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attributable to his position as a professor, and to his widely popular lectures.

notices in his own book.

See Gellert's Sämmtliche Werke (first edition, 10 vols., Leipsic, 1769-74, last edition, Berlin, 1867). His Sämmtliche Fabeln und Erzählungen and his Geistliche Oden und Lieder have often been published separately; the latest editions being those of Leipsic, 1874, and Berlin, 1873. See translation by J. A. Murke, Gellert's Fables and other Poems (London, 1851). Lives of Gellert have been written by J. A. Cramer (Leipsic, 1774) and by Döring (2 vols., Leipsic, 1833). GELLIUS, AULUS, author of the Noctes Attica, was born in the first half of the 2d century of the Christian era, most probably in Rome, and died about 180. Nothing is known of his personal history except from incidental He studied grammar and rhetoric at Rome and philosophy at Athens, after which he returned to Rome, and held there a judicial office. His only work, the Noctes Atticæ, takes its name from having been begun during the long nights of a winter which he spent in Attica. He afterwards continued it at Rome. It is compiled out of an "Adversaria," or common-place book, in which he had jotted down everything of unusual interest that he heard in conversation or read in books, aud it comprises notes on grammar, geometry, philosophy, history, and almost every other branch of knowledge. The work, which is utterly devoid of sequence or arrangement, is divided into twenty books. All these have come down to us except the eighth, of which nothing remains but the index. The Noctes Attice is valuable for the insight it affords into the nature of the society and pursuits of those times, and for the numerous excerpts it contains from the works of

lost ancient authors.

The editio princeps of Aulus Gellius appeared at Rome in 1469, and was speedily followed by many others in various cities of Italy, especially Venice. The best editions are those of Gronovius (Leyden, 1706), Lion (Göttingen, 1824-1825), and Hertz (Leipsic, 1853). Aulus Gellius has been translated into English by Beloe (London, 1795); into French by the Abbé de Verteuil (Paris, 177689), and by Victor Verger (Paris, 1820-30); into German by Walterstern (Lemberg, 1785), and by Weiss, 2 vols. (Leipsic, 1875-76).

GELON, succeeded Hippocrates as tyrant of Gela in 491 B.C., and, by supporting the plebs of Syracuse in their quarrels against the aristocracy, became tyrant also of that city in 485 B.C. He used his power so discreetly that under him Syracuse attained an extraordinary degree of wealth and influence. The great event in Gelon's subsequent history was his defeat of the Carthaginians under Hamilcar at Himera, according to tradition on the same day that the Greeks defeated Xerxes at Salamis, 480 B.C., the result of his victory being that he obtained the lordship of the whole of Sicily. After Gelon had thus established his power, he made a show of resigning it; but his proposal was rejected by the multitude, and he reigned without opposition till his death 478 B.C. His memory was held in such respect that, 150 years after his death, when Timoleon was erasing from Sicily every vestige of the tyrants that had once reigned there, he spared the statues of Gelon. See SYRACUSE.

GELSEMIUM, a drug, consisting of the root of Gelsemium (or as sometimes less correctly called Gelseminum) sempervirens, a climbing shrub of the natural order Loganiacea, having a milky juice, opposite, lanceolate shining leaves, and axillary clusters of from one to five large, funnel-shaped, very fragrant yellow flowers, whose perfume has been compared to that of the wallflower. The fruit is composed of two separable jointed follicles, containing numerous flat-winged seeds. The stem often runs underground for a considerable distance, and indiscriminately with the root it is used in medicine. The plant is a native of the United States, growing on rich clay soil by the side of streams near the coast, from Virginia to the south of Florida. In the United States it is commonly known as the wild, yellow, or Carolina jessamine, although

in no way related to the true jessamines, which belong to the Oleaceœ. It was first described in 1640 by John Parkinson, who grew it in his garden from seed sent by Tradescant from Virginia; at the present time it is but rarely seen, even in botanical gardens, in Great Britain. The root, on analysis by Kollock in 1855, was found to contain an alkaloid (now called Gelsemine or Gelsemia), a dry acrid resin, per cent. of a volatile oil heavier than water, fatty resin, fixed oil, yellow colouring matter, gallic acid, starch, albumen, gum, pectic acid, extractive matter, lignin, and 3.17 per cent. of mineral matter, consisting chiefly of salts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and


