasan MS. in the Edinburgh Advocates' Library, inscribed with the date 1238, and containing several interesting fragments. Here we find the famous lay of Deirdre or Darthula, connected with the story of the sons of Usnoth. The whole character of this MS. is identical with that of the Irish MSS., and yet it is manifestly a Scottish work. There are lives of saints preserved; one of these, in the Advocates' Library, is the life of St Findchua. Mr Skene, in his Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, gives transcripts of several important MSS., as the Duan Albanach, or poetical accounts of the Scottish kings, recited by the royal bard at the coronation of Malcolm Kenmore. This was copied from an Irish MS., but is manifestly a Scottish composition. The bards of both Ireland and Scotland often crossed the Irish Channel, and their works were well known on both sides of it.

The 14th and 15th centuries were a period of revival of literature over the whole continent of Europe, and the Celts of Great Britain and Ireland felt the impulse. This was a period of much writing both in Ireland and in Scotland. The remains that exist are of a varied kind, and are numerous, especially those of the 15th century. Of this century is the only Gaelic charter that we possess, which is printed, with a translation, in the National Records of Scotland. Of this age also are numerous medical MSS. Some of these belonged to the famous family of Beatons, hereditary physicians to the Lords of the Isles, and contain accounts of such remedies as were believed at the time to have efficacy in the cure of disease. Others are metaphysical treatises, while others deal with what were looked upon as the great and important mysteries of astrology. Of this period also are most of the written genealogies that remain. The remarkable thing is the extent to which the Gaelic language bears the marks of cultivation at the time. In both medicine and metaphysics words are found to express the most abstract ideas, which could not be understood by the modern Highlander. As has already been said, some of these writings are translations from Arabic writers, as Averroes, Avicenna, Iacobus de Forlivio, and others. The state of learning at the time in the Highlands was not behind that in the rest of the kingdom. The clergy and the physicians, and even the bards, were possessed of real learning, and have left evidence of it.

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The 16th century was the period of two important additions to Gaelic literature. The first of these was what is called The Dean of Lismore's book, a collection of poetical pieces, and an obituary, chiefly of the M'Gregor chiefs, made about the year 1512. The work has recently been transcribed, translated, and edited, with notes by the Rev. Dr M'Lauchlan, and an introduction and additional

notes by Mr W. F. Skene. The work is one which has helped to settle several interesting questions connected with Gaelic literature. It makes clear that, down to the period of the dean of Lismore of 1512, there was much in commou between the Celtic scholars and bards of Ireland and those of Scotland, while the latter were striking out a course for themselves, in laying aside the Irish letter and orthography, and in using the Saxon letter and an orthography almost purely phonetic. The dean of Lismore's book is a substantial addition to the literature of the Gael. The same century furnished us with another important addition in the translation of the prayer-book usually called "John Knox's Liturgy" into Gaelic, by John Carswell, the bishop of the Isles. This is the first Gaelic book that ever was printed, and bears the date of 1567. There was till very recently only one complete copy of this work in existence, that in the library of the duke of Argyll; but now the book has been reprinted, edited by Dr M'Lauchlan, who has given an English translation, and such notices of the life of Carswell as very scanty materials would permit. This book is printed in the Roman letter. The publication of Carswell's Gaelic prayer-book would seem to indicate that at the time of its publication the Highlanders could read Gaelic, and that they were familiar with the dialect then in use among scholars both in Scotland and Ireland. Of the 17th century not many remains exist. Calvin's Catechism was published about the beginning of the century, probably translated by Carswell, and published long after his death. A copy is now hardly to be found. But two important contributions were made towards the close of the century. The one of these was the metrical translation of the Gaelic Psalms, executed both by the synod of Argyll and the Rev. Robert Kirke of Balquhidder; and the other was an edition, in the Roman letter, of Bedell's Irish Bible for the use of the Highlanders of Scotland. The first fifty of the psalms by the synod were published in 1659, and the whole psalter was completed in 1694. Kirke published his version in 1684. Both are highly creditable performances, and Kirke is entitled to special commendation, inasmuch as the Gaelic language was acquired by him after he was settled in the Highlands. Kirke's version of the Irish Bible for the use of the Highlanders was published in 1690. The New Testament is that of O'Donnell. This work is accompanied by a glossary including the words in the Irish Bible not generally in use in the Highlands. The book was for a time used in Highland churches, but the Irish Bible, in the Irish letter, was well known and read in the Highlandsboth in churches and in families.

