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tion of measures for the welfare of his country. He retired from public life in 1848, and died at Hornau, 22d October 1852. Three of the sons of Baron Gagern have attained considerable eminence-one as a soldier, and two, who are still living (1879), as politicians.

His principal works are Die Resultate der Sittengeschichte, 6 vols., 1808-1822; Die Nationalgeschichte der Deutschen, Vienna, 1812; 2d ed. in 2 vols., Frankfort, 1825-26; Mein Antheil an

der Politik, 4 vols., Stuttgart, 1823-33; Kritik des Völkerrechts,

Leipsic, 1840; and Civilisation, Leipsic, 1847.

GAILLAC, the capital of an arrondissement in the department of Tarn, France, is situated on the right bank of the Tarn, 12 miles W. of Albi. It possesses two churches of the 13th century, a communal college, a hospital, a theatre, and a military prison. Its industries include the manufacture of wine casks, leather, brandy, bricks, and various kinds of coarse cloth; and it has a considerable trade in corn, vegetables, dried plums, and wine, the white and red wines of the arrondissement having a high reputation. Gaillac was in existence in the 7th century. It was captured by the English in 1280, and its

archives were taken to London. Even at that time it was famed for its wines, which, under the name of Vin du Cog, were exported to England and Holland. The population

in 1876 was 6099.

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iron and brass foundries. Vessels of 200 tons burden can come up to the town. The population in 1871 was 7564, and since that date has been rapidly increasing. GAINSBOROUGH, THOMAS (1727-1788), a painter famous for the truth and elegance of his portraits, and for the simple beauty of his landscapes, was born at Sudbury, Suffolk, in the year 1727. His father, who carried on the business of a woollen crape-maker in that town, was of a respectable character and family, and was noted for his skill in fencing; his mother excelled in flower-painting, and encouraged her son in the use of the pencil. There were nine children of the marriage. At ten years old, Gainsborough had sketched every fine tree and picturesque cottage near Sudbury, and at fifteen, having filled his taskbooks with caricatures of his schoolmaster, forged his father's handwriting to get a holiday, and sketched the portrait of a man whom he had detected in the act of robbing his father's orchard, he was allowed to follow the bent of his genius in London, under such advantages as Hayman, the historical painter, and the academy in St Martin's Lane, could afford. Three years of study in the metropolis were succeeded by two years of idleness in the country. Here he fell in love with Margaret Burr, a young lady of many charms, including an annuity of £200, married her after a short courtship, and, at the age of twenty, became GAILLARD, GABRIEL HENRI (1726-1806), a French a householder in Ipswich, his rent being £6 a year. historian, was born at Ostel, Picardy, in 1726. He was annuity was reported to come from Margaret's real (not her educated for the bar, but after finishing his studies adopted putative) father, who was one of the exiled Stuart princes, or the literary profession, ultimately devoting his chief atten- else the duke of Bedford. At Ipswich, Gainsborough tells. tion to history. In 1801 he was chosen a member of the us, he was "chiefly in the face way," though his sitters were French Academy, and he was also one of the original not so numerous as to prevent him from often rambling members of the Institute. For forty years he was the with his friend Joshua Kirby (president of the Society intimate friend of the minister Malesherbes. He died at of Artists) on the banks of the Orwell, from painting many St Firmin, near Chantilly, 13th February 1806. Gaillard is painstaking and impartial in his statement of facts, and landscapes with an attention to details which his later works never exhibited, or from joining a musical club, and enterhis style is correct and elegant, but the unity of his narra-taining himself and his fellow-townsmen by giving concerts. tive is somewhat destroyed by digressions, and by his But as he advanced in years he became ambitious of method of treating war, politics, civil administration, and advancing in reputation. Bath was then the general resort ecclesiastical affairs under separate heads. of wealth and fashion, and to that city, towards the close of the year 1759, he removed with his wife and two daughters, the only issue of their marriage. His studio in the circus was soon thronged with visitors; he gradually raised his price for a half-length portrait from 5 to 40 guineas, and for a whole-length from 8 to 100 guineas. Among his sitters at this period were the authors Sterne and Richardson, and the actors Quin, Henderson, and Garrick. Meanwhile he contributed both portraits and landscapes to the annual exhibitions in London. indulged his taste for music by learning to play the viol-di-gamba, the harp, the hautboy, the violoncello, His house harboured Italian, German, French, and English musicians. He haunted the green-room of Palmer's theatre, and painted gratuitously the portraits of many of the actors. He gave away his sketches and landscapes to any one who had taste or assurance enough to ask for them; and in the summer of 1774, having already attained a position of great prosperity, he took his departure for the metropolis, and fixed his residence at Schomberg House, Pall Mall, a noble mansion still standing, for which the artist paid £300 a year.