The leaves and flowers were found to contain the same ingredients in less quantity. Eberle, who examined the root in 1869, states that the central woody portion of the root does not contain any alkaloid, and that therefore to the above, Wormley, in 1870, discovered in the root a the bark is the physiologically active portion. In addition crystalline substance named by him gelseminic acid, whose solution in alkalies exhibits a powerful blue fluorescence. It has, however, since been shown by Sonnenschein to be identical with æsculin, a crystalline glucoside found in the bark of the horse chesnut, Esculus Hippocastanum. The active properties of gelsemium root have been proved by Wormley and Bartholow to depend upon the alkaloid gelsemine (CHNO2), which in the pure state is a colourless, odourless solid, not yet obtained in a crystalline form, readily soluble in ether and chloroform, less so in alcohol, and very sparingly in water, except in the presence of hydrochloric acid, and having an intensely persistent bitter taste, perceptible in a solution containing only 100th part of it by weight.

The readiest and best test for gelsemine, detecting the smallest traces, appears to be the cherry-red colour developed when ceroso-ceric oxide is added to its solution in concentrated sulphuric acid. The dose of the alkaloid is from th to th of a grain; larger quantities are poisonous, th of a grain having proved fatal in an hour and a half to a strong cat.


The pharmaceutical preparation known as gelsemin consists chiefly of the resin, combined with uncertain proportions of the other constituents of the root, and is prepared by precipitation with water from the strong tincture.

The medicinal properties of the root were discovered by accident, the infusion having been administered instead of that of some other root, with the result of curing the fever for which it was taken. It was then experimented upon by the American eclectic practitioners. In 1852 Professor W. Proctor called the attention of the medical profession to its valuable properties; and in 1864 it was placed on approval in the secondary list, and in 1873, so rapidly had it risen in favour, in the primary list of remedies of acknowledged value in the United States pharmacopoeia. It has latterly attracted considerable attention in England as a remedy for certain forms of facial neuralgia, especially those arising from decayed teeth, or involving branches of the fifth nerve. In the United States it is more particularly valued for controlling nervous irritability in fevers of a malarial type, in which it is said to excel every other known agent. The physiological action of the drug has been carefully examined by Bartholow, Ott, and Ringer and Murrell, from whose investigations it appears that it has a paralysing action on the motor centres, affecting successively the third, fifth, and sixth nerves, its fatal action being due to its causing paralysis of the respiratory muscles, and thus producing death by asphyxia. In large doses it produces alarming symptoms, which occasionally terminate fatally. These appear to vary slightly in different cases, but the more prominent are pain in the forehead and in the eyeballs, giddiness, ptosis, a feeling of lightness in the tongue. slurred

Plate I.

pronunciation, laboured respiration, wide dilatation of the pupils, and impossibility of keeping an erect posture. The mind in most cases remains clear until shortly before death. The earliest and most prominent symptom of a fatal or dangerous dose is the drooping of the eyelids, which indicates the immediate administration of stimulants, for when the paralysis of the tongue which ensues extends to the epiglottis, deglutition becomes impossible, and the epiglottis is apt, unless the sufferer be placed in a forward position to flap back and close the windpipe. The antidotes which have been found the most successful are carbonate of ammonia, brandy, aromatic spirits of ammonia, and morphia. It has been found that death may be averted by keeping up artificial respiration until the poison is eliminated by the kidneys.

See Eclectic Dispensatory, p. 186; Pharm. Journ., 3d ser., vol. vi.; by Ringer and Murrell, &c. in Lancet, 1873, 1875-78; Hales, New Remedies, p. 390; Bartholow, Materia Medica, p. 380; American Journ. Pharm., 1855, 1870; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1873, p. 652; Practitioner, 1870, p. 202; Grover Coe, Positive Medical Agents, p. 114; Hughes, Pharmacodynamy, vol. i. p. 372; Sonnenschein, Berichte der deutsch. chem. Ges., xi. 1182; Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, pt. xix. No. 181.