The 18th century was productive of large additions to Gaelic literature, partly due to an awakening of religious life, partly to the Jacobite rising, and partly to the progress of literary culture. In the beginning of the century Lhuyd produced his Vocabulary, accompanied by a few interesting Gaelic compositions from the Highlands. About the same time, the synod of Argyll executed a translation of the Confession of Faith and Larger and Shorter Catechisms. These were published in 1725. M'Donald's Vocabulary appeared in the year 1741. It is the first attempt at any thing like a vocabulary of the Gaelic. It is of little value except as being the first book in which the orthography approached to that of the modern Gaelic. During this century several famous Gaelic bards flourished. M'Donald. the author of the Vocabulary, filled the country with Jacobite and other songs. The former are of a violent character, indicating keen partisanship with the exiled Stuarts. M'Intyre of Glenorchy, commonly called Duncan Ban, flourished about the same period, and, though he w ́ 8 a Jacobite at first, this appeared less in his compositions than in M'Donald's. His hunting and other descriptive songs are admirable. M'Kay or Calder, usually called Rob Donn,

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the Reay bard, flourished about the same time, and has left numerous admirable pieces of Gaelic poetry. Others were also successful composers, such as William Ross of Gairloch, and the religious poet of the Highlands, Dougal Buchanan. And towards the close of the century was published Gillies's Collection of Gaelic Poetry, one of the best collections we possess, containing, as it does, many authentic pieces of Ossianic poetry taken down when the old clan system was still in force in the Highlands to a larger extent than now. But the 18th century was distinguished by two works of special interest, in different departments. The first of these was the Gaelic translation of the Bible, and the second was Macpherson's Ossian. The former was executed chiefly by the Rev. James Stewart, of Killin, and his son the Rev. Dr John Stewart, of Luss,-two eminent scholars, who had all the soundness of judgment necessary for such a work. This translation of the Bible has been most popular in the Highlands and throughout the British colonies where the Gaelic is still spoken. The Gaelic learner cannot do better at the outset than master the Gaelic Bible. Macpherson's Ossian appeared about the same time, but not in Gaelic. It appeared first in English dress. This was the only mode of making the general public acquainted with it. Macpherson's first small volume of fragments appeared altogether in English; it would have been well if both the original and the translation had been published simultaneously. The only part of the Gaelic that was published before 1818 was what is called a "Specimen of the Original of Temora," given with the other poems in English in 1762. The opinions with regard to the authenticity of Macpherson's Ossian are as various as ever, and yet considerable progress has been made in the discovery of truth, which all parties are prepared to acknowledge. It has been established that poems ascribed to Ossian have been known and written down in the Highlands for 300 years, that many of them have been handed down by tradition, that these were fragments referring to certain important events in the history of the Gaelic race, and that there was nothing to make it improbable that such poems as those translated by Macpherson could have existed. Further, it is clear that the Highlanders at once, whether they knew the pieces or not as given by Macpherson, recognized them as in a style familiar to them, and as relating to persons and events with which they were familiar. That Macpherson found materials for his work in the Highlands is beyond a doubt, and it seems quite as manifest that he used very considerable liberties with them in order to serve his object of producing a great Gaelic epic poem or poems. In 1818 the full Gaelic version was printed, long after the death of James Macpherson. The Poems of Ossian, as collected, and translated, and edited by Macpherson, are a valuable and interesting addition to Gaelic literature, and enter largely into the history of the modern literature of Europe. The Saxon may have his doubts about Ossian, and may have little scruple or delicacy in stating them, but the Gael knows more about Ossian than he does about Milton, and is more familiar with his heroes than with those of Homer.