His most important work is his Histoire de la rivalité de la France et de l'Angleterre, in 11 vols., 1771-1777; and among his other works may be mentioned Essai de rhétorique française, à l'usage des jeunes demoiselles, 1745, often reprinted, and in 1822 with a life of the author; Histoire de Marie de Bourgogne, 1757; Histoire de François I., 7 vols. 1776-1779; Histoire des grandes querelles entre Charles V. et François I., 2 vols., 1777; Histoire de Charlemagne, 2 vols., 1782; Histoire de la rivalité de la France et de l'Espagne, 8 vols., 1801; Dictionnaire historique, 6 vols., 1789-1804, making part of the Encyclopédie méthodique; and Mélanges littéraires, containing éloges on Charles V., Henry IV., Descartes, Corneille, La Fontaine, Malesherbes, and others.

GAINSBOROUGH, a market-town and port of Lincolnshire, is situated on the right bank of the Trent, 21 miles above its junction with the estuary of the Humber, and 16 miles N.W. of Lincoln. It consists chiefly of one long well-paved street running parallel to the river, which is here crossed by a fine stone bridge of three arches. The parish church, a fine building in the Grecian style, was rebuilt in 1748, with the exception of the old tower, which belongs to the 12th century. Holy Trinity church, built in 1843, has annexed to it an ecclesiastical district taken out of the old parish of Gainsborough. The old hall, supposed to have been partly built by John of Gaunt, is a curious oaktimber framed building, forming three sides of a quadrangle, and having a tower 78 feet high. It has been restored, and part of it converted into a corn exchange and assembly rooms. Gainsborough possesses a grammar school (founded in 1589 by a charter of Queen Elizabeth) and other schools, a town-hall, a county court-house, a literary institute, a temperance hall, a savings-bank, and a provident dispensary. Ship-building is carried on, and there are manufactories of linseed cake, ropes, malt, and tobacco, with breweries and

He

Gainsborough had not been many months in London ere he received a summons to the palace, and to the end of his career he divided with West the favour of the court, and with Reynolds the favour of the town. Sheridan, Burke, Clive, Blackstone, Hurd, were among the number of those who sat to him. But in London as in Bath his landscapes were exhibited, were commended, won the good opinion of Walpole the fastidious and Wolcot the surly, and were year after year returned to him, "till they stood," says Sir William Beechey, "ranged in long lines from his hall to his

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painting-room." Gainsborough was a member of the Royal Academy, but in 1784, being dissatisfied with the position assigned on the exhibition-walls to his portrait of the three princesses, he withdrew that and his other pictures, and he never afterwards exhibited there. In February 1788, while witnessing the trial of Warren Hastings, he felt an extraordinary chill at the back of his neck; this was the beginning of a caucer (or, as some say, a malignant wen) which proved fatal on 2d August of the same year.

Gainsborough was tall, fair, and handsome, generous, impulsive to the point of capriciousness, easily irritated, not of bookish likings. The property which he left at his death was not large. One of his daughters, Mary, had married contrary to his wishes, and was subject to fits of mental aberration.

Gainsborough and Reynolds rank side by side as the greatest portrait painters of the English school. It is difficult to say which stands the higher of the two, although Reynolds may claim to have worked with a nearer approach to even and demonstrable excellence. In grace, spirit, and lightness of insight and of touch, Gainsborough is peculiarly eminent. His handling was slight for the most part, and somewhat arbitrary, but in a high degree masterly; and his landscapes and rustic compositions are not less gifted than his portraits. Among his finest works are the likenesses of Lady Ligonier, the duchess of Devonshire, Master Buttall (the Blue Boy), Mrs Sheridan and Mrs Tickell, Orpin the parish-clerk (National Gallery), the Hon. Mrs Graham (Scottish National Gallery), his own portrait (Royal Academy), Mrs Siddons (National Gallery); also the Cottage Door, the Market Cart, the Return from Harvest, the Woodman and his Dog in a Storm (destroyed by fire), and Waggon and Horses passing a Brook (National Gallery). He made a vast number of drawings and sketches. In 1788 Philip Thicknesse, lieut.-governor of Landguard Fort, who had been active in promoting Gainsborough's fortunes at starting, but was not on good terms with him when he left Bath, gave to the world A Sketch of the Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough; in 1829 Allan Cunningham published a memoir of him in his Lives of the Painters; and in 1856 there appeared A Life of Thomas Gainsborough, R. A., by G. W. Fulcher.

