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are not less remarkable for the sagacity which directed, than for the inspiration which prompted them. With the sure instinct of genius, he seized the characteristic features of the phenomena presented to his attention, and his inferences, except when distorted by polemical exigencies, have been strikingly confirmed by modern investigations. Of his two capital errors, regarding respectively the theory of the tides and the nature of comets, the first was insidiously recommended to him by his passionate desire to find a physical confirmation of the earth's double motion; the second was adopted for the purpose of rebutting an antiCopernican argument founded on the planetary analogies of those erratic subjects of the sun. Within two years of their first discovery, he had constructed approximately accurate tables of the revolutions of Jupiter's satellites, and he proposed their frequent eclipses as a means of determining longitudes, not only on land, but at sea. This method, on which he laid great stress, and for the facilitation of which he invented a binocular glass, and devised some skilful mechanical contrivances, was offered by him in 1616 to the Spanish Government, and afterwards to that of Tuscany, but in each case unsuccessfully; and the close of his life was occupied with prolonged but fruitless negotiations on the same subject with the states-general of Holland. The idea, though ingenious, has been found of little practical utility at sea, where the method founded on the observed distance of the moon from a known star is that usually employed.

A series of careful observations made him acquainted with the principal appearances revealed by modern instruments in the solar spots. He pointed out that they were limited to a certain defined zone on the sun's surface; he noted the facula with which they are associated, the penumbra by which they are bordered, their slight proper motions, and their rapid changes of form. He inferred from the regularity of their general movements the rotation of the sun on its axis in a period of little less than a month (the actual period is 25d. 7h. 48m.); and he grounded on the varying nature of the paths apparently traversed by them a plausible, though inconclusive, argument in favour of the earth's annual revolution. Twice in the year, he observed, they seem to travel across the solar disk in straight lines; at other times, in curves. These appearances he referred with great acuteness to the slight inclination of the sun's axis of rotation to the plane of the ecliptic. Thus, when the earth finds herself in the plane of the sun's equator, which occurs at two opposite points of her orbit, the spots, travelling in circles parallel with that plane, necessarily appear to describe right lines; but when the earth is above or below the equatorial level, the paths of the spots open out into curves turned downwards or up wards, according to the direction in which they are seen. The explanation, however, of this phenomenon is equally consistent with the geocentric as with the heliocentric theory of the solar system. The idea of a universal force of gravitation seems to have hovered around the borders of this great man's mind, without ever fully entering it. He perceived the analogy between the power which holds the moon in the neighbourhood of the earth, and compels Jupiter's satellites to circulate round their primary, and the attraction exercised by the earth on bodies at its surface;1 but he failed to conceive the combination of central force with initial velocity, and was disposed to connect the revolu1 The passage is sufficiently remarkable to deserve quotation in the original:"Le parti della Terra hanno tal propensione al centro di essa, che quando ella cangiasse luogo, le dette parti, benchè lontane dal globo nel tempo delle mutazioni di esso, lo seguirebbero per tutto; esempio di ciò sia il seguito perpetuo delle Medicee, ancorché separate continuamente da Giove. L'istesso si deve dire della Luna, obbligata

a seguir la Terra."-Diologo dei Massimi Sistemi, Giornata terza, p. 851 of Alberi's edition.

tions of the planets with the axial rotation of the sun. This notion, it is plain, tended rather towards Descartes's theory of vortices than towards Newton's theory of gravitation. More valid instances of the anticipation of modern discoveries may be found in his prevision that a small annual parallax would eventually be found for some of the fixed stars, and that extra-Saturnian planets would at some future time be ascertained to exist, and in his conviction that light travels with a measurable although, in relation to terrestrial distances, infinite velocity.