The 19th century has seen many large contributions to the literature of the Gaelic Celt. It has shared in the general progress of learning, and with this it has risen in the estimation of the scholars of Europe. Grammars and dictionaries have been compiled; magazines of various kinds have been started and carried on for a time with much vigour; collections, such as Mackenzie's Beauties of Gaelic Poetry, have been made; and such provisions have been laid up for the future as to secure an ample supply of materials for the scholars of a coming age. That appears to be the special work laid upon the scholars of the present time. They have to collect materials and commit them to writing, and to describe the peculiarities that are distinctive

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of a living language, for the use of those who hereafter can only study it as existing in books, where emphasis, and tone, and accent are altogether unknown, and where the comments and expositions of living men, familiar with the language and the literature from their childhood, are altogether awanting. For that the Gaelic language is in a state of decay is manifest to the most ordinary observer. the decay is twofold, being both within and without. Within, the vocabulary is waning, and English words are coming into use. Gaelic idioms are in like manner disappearing, and English idioms replacing them; while from without, under the influence of education, immigration, steamboats, railways, and other modern devices, English is rapidly finding its way into the land, and pushing the ancient tongue out of it. When this process is completed, a change will befall the people too, for there is no doubt that there is a close relation between the character of a language and the character of the people who use it; so that, when the Gaelic disappears, many of the features distinctive of the Highland character will disappear along with it. In some respects this will be cause of regret; in others perhaps it will not.

At the close of the article CELTIC LITERATURE a list is given of the existing MS. remains of Gaelic literature. It may interest readers and aid students of Gaelic to furnish here a list of some of the more important printed books in the language. They are as follows:

Fragments in Report of Highland Society on Ossian; Fragments in Chronicles of Picts and Scots; The Book of Decr; The Book of the Dean of Lismore; Carsewell's Prayer Book; Bedell's and O'Donnell's Bible; The Gaelic Psalter, various editions; The Confession of Faith, and Catechisms; Lhuyd's Vocabulary; M'Donald's Vocabulary; Ossian's Poems; Smith's Sean Dana; Gillies's Collection of Poems; Macdonald's Poems; M'Intyre's Poems; Rob Donn's Poems; Dougal Buchanan's Hymns; M'Callum's Collection of Poetry; The Gaelic Bible; Stewart's Collection of Poems; Turner's Collection of Poems; Sacred Poetry of the North, edited by Rose; The Beauties of Gaelic Poetry, M'Kenzie; Grant's Hymns; M'Intosh's Gaelic Proverbs; Stewart's Gaelic Grammar; Munro's Gaelic Grammar; Highland Society's Gaelic Dictionary; Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary; M'Alpin's Gaelic Dictionary; Highland Tales, collected Campbell; An Duanaire, by D. C. M'Pherson; An Teachdaire and edited by J. F. Campbell; Leabhar na Feinn, by J. F. Gaelach, by Rev. Dr M'Leod; An Fhiauis, by Rev. Dr Mackay; An Gaidheal, a magazine; numerous translations from the English, chiefly religious works; Connell's Astronomy; M'Kenzie's History (T. M'L.) of Scotland; besides many others.

GAETA, at one time the "Gibraltar of Italy," a stronglyfortified seaport town in the province of Caserta, at the extremity of a peninsula forming the N.W. boundary of the Gulf of Gaeta, with a station on the railway 40 miles N.W. of Naples. The citadel occupies the heights of the peninsula, and the town stretches below in a long thin line. To the east lies the harbour, one of the safest on the whole coast, with a depth of about 15 feet. The principal buildings are the cathedral, the churches, the conventual buildings (of which the most noteworthy are those of the Franciscans and the Benedictines), the hospital, and the foundling asylum. In the cathedral, which was founded or partially built by Barbarossa, are several objects of historical interest-the body of St Erasmus (the St Ermo or Elmo, whose "fires" are familiar to the Mediterranean sailor); the standard presented by Pope Pius V. to Don John of Austria, the hero of the battle of Lepanto; and a baptismal font from the ruins of Formia, which had formerly been an altar to Bacchus, and still bears the Greek inscription Zadníwv Αθηναῖος ἐποίησε. Among the larger remains of Roman Gaeta are a temple and an aqueduct; and the circular Torre d'Orlando, which crowns the height above the citadel, is, in reality, the sepulchre of L. Munatius Plancus, as is distinctly proved by a well-preserved inscription. The suburbs of Gaeta, called Castellona, Mola di Gaeta, and Del Borgo, are larger than the town itself, and form a separate commune under the name of Formia (see FORMIA). The population