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Valentinian named him, along with Papinian, Ulpian, Modestin, and Paulus, as one of the five jurists whose opinions were to be followed by judicial officers in deciding cases. The works of these jurists accordingly became most important sources of Roman law.

Besides the Institutes, which are a complete exposition of the elements of Roman law, Gaius was the author of a treatise on the Edicts of the Magistrates, of Commentaries on the Twelve Tables, and on the important Lex Papia Poppaa, and several other works. His interest in the antiquities of Roman law is apparent, and for this reason his work is most valuable to the historian of early institutions. In the disputes between the two schools of Roman jurists he generally attached himself to that of the Sabinians, who were said to be followers of Ateius Capito, of whose life we have some account in the Annals of Tacitus, and to advocate a strict adherence as far as possible to ancient rules, and to resist innovation. Many quotations from the works of Gaius occur in the Digest of Justinian, and so acquired a permanent place in the system of Roman law; while a comparison of the Institutes of Justinian with those of Gaius shows that the whole method and arrangement of the later work were copied from that of the earlier, and very numerous passages are word for word the same. Probably, for the greater part of the period of three centuries which elapsed between Gaius and Justinian, the Institutes of the former had been the familiar text-book of all students of Roman law.

Unfortunately the work was lost to modern scholars, until, in 1816, a manuscript was discovered by Niebuhr at Verona, in which certain of the works of St Jerome were written over some earlier writings, which proved to be the lost work of Gaius. The greater part of the palimpsest has, however, been deciphered by various German scholars, and the text is now fairly complete.

This discovery has thrown a flood of light on portions of the history of Roman law which had previously been most obscure. Much of the historical information given by Gaius is wanting in the compilations of Justinian, and, in particular, the account of the ancient forms of procedure in GAISSIN, GAICYN, or HAISCIN, a town of Russia, at the actions. In these forms can be traced "survivals" from the head of a district in Podolia, 178 miles E. of Kamenetz most primitive times, which provide the science of comparaPodolski or Podolian Kamenetz, in 48° 39′ N. lat. and tive law with valuable illustrations, which may explain the 29° 23′ E. long., near the river Sop, a tributary of the Bug. strange forms of legal procedure found in other early systems. With few exceptions, the houses are built of wood, and the Another circumstance which renders the work of Gaius inhabitants are mainly supported by agriculture. Among more interesting to the historical student than that of the public buildings are an orthodox church, a synagogue Justinian, is that Gaius lived at a time when actions were and four Jewish chapels, and a town hospital. In 1860 the tried by the system of formulæ, or formal directions given population was 10,106, of whom 1863 were Jews. In the by the prætor before whom the case first came, to the judex St Petersburg Calendar for 1878 the total is given as 9417. to whom he referred it. Without a knowledge of the terms Gaissin dates from about 1600: in one of the Acts of 1615 of these formulæ it is impossible to solve the most interestit is stated that Heyszyn or Gaissin was founded with royal ing question in the history of Roman law, and show how privilege by the ban Swierski about 15 years before. In In the rigid rules peculiar to the ancient law of Rome were 1659 King John Casimir of Poland bestowed it on Maximus modified by what has been called the equitable jurisdiction Buliga the Zaporogian chief. It obtained Magdeburg rights of the prætors, and made applicable to new conditions, and in 1744 or 1745; and in 1796, after the incorporation of brought into harmony with the notions and the needs of a Podolia with Russia, it was made a district town. more developed society. It is clear from evidence of Gaius that this result was obtained, not by an independent set of courts administering, as in England until recently, a system different from that of the ordinary courts, but by the manipulation of the formulæ. In the time of Justinian the work was complete, and the formulary system had disappeared.

GAIUS, a celebrated Roinnn jurist. Of his personal history very little is known. It is impossible to discover even his full name, Gaius or Caius being merely a personal name (prænomen) very common in Rome. From internal evidence in his works it may be gathered that he flourished in the reigns of the emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Commodus. His works were thus composed between the years 130 and 180, at the time when the Roman empire was most prosperous, and its government the best. Most probably Gaius lived in some provincial town, and hence we find no contemporary notices of his life or works. After his death, however, his writings were recognized as of great authority, and the emperor

The Institutes of Gaius are divided into four books-the first treating of persons and the differences of the status they may occupy in the eye of the law; the second of things, and the modes in which rights over them may be acquired, including the law relating to wills; the third of intestate succession and of obligations; the fourth of actions and their forms.