GEMINIANI, FRANCESCO (c. 1680-1762), a celebrated violinist, born at Lucca about 1680. He received lessons in music from Alessandro Scarlatti, and studied the violin under Lunati, and afterwards under Corelli. In 1714 he arrived in London, where his performance and compositions attracted much attention. He was taken under the special protection of the earl of Essex. After visiting Paris and residing there for some time, he returned to England in 1755. In 1761 he went to Dublin, where a servant robbed him of a musical manuscript on which he had bestowed much time and labour. His vexation at this loss is said to have hastened his death, which took place at Dublin on 17th September 1762. He appears to have been a first-rate violinist, but most of his compositions are dry and deficient in melody. His Art of Playing the Violin is His Art of Playing the Violin is a good work of its kind, but his Guida Armonica is a miserable production. He published a number of solos for the violin, three sets of violin concertos, twelve violin trios, The Art of Accompaniment on the Harpsichord, Organ, &c., Lessons for the Harpsichord, and some other works. His musical opinions had no foundation in truth or principle. GEMISTUS, or PLETHO, GEORGIUS, held high office under the Byzantine emperors during the first half of the 15th century, and derived his name, which signifies the Replete, from the extraordinary amount of his erudition. He is, however, chiefly memorable for having been the first person who introduced Plato to the Western world. This took place upon his visit to Florence in 1438, as one of the deputies from Constantinople on occasion of the general council. Cardinal Bessarion became his disciple; he produced a great impression upon Cosmo de' Medici; and though not himself making any very important contribution to the study of Plato, he effectually shook the exclusive domination which Aristotle had exercised over European thought for eight centuries. He promoted the union of the Greek and Latin Churches as far as possible, but his efforts in this direction bore no permanent fruit. He probably died before the capture of Constantinople. The most important of his published works are a treatise on the distinction between Plato and Aristotle as philosophers, and one on the religion of Zoroaster. In addition to these he compiled several volumes of excerpts from ancient authors, and wrote a number of works on geography, music, and other subjects, many of which still exist in MS. in various European libraries.

GEMS (výpol, gemmæ), engraved with designs, whether adapted for sealing (oppayés, sigillum, intaglio), or mainly for artistic effect (imagines ectype, cameo), exist in a very

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large number of undoubtedly genuine examples, extending from the mists of Babylonian antiquity to the decline of Roman civilization, and again starting with a new but unnatural impulse on the revival of art. Apart from workmanship they possess the charms of colour deep, rich, and varied, of material unequalled for its endurance, and of scarcity which in many instances has been enhanced by the strangeness of the lands whence they came, or the fortuity of their occurrence. These qualities united within the small compass of a gem were precisely such as were required in a seal as a thing of constant use, so inalienable in its possession as to become naturally a personal ornament and an attractive medium of artistic skill, no less than the centre of traditions or of religious and legendary associations. As regards the nations of classical antiquity all seals are classed as gems, though in many cases the material is not such as would strictly come under that heading. On the other hand, gems properly so called were not always seals. Many of the Babylonian cylinders could not have been so employed without great difficulty, and when Herodotus (i. 195) speaks of every Babylonian wearing a seal (σopnyís), it may have been in most cases no other than a talisman having an inherent power derived from the subject of its design, consisting perhaps mostly of figures of protecting deities. He adds that every Babylonian carried also a staff on which it was unlawful for him not to have the figure of an apple, a rose, a lily, an eagle, or something else, as his badge or èπíonμov, from which it may perhaps be inferred that having selected some such badge for his staff he would necessarily have the same for the seal with which he attested his name. But if that had been the case, then the great mass of existing cylinders could not have been seals in the ordinary sense. In Greece and Rome within historic times, gems were worn engraved with designs to show that the bearer was an adherent of a particular worship, the follower of a certain philosopher, or the attached subject of an emperor. It cannot be said that these gems may not have been used systematically as seals, but it is clear that they primarily served a different purpose. Again, when the sense of personal ornament naturally attaching to a seal increased, and the resources both of material and skill were enlarged, the process of engraving gems in cameo, that is, with the design in relief mostly in such stones as by their differently coloured layers could be made to present a variety of surfaces, came largely into fashion (see article CAMEO, and figs. 18, 19 in Plate I.). As a rule these cameos are of a date subsequent to that of Alexander the Great; but there are exceptions in an Egyptian cameo in the Louvre, said to belong to the 12th dynasty, about 3000 B.C., and in some few Etruscan scarabs, which having designs in intaglio on the face have also reliefs engraved on the back, apparently in the same archaic manner of art as the intaglios. Such a scarab in carnelian was found at Orvieto in 1874 in a tomb along with vases dating from the beginning of the 5th century B. C., and it will be seen from the engraving of this gem (Archäol. Zeit., 1877, pl. xi., fig. 3, compare figure of Siren on back of scarab engraved in Wieseler, Denkmäler der alten Kunst, No. 752) that, while the design on the face presents evidently the same subject which occurs on a scaraboid found in the treasury of Curium in Cyprus by General Cesnola (see his Cyprus, pl. xxxix., fig. 5, p. 381), the half-length figure of a Gorgon on the back seems to be the same in subject and treatment as a carnelian fragment, apparently cut from the back of a scaraboid, now in the British Museum. As further examples of the same rare form of cameo, the following scaraboids in the British Museum may be mentioned: (1) a carnelian cut from back of a scaraboid, with head of Gorgon surrounded by wings; (2) carnelian scaraboid: Gorgon running to left, on face of gem an intaglio of Thetis giving armour to Achilles; (3) carnelian scaraboid:


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from Egypt, though of course if the idea of engraving gems
originated with soft stones and simple implements such as
flints, that origin may well have been in Assyria. Possibly
the marked difference in the shape of the gems peculiar to
these two nations bespeaks little contact between them in
this matter. The favourite shapes in Assyria were the
cylinder pierced lengthways, and sometimes fitted with a
swivel so as to be used as a seal, and the cone also pierced
but not requiring a swivel, since the design was cut on its
base. When inscribed, a cylinder generally states three
things,-the name of the owner, his father's name, and the
name of his protecting deity. But there are exceptions, as
for example, a cylinder in the Bibliothèque at Paris in-
scribed, "Alchaloum, servant of Jehastukur," which from
the Semitic form of name "Alchaloum" has been thought
to have belonged to a Jewish captive in Babylon. A
cylinder supposed to be the seal of Sennacherib, in the British
Museum, is not inscribed. Another, purporting to be the
seal of Igli, son of Uruck, the oldest king of Assyria, is re-
jected by M. Oppert as not having any such antiquity. An
agate seal from Khorsabad reads, "Nipishi, of King Tiglath
Pileser, king of Assyria, son of Haou Liklikhus, king of
Assyria." But, as has already been said, many of the
cylinders could not have been employed as seals without
difficulty, and it appears to result from the most recent
study of the designs on them that frequently their main
function was to act as talismans in the system of magic
generated among the Chaldæans. In what seems to be the
oldest examples the design is sunk by a pointed tool pushed
backward and forward in long straight lines. In the next
stage round cavities are sunk here and there in the design
by means of a drill, wheu greater depth is required, while
the shallow parts are worked out with the pointed instru-
ment. By practice in utilizing both methods the Assyrians
reached whatever skill they could boast in this branch of
art. The materials are hæmatite, jasper, calcedony, sard,
basalt, agate, lapis lazuli, rock crystal, alabaster, por-
celain, quartz, glazed clay. Mr King classes them under
four periods, beginning as early as 2234 B.C.