of the town in 1871 was 7193, and of the commune, which | Gætulians rose in revolt and massacred the Roman residents, includes Anatola, 18,385.

Gaeta is identified with Caieta, a town of great antiquity, about whose origin and name very different accounts are offered by the various Greek and Roman writers. Virgil makes it the burial-place of Caieta the nurse of Æneas, while Strabo connects the name with a Laconian word signifying a cavern. In Cicero's time the harbour of Caieta was a portus celeberrimus et plenissimus navium, and it was afterwards greatly improved by Antoninus Pius. As a town, the Roman Caieta does not appear to have attained to any great development or importance. On the fall of the Western empire it became a republic, or free town, under the Byzantine government, and it was also the residence of the imperial prætor for Sicily. A considerable increase of its population and power resulted from the destruction of the neighbouring town of Formia by the Arabs, in 850. In the 9th century Pope John VIII. bestowed the fief on Pandolf, count of Capua; but in 877 Duke Docibilis called in the assistance of the Arabs against the Capuans, and in the course of the 11th century we find the people of Gaeta exercising their rights for the election of their dukes. At a later period the fief became an apanage of the princes of the successive dynasties of Naples. The capture of the town by Pedro, brother of the king of Aragon, in 1435, was followed by the erection of the fortress to which so much of its subsequent importance was due. Ferdinand the Catholic and Charles V. both added to the strength of its defences. In 1707 the citadel was taken by storm by the Austrian general, Daun, after a three months' siege; and in 1734 it was forced to capitulate, after a five months' siege, by the allied army under Charles, afterwards king of Naples. In 1806 it was brilliantly defended against the French, under Masséna, by Prince Louis of HessenPhilippsthal, who was, however, severely wounded and obliged to leave the fortress to its fate. Pope Pius IX. found an asylum in the governor's palace at Gaeta in 1848, and remained there till September 1849. In 1861 it afforded a last point of defence for Francis II. of Naples, who capitulated to the Piedmontese on 13th February. Gaeta has given the name of Gaetani to a famous Italian family, about whose original connexion with the town there are, however, various accounts; and Antonio di Gaeta, one of the great Benedictine missionaries to Africa in the 17th century, bears the mark of his origin.

See Rosetto, Breve descrizione delle cose più notabili di Gaeta, reprinted by

Antonio Bulifone, at Naples, in 1690; "Geschichte von Gaeta," in Oester. milit.
Zeitschrift, 1823.

GÆTULIA, or the land of the Gætuli, an ancient district of somewhat uncertain limits in northern Africa. It may be roughly said to have been bounded on the N. by Mauretania and Numidia, E. by the country of the Garamantes, S. by the basin of the Niger, and W. by the Atlantic; but the frontiers must have been of a very uncertain and shifting character. The Gætulians, who, according to a tradition mentioned by Sallust, were one of the two great aboriginal races of northern Africa, appear to have retreated inland before the encroachments of the Numidians and Mauretaniaus, but continued to make incursions over a wide stretch of country. Ethnographically, they were quite distinct from the negro races, and indeed probably belonged to the great Berber race, which still forms so important an element in the population of North Africa. Their southern tribes having mingled with negro tribes, acquired the distinctive title of Melano-Gætuli or Black Gætulians. A warlike, roving people, they bestowed great attention on the rearing of horses, and, according to Strabo, had 100,000 foals in the course of a year. They were clad in skins, lived on flesh and the milk of their cows, mares, and camels, and took almost no advantage of the valuable productions of their country. It was not till the Jugurthine war that they became familiar to the Romans; but afterwards their name occurs with great frequency in Latin poetical literature, and, indeed, the adjective Gætulian became little more than a synecdoche for African. Allusions are more particularly made to Gætulian purple, which was obtained from the murex of the African coast. In the Jugurthine war some of the Gætulian tribes assisted the Numidian king with a contingent of horse; but during the civil war Cæsar found among them very serviceable allies in his contest with Juba. Augustus, having made Numidia a Roman province, affected to assign a portion of the Gætulian territory to Juba as a compensation; but the