There are several carefully prepared editions of the Institutes; the first was that of Göschen, published in 1820. During the next fifty years more than twenty new editions appeared. A list of these, and of the various treatises on Gaius, is given in the preface to Böcking's edition. The most complete English edition is that of Mr Poste, which includes beside the text an English translation and copious commentary. A comparison of the early forms of actions mentioned by Gaius with those used by other primitive societies will be found in Sir H. Maine's Early Institutions, cap. 9. For further information see M. Glasson, Étude sur Gaius et sur le jus respondendi.

GALABAT, GALLABAT, or METEMME, a town in the frontier district of Egypt and Abyssinia, near one of the western sub-tributaries of the Atbara, about 100 miles W. of Gondar, in 13° N. lat. and 36° E. long. Most of the houses are built in the Abyssinian style, with conical roofs of grass, and the place would be of little importance if it were not the staple market for the exportation of Abyssinian produce across the Egyptian frontier. Beeswax, coffee, cotton, and hides are the principal articles of legitimate trade; but as recently at least as 1873 the traffic in slaves was quite as important a department of its commerce. The town and district form a small ethnographical island, being peopled by a colony of Tokrooris from Darfur, who, finding the spot a convenient resting-place for their fellow-pilgrims on their way to Mecca and back, obtained permission from the king of Abyssinia to make a permanent settlement. They are an industrious race, and grow a considerable quantity of cotton. When Sir Samuel Baker was at Galabat in 1862, the sheikh refused to recognize the authority of the viceroy of Egypt; but when De Cosson passed through in 1873, the Egyptians had a camp, with a strong stone wall, on the top of a hill commanding the town, and acted as masters of the place. The population of the town and district, which have an area of about 40 square miles, is estimated at 20,000. Galabat is the proper name, and Metemme is really the native word for a capital.

GALANGAL, formerly written "galingale," and sometimes "garingal," rhizoma galangæ (Arabian, Kholinjan ;1 German, Galgantwurzel; French, Racine de Galanga), is an aromatic stimulant drug. Lesser galangal root, radix galanga minoris, the ordinary galangal of commerce, is the dried rhizome of Alpinia officinarum, Hance, a plant of the natural order Zingiberaceae, growing in the Chinese island of Hainan, where it is cultivated, and probably also in the woods of the southern provinces of China. The plant is regarded by Dr Hance as closely allied to, but as perfectly distinct from, the Alpinia calcarata of Roscoe, the rhizome of which is sold in the bazaars of some parts of India as a sort of galangal. Its stems attain a length of about 4 feet, and its leaves are slender, lanceolate, and light green, and have a hot taste; the flowers are ebracteate, white with red veins, and in simple racemes; the roots form dense masses, sometimes more than a foot in diameter; and the rhizomes grow horizontally, and are inch or less in thickness. The drug occurs in short, cylindrical, or somewhat tuberous, often forked pieces, which have a fibrous structure, and externally are reddish-brown and marked with fine longitudinal striations, and with transverse rings showing the points of attachment of scales or leaves, and internally are of a light-brown, becoming darker at the centre. It has a warm, aromatic taste, resembling that of mingled ginger and pepper. On analysis it yields, among other constituents, much starch, an essential oil of the composition C10H16,H2O (Vogel), and a crystalline body, kämpferid (Brandes). Greater or Java galangal, radix galanga majoris (French, Galanga de l'Inde), the rhizome