In gem engraving the principal modern implement is a wheel or minute copper disc, driven in the manner of a lathe, and moistened with olive oil mixed with emery or diamond dust. There is no proof of its use among the ancients, but M. Soldi, a practical authority on the subject, believes (Revue Arch., 1874, xxviii. p. 147) that it was known before the time of Pliny, whose expression fervor terebrarum, as applied to the cutting of very hard stones, would fittingly characterize the rapid movement of the wheel. At the same time these words, apparently the only ancient statement on the question, may equally refer to the motion of the drill, an instrument of constant use in antiquity, which in this case was employed to drive an iron tool fitted with a diamond point or splinter. In intaglios, when the larger spaces had been sunk with the drill, the design was worked out in detail by a tool with a diamond point, and finally polished, but not, it would appear, to the extent to which polishing is carried in modern work, for this reason, no doubt, that their finer tools left less of roughness to be smoothed away. Still a gem highly polished in the interior of the design need not be taken to be modern on that account, since it is known that many genuine ancient gems have been repolished in modern times, and since it is not known whether ancient engravers may not sometimes have resorted to excess of this process; while on the other hand an intaglio dim in the surface of its design is not necessarily antique, since modern engravers have observed this peculiarity, and have imitated it with a success which, were there no other suspicions, might escape detection. Except in the hardest stones, much of the ancient gem engraving seems to have been done by a simple copper tool duly moistened and supplied with emery (σμίρις or σμύρις, naxium). The Ethiopians in the time of Xerxes employed a flint instru- In Egypt the favourite form of gem was a scarab (beetle), ment, if that is what Herodotus means (vii. 69) when he having a flat surface underneath, on which was engraved a says that their arrows were tipped "not with iron but with hieroglyphic design. The common materials are green a sharp stone, with which they also engrave their seals." jasper and porcelain. From the soft nature of the porcelain, With such a tool steatite could be easily engraved, and it and from the strict adherence to the scarab shape, it may should be remembered that among very early gems this be inferred that they were used much less as seals than as material is of frequent occurrence, while in the later art of a sort of badges or ornaments, and this is confirmed by the Greece and Rome it can scarcely be said to exist; and the finding of large numbers of them in foreign countries, as at inference is that, when processes had been invented to cut Camirus in Rhodes and in Etruria, where the hieroglyphics harder stones, the softer substances were discarded. Still could not have been understood. No doubt it may be true it would not be correct to found more than a general argu- that these specimens had been manufactured by Phoenicians ment as to the comparative ages of gems on the different for export to these countries merely as articles of ornament, degrees of resistance in the stones themselves, even when but had the originals been strictly held by the Egyptians to dealing with the works of one nationality, much less so in be seals, it would have been the height of dishonesty in the a review of ancient gems as a whole, for this reason, among Phoenicians to reproduce them in this way. In Egypt, others, that the decline of art is in technical matters often however, the art of gem engraving was not confined altovery like its infancy. It would be easy to show from pub-gether to scarabs, as may be seen among other interesting lished criticisms how certain classes of rude intaglios have exceptions in the oblong intaglio of green jasper in the been regarded now as the very earliest efforts of the art, Louvre (Gazette Archéol., 1878, p. 41) with a design on both now as debased; and at times it is difficult to choose between sides, representing on the obverse, as known from the these judgments. In the present state of knowledge it may cartouche, Thothmes II. (1800 B.C.) slaying a lion, and on seem idle to inquire where the infancy of the art was passed. the reverse the same king drawing his bow against his One thinks in Egypt, which otherwise is known for its enemies from a war chariot. In the Louvre also is an intimate skill in working hard stones. Another says Egyptian gem, said to belong to the 12th dynasty, 3000 Assyria, which doubtless had a civilization as remote as that But uninteresting in themselves as are the scarabs of of Egypt, but has left no similar evidence of the mastery Egypt, they have this accidental importance in the history of obdurate substances. The architectural and the artistic of gem engraving that they furnished the Phoenicians with remains of the two nations present this broad distinction, a model which they first improved as regards the intaglio that they are of much harder material in the one case than by a freer spirit of design, gathered partly from Egypt and in the other, whence it would be reasonable to expect that partly from Assyria (see the Phoenician scarabs from Tharras at least the invention of the pointed tools had proceeded in Sardinia and from Cyprus). The scarab thus improved