The invention of the miscroscope, attributed to Galileo by his first biographer, Vincenzo Viviani, does not in truth belong to him. Such an instrument was made as early as 1590 by Zacharias Jansen of Middleburg; and although Galileo discovered, in 1610, a means of adapting his telescope to the examination of minute objects, he did not become acquainted with the compound microscope until 1624, when he saw one of Drebbel's instruments in Rome, and, with characteristic ingenuity, immediately introduced some material improvements into its construction. The most substantial, if not the most brilliant part of his work consisted undoubtedly in his contributions towards the establishment of mechanics as a science. Some valuable but isolated facts and theorems were previously discovered and proved, but it was he who first clearly grasped the idea of force as a mechanical agent, and extended to the external world the conception of the invariability of the relation between cause and effect. From the time of Archimedes there had existed a science of equilibrium, but the science of motion began to exist with Galileo. It is not too much to say that the final triumph of the Copernican system was due in larger measure to his labours in this department than to his direct arguments in its favour. The problem of the heavens is essentially a mechanical one; and without the mechanical conceptions of the dependence of motion upon force which Galileo familiarized to men's minds, that problem might have remained a sealed book even to the intelligence of Newton. The interdependence of motion and force was not indeed formulated into definite laws by Galileo, but his writings on dynamics are everywhere suggestive of those laws, and his solutions of dynamical problems involve their recognition. The extraordinary advances made by him in this branch of knowledge were owing to his happy method of applying mathematical analysis to physical problems. As a pure mathematician he was, it is true, surpassed in profundity by more than one among his pupils and contemporaries; and in the wider imaginative grasp of abstract geometrical principles he cannot be compared with Fermat, Descartes, or Pascal, to say nothing of Newton or Leibnitz. Still, even in the region of pure mathematics, his powerful and original mind left notable traces of its working. He studied the properties of the cycloid, and attempted the problem of its quadrature earlier than Mersenne; and in the "infinitesimals," which he was one of the first to introduce into geometrical demonstrations, was contained the fruitful germ of the differential calculus. But the method which was peculiarly his, and which still forms the open road to discoveries in natural science, consisted in the combination of experiment with calculation-in the transformation of the concrete into the abstract, and the assiduous comparison of results. The first fruits of the new system of investigation was his determination of the laws of falling bodies. Conceiving that the simplest principle is the most likely to be true, he assumed as a postulate that bodies falling freely towards the earth descend with a uniformly accelerated motion, and deduced thence the principal mathematical consequences, as that the velocities acquired are in the direct, and the spaces traversed in the duplicate ratio of the times, counted from the beginning of motion; finally, he proved,

that the floating of solid bodies in a liquid depends not upon their form, but upon their specific gravities, relative to such liquid.

by observing the times of descent of bodies falling down long inclined planes, that the postulated law was the true law. Even here, he was obliged to take for granted that the velocities acquired in descending from the same height In order to form an adequate estimate of the stride made along planes of every inclination are equal; and it was not by Galileo in natural philosophy, it would be necessary to until shortly before his death that he found the mathe- enumerate the confused and erroneous opinions prevailing matical demonstration of this not very obvious principle. on all such subjects in his time. His best eulogiùm, it has The first law of motion-that which expresses the prin- been truly said, consists in the fallacies which he exposed. ciple of inertia-is virtually contained in the idea of uni- The scholastic distinctions between corruptible and incorformly accelerated velocity. The recognition of the ruptible substances, between absolute gravity and absolute second-that of the independence of different motions- levity, between natural and violent motions, if they did not must be added to form the true theory of projectiles. This wholly disappear from scientific phraseology, ceased thencewas done by Galileo. Up to his time it was universally forward to hold the place of honour in the controversies of held in the schools that the motion of a body must cease the learned. Discarding these obscure and misleading with the impulse communicated to it, but for the "reaction notions, Galileo taught that gravity and levity are relative of the medium" which helps it forward. Galileo showed, terms, and that all bodies are heavy, even those which, like on the contrary, that the nature of motion once impressed the air, are invisible; that motion is the result of force, is to continue indefinitely in a uniform direction, and that instantaneous or continuous; that weight is a continuous the effect of the medium is a retarding, not an impelling one. force, attracting towards the centre of the earth; that, in Another commonly received axiom was that no body could a vacuum, all bodies would fall with equal velocities; that be affected by more than one movement at one time, and it the "inertia of matter" implies the continuance of motion, was thus supposed that a cannon ball, or other projectile, as well as the permanence of rest; and that the substance moves forward in a right line until its first impulse is ex- of the heavenly bodies is equally "corruptible" with that hausted, when it falls vertically to the ground. In the of the earth. These simple elementary ideas were eminfourth of Galileo's dialogues on mechanics, he demonstrated ently capable of development and investigation, and were that the path described by a projectile, being the result of not only true, but the prelude to further truth; while those the combination of a uniform transverse motion with a they superseded defied inquiry by their vagueness, and uniformly accelerated vertical motion, must, apart from the baffled it with their obscurity. Galileo was a man born in resistance of the air, be a parabola. The establishment of due time. He was superior to his contemporaries, but not the principle of the composition of motions formed a con- isolated amongst them. He represented and intensified a clusive answer to the most formidable of the arguments growing tendency of the age in which he lived. It was used against the rotation of the earth, and we find it beginning to be suspected that from Aristotle an appeal lay accordingly triumphantly brought forward by Galileo in the to nature, and some were found who no longer treated the second of his dialogues on the systems of the world. It ipse dixit of the Stagirite as the final authority in matters was urged by anti-Copernicans that a body flung upwards of science. A vigorous but ineffectual warfare had already or cast downwards would, if the earth were in motion, be been waged against the blind traditions of the schools by left behind by the rapid translation of the point from which Ramus and Telesius, by Patricius and Campanella, and the it started; Galileo, however, proved that the reception of a revolution which Galileo completed had been prepared by fresh impulse in no way interfered with the movement his predecessors. Nevertheless, the task which he so already impressed, and that the rotation of the earth was effectually accomplished demanded the highest and rarest insensible, because shared equally by all bodies at its sur-quality of genius. He struck out for himself the happy face. His theory of the inclined plane, combined with his middle path between the a priori and the empirical systems, satisfactory definition of "momentum," led him towards the and exemplified with brilliant success the method by which third law of motion. We find Newton's theorem, that experimental science has wrested from nature so many of "action and reaction are equal and opposite," stated with her secrets. His mind was an eminently practical one. He approximate precision in his treatise Della Scienza cor.cerned himself above all with what fell within the range Meccanica, which contains the substance of lectures de- of exact inquiry, and left to others the larger but less livered during his professorship at Padua; and the same fruitful speculations which can never be brought to the principle is involved in the axiom enunciated in the third direct test of experiment. Thus, while far-reaching but of his mechanical dialogues, that "the propensity to fail of hasty generalizations have had their day and been forgotten, a body is equal to the least resistance which suffices to his work has proved permanent, because he made sure of support it." The problems of percussion, however, did not its foundations. His keen intuition of truth, his vigour and receive a definitive solution until after his death. yet sobriety of argument, his fertility of illustration and acuteness of sarcasm, made him irresistible to his antagonists; and the evanescent triumphs of successful controversy have been succeeded by the lasting applause of posterity.