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of Alpinia Galanga, Willd., is a drug rarely now imported into Europe. It is mentioned by Marco Polo (ed. Yule, ii. p. 217) and Garcias da Horta as a product of Java, and the latter distinguishes it from the Chinese or lesser galangal, from which it is known by its larger size, orange-brown exterior, and feebler and less aromatic odour. The seedcapsules of Alpinia Galanga are believed to be what are termed "galanga cardamoms," which have the properties of cardamoms and ginger combined, and in China are used for various medicinal purposes. (See Hanbury, Science Papers, pp. 107-9, and 252, 253, 1876; and F. P. Smith, op. cit.) Galangal seems to have been unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and to have been first introduced into Europe by Arabian physicians. It is mentioned in the writings of Ibn Khurdádbah, an Arabian geographer who flourished in the latter half of the 9th century, and gallengar" (galingale or galangal) is one of the ingredients in an Anglo-Saxon receipt for a wen salve" (see O. Cockayne, Saxon Leechdoms, vol. iii. p. 13). In the Middle Ages, as at present in Livonia, Esthonia, and central Russia, galangal was in esteem in Europe both as a medicine and a spice, and in China it is still employed as a therapeutic agent. therapeutic agent. Its chief consumption is in Russia, where it is used as a cattle-medicine, and as a flavouring for liqueurs. By the Tartars it is taken with tea (see Hanbury, op. cit., p. 374). The exports of galangal from Shanghai, in China, amounted in 1869 to 370,000 lb, value £3046, 16s. 9d. Chinese or lesser galangal was in past times commonly known as "Cyperus Babylonicus," from its resemblance to the tubers of plants of the genus Cyperus, which apparently served as a substitute for it2 (cf. Fuchs, Op. Didactica, pars ii. p. 28, 1604, fol.; and Avicenna, ed. Plempii, lib. ii. p. 297, 1658, fol.). Gerarde (The Herball, p. 28, 1597) terms the species Cyperus longus English galingale."

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See Pharm. Journ., ser. i., vol. xiv. p. 241, and ser. iii., vol. ii. p. 248; Pereira, Materia Medica, ii., pt. i., p. 257, 4th ed., 1857; 0. Berg, Anatomischer Atlas zur Pharmazeutischen Waarenkunde, p. 37, taf. xix., Berlin, 1865; H. Yule, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, vol. ii. pp. 181, 182, &c., 1871; H. F. Hance, On the Source of the Radix Galanga minoris of Pharmacologists," Journ. Linn. Soc., Botany, vol. xiii., 1873, p. 1; Flückiger Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 1874, and the above quoted Science Papers of the latter author, pp. 370-375; Bentley and Trimen, Medicinal Plants, pt. xxxi., tab. 271; and Histoire des Drogues, vol. ii., 7th ed., 1876.

and

GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, an archipelago of five larger and ten smaller islands, situated in the Pacific Ocean exactly under the equator, about 500 or 600 miles W. of Ecuador. They were discovered about the beginning of the 16th century by the Spaniards, who gave them their present name from the numerous galápago or giant tortoises they found there. The larger members of the group, several of them attaining an elevation of 3000 to 4000 feet, are Albemarle (75 miles long and 15 broad), Narborough, Indefatigable, Chatham, and James Islands. The total area is estimated at 2250 square miles.

The extraordinary number of craters, a few of them still active, "in size from mere spiracles to huge caldrons several miles in circumference," to be found throughout the islands, gives evidence that the archipelago has been the result of volcanic action. It stands in very deep water, and Mr Darwin thinks that it has never been nearer to the mainland than it is now, nor have its members been at any time closer together. None of the islands are inhabited, with the exception of Charles, Chatham, and Albemarle, which, since 1829, have been used by the Government of Ecuador

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Hydropicus laudat cyperum, vulnus, stomachusque, Humor siccandus, calculus, atque lien."

as a penal settlement for political offenders, who find an easy subsistence on the bananas, Indian corn, and sweet potatoes which readily grow in the black fertile mud of the higher parts, and on the large herds, now become wild, of cattle, swine, and goats. The principal settlement, founded by General Vilamil in 1832, is situated in Charles Island, and bears the name of La Floreana, in honour of Floris, the president of Ecuador. At one time it contained 200 or 300 inhabitants; but when the United States steamer "Hassler" visited the Galapagos in 1871, there were little more than a dozen. In 1872 about 2000 cattle had perished in the island. The archipelago was formerly a frequent resort of vessels in quest of turtle; and it is still visited by parties from Guayaquil in quest of a species of moss, which is sent to the English market under the name of orchilla.

Though the islands are under the equator, the climate is not intensely hot, as it is tempered by cold currents from the Antarctic Sea, which, having followed the barren coast of Peru as far as Cape Blanco, bear off to the N. W. towards and through the Galapagos. Very little rain falls, except during the short season from November to January. The clouds indeed hang low, and the nights are misty, but this benefits those districts only which attain a height of over 800 or 1000 feet and enter the moist upper air; so that there alone, and chiefly on the side from which the winds oftenest blow, is there anything like a luxuriant vegetation. The low grounds are entirely parched and rocky, presenting merely a few thickets of Peruvian cactus and stunted shrubs, and a shore as uninviting as it well can be.