they communicated to the Etruscans, under whose skilful hands it received often a degree of delicacy in the workmanship which has not been equalled in the gems of any other country. The best specimens are due to the influence of Greek art in the 6th century B.C. or somewhat later. The subjects engraved are Greek in origin, and the habit of inscribing the names of the subjects is an early Greek. habit, but with this difference, that the Greeks would be correct in the naming, while the Etruscan artists are perhaps as often wrong as right. The name of Tydeus, for instance (TYTE), is assigned in one case to a figure scraping himself with a strigil, and in another to a fallen warrior, who otherwise would be identified as Capaneus. Again a figure washing his hair is called Peleus, and Achilles sulking becomes Theseus, to the exercise of much ingenuity in times. past. With these and other examples it should no longer be necessary to cast about for an unusual form of the legend of the Seven against Thebes, when five only of their names are found beside five figures on what is the most celebrated of existing scarabs-a carnelian in the Berlin Museum (Winckelmann, Alte Denkmäler, No. 105). Another scarab of first importance is a banded onyx in Florence representing the Salii carrying their shields, inscribed Angils and Alce. For Etruscan scarabs see ETRURIA, vol. viii. p. 640.

While the Phoenicians have left actual specimens to show with what skill they could adopt the systems of gem engraving prevailing at their time in Egypt and Assyria, the Israelites, on the other hand, have left records to prove, if not their skill, at least the estimation in which they held engraved gems. "The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron and with the point of a diamond" (Jerem. xvii. 1). To pledge his word Judah gave Tamar his signet, bracelets, and staff (Gen. xxviii. 18); whence, if this passage be compared with the frequent use of "seal" in a metaphorical sense in the Bible, and with the usage of the Babylonians already cited from Herodotus, it may be concluded that among the Israelites also every man of mark at least wore a signet. Their acquaintance with the use of seals in Egypt and Assyria is seen in the statement that Pharaoh gave Joseph his seal as a badge of investiture (Gen. xli. 42), and that the stone which closed the den of lions was sealed by Darius with his own signet and with the signet of his lords (Daniel vi. 17). Then as to the stones which were most prized, Ezekiel (xxviii. 13), speaking of the prince of Tyre, mentions the sardius, topaz, and diamond, the beryl, onyx, and jasper, the sapphire, emerald, and carbuncle, stones which again occur in that most memorable of records, the description of the breastplate of the high priest (Exodus xxviii. 16-21, and xxxix. 8). Twelve stones grouped in four rows, each with three specimens, may be arranged on a square, measuring a palm, not a span, so as to have the rows placed either vertically or horizontally. If they are to cover the whole square, then they must be cut in an oblong form, and if the names engraved on them are to run lengthwise, as is the manner of Assyrian cylinders, then the stones, to be legible, must be grouped in four horizontal rows of three each. There is in fact no reason to suppose that the gems of the breastplate were in any other form than that of cylinders such as abounded to the knowledge of the Israelites, with this possibility, however, that they may have been cut lengthways into half-cylinders like a fragmentary one of sard in the British Museum, which has been mounted in bronze, and, as a remarkable exception, has been set with three small precious stones now missing. It could not have been a seal, because of this setting, and because the inscription is not reversed. It reads: "Nabu.... [son of] Iddina-Nergal (?). son of Nabu-zira-iddin.... Khi (2)-su-ba....," according to Mr Pinches. The names of the twelve tribes, not their standards, as has been thought, may have been engraved


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Jewish High Priest's Breastplate. supposing them to have been cylinders or half cylinders may have been arranged consistently with the descriptious of the Septuagint. In the arrangement of Josephus the jasper is made to change places with the sapphire, and the amethyst with the agate, while our version differs partly in the order and partly in the names of the stones, but probably in all these accounts the names had in some cases other meanings than those which they now carry. From the fact that to each tribe was assigned a stone of different colour, it may be taken that in each case the colour was one which belonged prescriptively to the tribe and was symbolic, as in Assyria, where the seven planets appropriated each a special colour (see Brandis in the Berlin Hermes, 1867, p. 259 sq., and De Sacy, Revue Archéologique, 1869, and compare Revelation xxi. 13, where the twelve gates are grouped in four threes, and 19, 20, where the twelve precious stones of the walls are given). The precious stones which occur among the cylinders of the British Museum are sard, emerald, lapis lazuli (sapphire of the ancients), agate, onyx, jasper, and rock crystal. Both Elian (Var. Hist., iv. 34) and Diodorus (i. 75) speak of an object known as an image. of truth worn round the neck of the judge, who of course. was a priest, in ancient Egypt; but how far this may have. suggested or corresponded with the Jewish breastplate is not to be made out.