and it was not till a severe defeat had been inflicted on them by Cossius Lentulus that they consented to recognize their gratuitous sovereign. By his victory Lentulus acquired the title of Gætulicus. Ibn Said in the middle of the 13th century, Ibn Khaldun at the end of the 14th, Leo Africanus in the beginning of the 16th, and Marmol about sixty years later, are all quoted by M. Vivien de St Martin in his Le Nord de l'Afrique, 1863, as mentioning a mountainous country called Gozulé, Gutzula, or Guézula in the south of Morocco. He is disposed further to identify the Gætulians with the Godâla, who, according to Ibn Said, occupied the maritime portion of the great desert, and are referred to by other Arabian geographers as the Djoddala; and it is even possible, he thinks, that their name survives in that of the Ghedala between Cape Blanco and the Lower Senegal on the one hand, and that of the Beni Guechtula in the Algerian province of Bougie on the other.

GAGE, THOMAS (1720-1787), governor of Massachusetts, second son of the first Viscount Gage, was born in England in 1720. He entered the army at an early age, became lieutenant-colonel of the 44th regiment of foot in 1750, was made major-general and governor of Montreal in 1761, and in 1763 succeeded Amherst in the command of the British forces in America. In 1774 he was appointed governor of Massachusetts, and in that capacity was entrusted with carrying into effect the Boston Port Act. In this political crisis, by his hesitancy in adopting measures against the leaders of the insurrectionary party, and contenting himself with fortifying Boston, he enabled the Americans to mature their plans in comparative security. The battle at Lexington, in which a detachment sent by him, on the 18th April 1775, to destroy the cannon and ammunition at Concord was defeated, inaugurated the American revolutionary war. On the 12th June he proclaimed martial law, and proscribed Samuel Adams and John Hancock, offering pardon to all the other rebels who should return to their allegiance; but the result of these measures was at once to exasperate and encourage the Americans. Although Gage gained the nominal victory of Bunker's Hill (June 17), he was unable to raise the siege of Boston; and being shortly afterwards superseded by General Howe, he sailed for England. He died in 1787.

GAGERN, HANS CHRISTOPH ERNST, BARON VON (1766-1852), a German statesman and political writer, was born at Kleinniederheim, near Worms, January 25, 1766. After completing his studies at the universities of Leipsic and Göttingen, he entered the service of the prince of Orange-Nassau, whom in 1791 he represented at the imperial diet. He was afterwards appointed ambassador to Paris, where he remained till the decree of Napoleon, forbidding all persons born on the left side of the Rhine to serve any other power than France, compelled him to resign his office. He then retired to Vienna, and in 1812 he endeavoured to promote insurrection against Napoleon in Tyrol. On the failure of this attempt he left Austria and joined the headquarters of the Prussian army. When the prince of Orange became king of the Netherlands Gagern was appointed his prime minister, and in 15 he represented him at the congress of Vienna, and succeeded in obtaining for the Netherlands a considerable agg andisement of territory. From 1816 to 1818 he continud to be Netherland ambassador at the German diet, when while endeavouring to promote German unity, he also ac ocated the adoption of measures which should secure the in epond ence of the individual states. In 1820 he retired with a pension to his estate of Hornau, in Hesse-Darmstad; but, as a member of the first chamber of the states of th grand duchy, he continued to take an active share in the promo


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