The greatest interest attaches to the study of all the oceanic islands, for the elucidation of the origin and development of their fauna and flora has an important bearing on the question of the genesis of species. The Galapagos archipelago possesses in this respect a rare advantage from its isolated situation, and from the fact that its history has never been interfered with by any aborigines of the human race, and that it is only very lately that the operations of man or of animals introduced by his means have disturbed, and that to a very limited extent only, the indigenous life. Many of the more remarkable animal and vegetable forms are confined to one islet of the group, and are represented on the others by allied but different species. Of the indigenous gigantic tortoises there are five species at present known, each of which is an inhabitant of a different island, and it is believed that many others have become extinct. There are two species, one terrestrial, the other marine, of a peculiar genus of lizard. Nearly all the land birds are peculiar to the archipelago, and of these more than half belong to peculiar genera. The flora of the Galapagos is most remarkable; it differs by upwards of one half of its species from that of the rest of the globe. Both the fauna and flora indicate affinity with the South American continent; and the peculiarities of their distribution can be explained only by the supposition that species were transported to the islands by some accident at very rare and remote intervals, and have become changed through natural selection under the new conditions to which they have been exposed. That there should be so few species common to the different islands is accounted for by their separation from each other by deep channels scoured by rapid currents, the direction of which, and of the winds, rarely violent in this region, does not favour inter-migration. Many of the islands are yet but imperfectly known.

For more detailed information the following works may be consulted:-Darwin, Voyage of the Beagle; O. Salvin, "On the avifauna of the Galapagos Archip.," Trans. Zool. Soc., part ix., 1876, p. 447; Sir J. D. Hooker, "On the Vegetation of the Gal. Arch., Trans. Lin. Soc., vol. xx. p. 235; Dr A. Günther, " Description of the living and extinct races of Gigantic Tortoises of the Galapagos Islands," Phil. Trans., vol. clxv. p. 251; A. R. Wallace, Geographical Distribution of Animals; Villavicencio, Geografia de la Rep. del Ecuador, 1858.

GALASHIELS, a parliamentary burgh and manufacturing town of Scotland, built on both sides of the river Gala, about a mile above its confluence with the Tweed, and 33 miles south of Edinburgh. It is situated partly in Roxburghshire and partly in Selkirkshire, but for all judicial purposes it is held, by special Act of Parliament passed in 1867, as entirely within the county of Selkirk. The "forest-steading of Galashiels" is first mentioned in history shortly after the beginning of the 15th century, when it was the occasional residence of the Douglases, who at that time held the office of keeper of Ettrick forest. In 1599 it was erected into a burgh of barony, when it contained 400 inhabitants. For the next 200 years Galashiels remained a mere village, as the population in 1778 had only grown to 600. At that time, however, we find its inhab itants engaged-though in a limited way-in those manufactures by which it has since so greatly prospered. There were 30 looms and 3 waulk (or fulling) mills; and the cloth manufactured was a coarse woollen texture which sold at from 1s. 6d. to 2s. a yard. In 1790 the quantity of wool used annually was 2916 stones, and the value of goods manufactured was about £1000. In the same year the first factory was erected, and advantage taken of the Gala water as a motive power; and from this time forward the woollen trade in Galashiels underwent steady progress, until, in 1879, the town contains about 20 factories with 100 sets of carding engines, using annually 220,000 stones of wool, and producing goods to the value of £750,000.

The wool chiefly used is imported from Australia and the Cape of Good Hope. The manufacture was at one time of a more diversified character than now, and embraced tweeds, shawls, tartans, &c., but it is now almost exclusively devoted to the production of tweeds. The Galashiels manufacturers have long been united in a corporation called by their name, which was instituted in 1777, and of which the minutes during the whole intervening period are still preserved. In addition to its woollen trade Galashiels has also a large skinnery, capable of manufacturing into leather 35,000 skins per week. In recent years the external aspect of the town has been very much improved by the erection of several handsome public buildings, and the introduction of a better style of architecture for shops and dwelling-houses. It was made a parliamentary burgh in 1868, and unites with Hawick and Selkirk in returning a member to parliament. Municipally, it is governed by a provost, four bailies, and ten councillors. In 1876 an Act was passed for the extension of the burgh and the introduction (since effected) of a water supply. As significant of the rapid growth of Galashiels it may be mentioned that, while in 1851 the population was only 5921, in 1871 it was 9678, and that of the extended burgh is now estimated to be nearly 15,000; while the annual assessable rental, which in 1864 was £21,000, is now £49,000.