The records of gem engravers in Greece begin in the island of Samos, where Mnesarchus, the father of the philosopher Pythagoras, earned by his art more of praise than of wealth. Thence also came Theodorus, who made for Polycrates the seal of emerald (Herodotus, iii. 41), which, according to the curious story, was cast in vain into the deep sea on purpose to be lost. That the design on it was a lyre, as is stated in one authority, is unlikely, now that Benndorf's ingenious reading of Pliny (Nat. Hist., xxxiv. 83) has shown that the portrait statue of Theodorus made by himself was in all probability a figure holding in one hand a graving tool, and in the other, not, as previously supposed, a quadriga so diminutive that a fly could cover it with its wings, but a scarab with the engraving of a

quadriga on its face (Zeitschrift für die Oesterreich. Gymnasien, 1873, pp. 401-411), whence it is not unreasonable to conclude that this scarab in fact represented the famous seal of Polycrates. Shortly after 600 B.C. there was a law of Solon's forbidding engravers to retain impressions of the seals they made, and this date would fall in roundly with that of Theodorus and Mnesarchus, as if there had in fact been just about then a special activity and unusual skill. That the art had been practised perhaps for several centuries before in Greece is probable from the general usage of sealing implied in Solon's law, from the extraordinary degree to which it obtained soon after his time, and from the influence which was exercised on the Greeks in such matters by the Phoenicians, Egyptians, and Assyrians. Yet it is singular to find, as Pliny points out (xxxiii. 4), no direct mention of seals in Homer, not even in the passage (Iliad, vi. 168) where Bellerophon himself carries the tablets on which were written the orders against his life. Then as regards the rings or seals of Prometheus, of Midas, of Minos (which like that of Polycrates was thrown into the sea in vain), of Phocus, and of Orestes, the legends may not all have come down from a very early period, but that of Phocus can at least be traced back to the time of Polygnotus, while that of Prometheus may be taken to have inspired the seal (engraved Rev. Arch., 1878, pl. xx.) on which the Titan is seen bound and submitting to the vulture. Or, conversely, such a gem may have suggested the legend of the ring which he bore as proof of his former punishment. There is no need to put it much later than 600 B.C., and it is a specimen of a class of lentoid gems which of late years have been found in small numbers chiefly in the Greek islands. Two more of them from the British Museum collection are engraved in Pl. I., figs. 2 and 3. As a rule the materials are comparatively soft, most frequently steatite and hæmatite, while the designs consist mainly of animals so turned and twisted as to cover almost the entire surface of the gem. Certain exceptional cases, where the design is taken from legend or mythology, may be seen in the Revue Archéologique, 1878, pl. xx., Nos. 1-3; for the ordinary subjects see Revue Arch., 1874, pl. xii.; Schliemann, Mycena, pp. 112, 202, 362; Česnola, Cyprus, pl. xxxvii. 9, and pl. xxxviii. 21, 23; and for gold signets with designs in this stage of art see Schliemann, Mycenae, p. 223; Cesnola, Cyprus, pl. xxxiv. 2; and Revue Arch., 1874, pl. iv., No. 44, in which volume is an interesting article on early engraved gems by Count Gobineau. In most cases the designs though heraldic rather than natural, with a prevalence of animal forms perhaps due to notions of heraldry, are yet so singularly free from Egyptian or Assyrian influence that they must be assigned as essentially Greek productions, possibly from a period when Oriental examples had lost sway. "Not to carry the image of a god on your seal" was a saying of Pythagoras; and, whatever his reason for it may have been, it is interesting to observe him founding a maxim on his father's profession of gem engraving (Diogenes Laert., viii. 1, 17).