His services were no less conspicuous in the statical than in the kinetical division of mechanics. He gave the first direct and entirely satisfactory demonstration of equilibrium on an inclined plane, reducing it to the lever by a sound and ingenious train of reasoning; while, by establishing the theory of "virtual velocities," he laid down the fundamental principle which, in the opinion of Lagrange, contains the general expression of the laws of equilibrium. He studied with attention the still obscure subject of molecular cohesion, and little has been added to what he ascertained on

the question of transverse strains and the strength of beams, brought by him for the first time within the scope of mechanical theory. In his Discorso intorno alle cose che stanno su l'acqua, published in 1612, he used the principle of virtual velocities to demonstrate the more important theorems of hydrostatics, deducing from it the equilibrium of fluid in a siphon, and proved against the Aristotelians

The first complete edition of Galileo's writings was published at Florence (1842-1856), in 15 8vo vols., by the Società Editrice Fiorentina, under the able supervision of Signor Eugenio Albèri. Besides the works already enumerated, it contains the hitherto inedited Sermones de Motu Gravium, composed at Pisa between 1589 and 1591; his letters to his friends, with many of their replies, as well as several of the essays of his scientific opponents; his private comadmirer, and on the Gerusalemme Liberata, of which he was an ments on the Orlando Furioso, of which he was an enthusiastic equally persistent depreciator; some stanzas and sonnets of no great merit, together with the sketch of a comedy; finally, a reprint of Viviani's Life, with valuable notes and corrections. The original events of 1616 and 1633, recovered from Paris in 1846 by the efforts documents from the archives of the Inquisition, relating to the of Count Rossi, and now in the Vatican Library, were to a limited extent made public by Monsignor Marino-Marini in 1850, and

more unreservedly by M. Henri de l'Épinois, in an essay entitled "Galilée, son Procès, sa Condemnation," published in 1867 in the Revue des Questions Historiques. He was followed by M. Karl von Gebler, who, in an able and exhaustive but somewhat prejudiced work, Galileo Galilei und die Römische Curie (Stuttgart, 1876), sought to impeach the authenticity of a document of prime importance in the trial of 1633. He has, however, been victoriously answered by Signor Domenico Berti, in Il Processo originale di Galileo Galilei (Rome, 1876), and by M. de l'Épinois, with Les Pièces du Procès de Galilée (Rome, Paris, 1877). The touching letters of Galileo's eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, to her father were printed in 1864 by Professor Carlo Arduini, in a publication entitled La Primogenita di Galileo Galilei. See also M. Th. Henri Martin's excellent biography, Galilée, les Droits de la Science et la Méthode des Sciences Physiques, Paris, 1868; and the anonymous Private Life of Galileo, London, 1870. (A. M. C.) GALITCH, or HALICZ, a town of Russia, at the head of a district in the government of Kostroma, 80 miles N.E. of Kostroma, in 57° 15′ N. lat. and 42° 56' E. long., on the low south-eastern shore of Galitch Lake. Among its public buildings are a hospital, a poorhouse opened in 1855, about 15 churches, and a convent of the third class. The chief occupation of the inhabitants is the manufacture of leather and gloves; and the fisheries of the Inke yield about 30,000 rubles per annum, and give employment to about 400 fishermen, whose rights are secured by ancient charters. At the annual fair a considerable trade is done in woollen and cotton goods, earthenware, and miscellaneous articles. In 1860 the population was 6536; but in the St Petersburg Calendar for 1878 it is given at 5620.