GALATIA, afterwards called also GALLO-GRECIA, in ancient geography, an inland division of Asia Minor, bounded on the N. by Bithynia and Paphlagonia, E. by Pontus, S. by Cappadocia and Lycaonia, W. by Phrygia. These boundaries, however, varied at different periods in the history of Galatia. The river Halys flowed in a northerly direction through the centre of the province, the eastern half of which was watered by tributaries of that stream, while the Sangarius and its affluents traversed the western half.

Galatia originally formed a part of the extensive province. of Phrygia; after its separation it was occupied by three Strabo-the Trocmi, who dwelt in the east, the Tectosages Gallic tribes, who still continued distinct in the time of in the centre, and the Tolistobogii in the west. these tribes was subdivided into four parts, and these were ruled over each by a tetrarch of its own. The power of the tetrarchs was limited by a senate of 300, before which

Each of

also all capital cases were tried. Minor offences came under the cognizance of the tetrarchs and special judges appointed by them. The three tribes all spoke the same tongue; and though in course of time they became Hellenized, their original language was still in use among them as late as the time of Jerome.

The physical characters of Galatia are in great measure similar to those of the adjoining provinces of Phrygia and Lycaonia, the whole region being an elevated plateau or table-land, no part of which is less than 2000 feet above the sea, while the greater part exceeds 3000 feet in elevation. The southern portion, towards Lycaonia, is the most level, and is an almost perfect plain, passing gradually into the expanse of salt desert which occupies the frontier lands of the two provinces. The rest of the country consists for the most part of vast undulating downs, affording excellent pasture for sheep and goats, and capable of producing good crops of corn, though at present in great part uncultivated, and almost wholly devoid of wood. Towards the frontiers of Bithynia it becomes more broken, and is intersected by numerous valleys, as well as by several detached ranges of bills, none of them, however, attaining to any considerable height or importance. The lofty range of the Ala-dagh (6000-7000 feet), though frequently termed the Galatian Olympus, is not properly included within the limits of the province, but forms in part the natural boundary which separates it from Bithynia. From its elevated position, the climate of Galatia is naturally one of considerable extremes of heat and cold; and while the summers are burning hot, the winters at Angora are more severe than at Paris, and the snow often lies on the ground for a month together.

The only towns of importance in Galatia were Tavium, the capital of the Trocmi, a small town which speedily fell into decay; Ancyra, the capital of the Tectosages, which under the Romans became the capital of the country, and has ever since retained its importance as one of the principal cities of Asia Minor (see ANGORA); and Pessinus, the chief town of the Tolistobogii, where a splendid temple was consecrated to Agdistis, the mother of the gods, the divinity who was worshipped at Rome under the title of Rhea or Cybele. Galatia took its name from a body of Gauls who invaded Asia Minor about the year 277 B.C. They had formed part of the army which invaded Greece under Brennus, but having quarrelled with that commander, had left his standard, and marching into Thrace under generals of their own choice, advanced to Byzantium, whence they were invited by Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, to cross into Asia, and help him in his struggle against his brother Zipates. After performing the required services, they turned their arms against their employer, and ravaged the western half of Asia Minor. Their success allured other hordes of their countrymen, who readily took service with the Asiatic kings in their wars against each other. No Oriental prince was found able to check them, until Attalus, king of Pergamus, defeated them in a great battle, 239 B.C., and compelled them to settle in that part of the country which after them was called Galatia. They still remained independent, however, and proved a formidable foe to the Romans in their wars with Antiochus. It was found necessary to direct a special army against them, under Cn. Manlius, and the result of the campaign (189 B.C.) was their complete subjugation to the power of Rome. Galatia was not at this time reduced to a Roman province, but the Gauls were still allowed to retain their own government under their tetrarchs. This system, however, gradually gave way, and the whole country passed under the authority of one ruler. The first of these sole tetrarchs was Deiotarus, a contemporary of Cicero and Cæsar, who, in return for the assistance which he gave the Romans in their wars against Mithridates, was rewarded with a part of Pontus and Armenia Minor, and was styled king by the senate. It was afterwards united with Lycaonia, Isauria, and several adjoining districts, under aking named Amyntas, at whose death, in 25 B. C., Galatia became a Roman province. Theodosius the Great subdivided it for purposes of government into Galatia Prima, of which Ancyra was the capital, and Galatia Secunda, with Pessinus for its chief town.