From the time of Theodorus to that of Pyrgoteles in the 4th century B.C. is a long blank as to names, but not altogether as to gems, the production of which may be judged to have been carried on assiduously from the constant necessity of seals for every variety of purpose. The references to them in Aristophanes, for example, the lists of them in the ancient inventories of treasures in Athens, and the number of them found by General Cesnola in the treasure chambers of Curium in Cyprus confirm this frequent usage during the period in question. To it belong in particular the inscribed gems mentioned in ARCHEOLOGY (vol. ii. p. 353), including the Woodhouse intaglio there figured (p. 358), which may be referred to as perhaps the

very finest example of Greek gem engraving that has come down to us. It would stand early in the 5th century B.C., a date which would also suit the head of Eos from Ithome in Messenia (Pl. I., fig. 14), the head (fig. 5), the citharist (fig. 9), while the scarabs (figs. 6, 7), though apparently of Etruscan origin, obviously reflect the character of archaic Greek art, as far as concerns the shallow cutting and the delicate execution of minute details. The touch which isolates a design and literally arrests the eye they do not possess, but by comparison they render it more distinct as it exists in the Woodhouse gem already mentioned, and in figs. 8, 10-13, and 15 in Plate I., all of which may be assigned to the end of the 5th century B.C. Singularly beautiful in this class are the two Cesnola gems (Čyprus, pl. xxxix. figs. 1, 2), the latter, simple and even awkward in parts, yet on the whole conceived by a Greek mind imbued with the poetry of art, while the former is rather a triumph of faultlessness, delicate as the colour of the stone on which it is engraved.

By the beginning of the 4th century B. C. every element of archaism had vanished; but gems of this period are scarce, except in the collection of St Petersburg, which has obtained them exclusively from tombs in the Crimea. Foremost among them are the two by Dexamenus of Chios, the one, a calcedony with the figure of a stork flying, and inscribed in two lines, the letters carefully disposed above each other, AEZAMENOΣ EÈOIE XIO (Compte-rendu de la Commiss. Arch. St Petersburg, 1861, pl. vi. fig. 10), and the other, an agate with a stork standing on one leg, inscribed AEZAMENOX simply (Compte-rendu, 1865, pl. iii. fig. 40). A third gem, apparently by the same Dexamenus, is a carnelian belonging to Admiral Soteriades in Athens, and has a portrait head, bearded and inscribed AEZAMENOX EПOIE (Compte-rendu, 1868, pl. i. fig. 12). Apart from the splendour of their workmanship, those three gems are interesting for the variety of their inscriptions. Thus a name standing alone in the nominative case, when it does not describe the subject of the design, will indicate the artist. Again, when the nationality of the artist is added it should follow the verb as a rule, which, however, is not without exceptions. EПIOIE for EПOIEI is an archaism. The design of a stork flying occurs on an agate scarab in the British Museum from the old Cracherode collection, and therefore beyond all suspicion of having been copied from the more recently discovered Kertch gem. condition of the surface and the skill of execution are both interesting. Reckoned among the best of the Crimea gems, and that is equivalent to saying among the best of all gems, are the following:-(1) a burnt scaraboid with an eagle carrying off a hare; (2) a gem with scarab border and the figure of a youth seated playing on the trigonon, very much resembling the Woodhouse intaglio (both engraved, Compterendu 1871, pl. vi. figs. 16, 17); (3) a scaraboid with border and the design of a horse running at speed, with which may be compared a carnelian scaraboid in the British Museum from the old Hamilton collection, and again on this account above suspicion, if the great beauty of the work were not alone convincing; the horse is here stung by a gadfly; (4) an ovoid calcedony, mounted on a chain to be worn as a collar, with an intaglio of a Gorgon (3 and 4 engraved, Compte-rendu, 1860, pl. iv. figs. 6 and 10). In these, and in almost all Greek gems belonging to this period of excellence, the material is of indifferent quality, consisting of agate, calcedony, or carnelian, just as in the older specimens. Brilliant colour and translucency are as yet not a necessary element, and accordingly the design is worked out solely with a view to its own artistic merit.


At this stage appears the name of Pyrgoteles, of whom it is said that he alone was permitted to engrave the portrait head of Alexander the Great. The portrait head of

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