The antiquities of Galatia have in recent times been made the subject of special investigation by a French commission composed of MM. Perrot, Guillaume, and Delbet, and the result of their labours published in 2 vols. fol., Paris, 1872; but with the exception of those of Angora, they are not of much general interest.

GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO THE. Origin. Although "Galatia," as a united kingdom under Amyntas, included Pisidia, as well as portions of Lycaonia and Pamphylia, and when constituted a Roman province was further enlarged so that it extended from Taurus to the Euxine (Ptol., v. 1), it may with safety be taken for granted that the name is never used in the New Testament except in its older colloquial sense as equivalent to "Gallogræcia" or "Eastern Gaul" (Taλía y a, Appian, De Bell. Civ., ii. 49), the country of those Galli (TATES, Taλárai, Kéλra) whose migrations and final territorial limits have already been indicated in the preceding article.1 On this assumption, the history of the formation of the Christian "churches of Galatia" is very obscure. It is obvious enough, from the epistle itself, that they had been planted by Paul; but when, or under what circumstances, we are nowhere explicitly informed. In the Acts of the Apostles we read that, accompanied by Silas, he set out on what is generally known as his second missionary journey soon after the council of Jerusalem, which may be dated approximately as having occurred about the year 52 A.D.2 After having traversed "Syria" and "Cilicia," strengthening the churches, they "passed through Phrygia and the region of Galatia (Tv Taλarıкnv xúpav), being forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia; and after they were come to Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia, but the Spirit of Jesus suffered them not."3 The language here employed, even if, as Wieseler argues, it implies that preaching was engaged in, can hardly be said to suggest of itself that churches had been formed on the route, but rather appears to hint at a forced and rapid marcl. Acts xviii. 23, however, indicates that "disciples" at least had been made, and it is well known that in the narrative of the Acts many important passages in the eventful public life of the apostle have been passed with even less explicit allusion. Combining then the meagre facts which that narrative in this instance affords with inferences derived from incidental expressions made use of in the epistle itself, we conjecture the apostle to have been detained by ill-health (see Gal. iv. 13, "because of bodily weakness"), probably in the western district of Galatia (that of the Tolistobogii), though not at the capital Pessinus itself, but nearer the borders of Asia and Mysia; and there, in the poσevxaí or synagogues, to have addressed his message to Jews, proselytes, and as many of the native

1 See Strabo, xii. p. 566 (where the words are Thy vûv Taλaríav καὶ Γαλλογραικίαν λεγομένην); and compare Pliny (Η. Ν., v. 25), who continues to distinguish Lycaonia from Galatia. The later historian Memnon also incidentally mentions that the Galatæ had taken possession of τὴν νῦν Γαλατίαν καλουμένην. Renan (Saint Paul, p. 48) and, latterly, Hausrath (NTliche Zeitgeschichte, ii. 258), however, uphold the theory that Paul when he uses the word Galatia intends the Roman province, and that by the Galatians we are to understand chiefly the Christians of Antioch, Iconiun, Derbe, and Lystra. Their arguments are drawn from the ordinary usus loquendi of Paul (by Asia, Macedonia, Achaia he invariably means the provinces bearing these names); from the analogy of 1 Pet. i. 1, where all the districts mentioned happen to be "provinces"; from such considerations as the inaccessibility of Galatia proper; from inferences based on Acts xviii. 23, Gal. ii. 5, and other texts; and from the admittedly perplexing fact that unless the churches of Derbe, Lystra, &c., be regarded as Galatian, we are left in ignorance of the names, localities, and histories of the churches addressed. But, as has been seen, the ancient usus loquendi appears on the whole to have disregarded the Roman division of provinces in this case at least; moreover, Iconium was never a part of the Roman Galatia; and in any case there would have been an inappropriateness in addressing Lycaonians and Pisidians by a title so rich in ethnological and historical suggestion as that of Galatians is.

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2 The full consideration of the chronology of this period of sacred history must be postponed to the article PAUL.

3 So Acts xvi. 6, 7, according to the oldest texts. See Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles.

4 For the fact of the prevalence of Jews in Galatia reference may be made to the Monumentum Ancyranum (Joseph.. Ant., avi. 6. 2; cf. xii. 3, 4); compare 1 Pet. i. 1.

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