GALL, FRANZ JOSEPH (1758-1828), anatomist, physiologist, and founder of phrenology, was born at Tiefenbrunn near Pforzheim, Baden, on the 9th of March 1758. After completing the usual literary course at Baden and Bruchsal, he began the study of medicine under Hermann at Strasburg, whence, attracted by the names of Van Swieten and Stoll, he removed to Vienna in 1781. Having received his diploma, he began to practise as a physician there in 1785; but his energies were mainly devoted to the scientific investigation of problems which, even from boyhood, had been occupying his attention. At a comparatively early period he had formed a generalization which he believed to be a sound one, that in the human subject at least a powerful memory is invariably associated with prominent eyes; and further observation had enabled him, as he thought, also to define the external characteristics indicative of special talents for painting, music, and the mechanical arts. Following out these researches, he gradually reached the strong personal conviction, not only that the talents and dispositions of men are dependent upon the functions of the brain, but also that they may be inferred with perfect exactitude and precision from the external appearances of the skull. Gall's first appearance as an author was made in 1791, when he published the first two chapters of a (never completed) work entitled Philosophisch-medicinische Untersuchungen über Natur u. Kunst im kranken u. gesunden Zustande des Menschen. The first public notice of his inquiries in cranioscopy, however, was in the form of a familiar letter addressed to a friend, which appeared in Wieland's Deutscher Mercur in 1798; but two years before this Gall had commenced giving private courses of phrenological lectures in Vienna, where his doctrines soon attracted general attention, and met with increasing success until, in 1802, they were interdicted by the Government on the ground that they were dangerous to religion. This step on the part of the authorities had the effect of greatly stimulating public curiosity and increasing Gall's celebrity. In March 1805 he finally left Vienna, in company with his friend and associate Spurzheim, and made a tour through Germany, in the course of which he lectured in Berlin, Dresden, Magdeburg, and several of the university towns. These expositions, which he knew how to make popular and attractive, were much resorted to by the public, and

excited considerable controversy in the scientific world. He had almost reached the zenith of his fame when, in 1807, he repaired to Paris and established himself there as a medical practitioner, at the same time continuing his activity as a lecturer and writer. In 1808 appeared his Introduction au cours de physiologie du cerveau, which was followed in 1809 by the Recherches sur le système nerveux en général, et sur celui du cerveau en particulier (originally laid before the Institute of France in March 1808), and in 1810 by the first instalment of the Anatomie et Physiologie du système nerveux en général, et du cerveau en particulier, avec des observations sur la possibilité de reconnaître plusieurs dispositions intellectuelles et morales de l'homme et des animaux par la configuration de leurs têtes. The Recherches, and the first two volumes of the Anatomie, bear the conjoint names of Gall and Spurzheim. The latter work was completed in 1819, and appeared in a second edition of six 8vo volumes shortly afterwards (1822-25). In 1811 he replied to a charge of Spinozism or atheism, which had been strongly urged against him in certain quarters, by a treatise entitled Des dispositions innées de l'âme et de l'esprit, which he afterwards incorporated with his greater work. In 1819 he became a naturalized French subject, but his efforts two years afterwards to obtain admission to the Academy of Sciences, although supported by Geoffroy St Hilaire, were unsuccessful. In 1823 he visited London with the intention of giving a series of phrenological lectures, but was disappointed of the reception he had anticipated, and speedily abandoned his plans. He continued to lecture and practise in Paris until the beginning of 1828, when he was disabled by an apoplectic seizure. His death took place at Montrouge near Paris, on the 22d of August 1828. The Anatomie has been translated into English by Lewis (Boston, U.S., 1835).

GALLAND, ANTOINE (1646-1715), Orientalist and archæologist, the first European translator of the Arabian Nights, was born in 1646 at Rollot, in the department of Somme. The completion of his school education at Noyon was followed by a brief apprenticeship to a trade, from which, however, he soon escaped, to pursue his linguistic studies at Paris. After having been employed for some time in making a catalogue of the Oriental manuscripts at the Sorbonne, he was, in 1670, attached to the French embassy at Constantinople; and in 1673 he also accompanied his chief (De Nointel) to Syria and the Levant, where he availed himself of the opportunity to copy a great number of inscriptions, and also to sketch, in some cases even to remove, historical monuments. After a brief visit to France, where his collection of antiquities attracted some attention, Galland returned to the Levant in 1676; and in 1679 he undertook a third voyage, being commissioned by the French East India Company to collect for the cabinet of Colbert; on the expiry of this commission he was instructed by the Government to continue his researches, and had the title of " antiquary to the king" conferred upon him. conferred upon him. During his prolonged residences abroad he acquired a thorough knowledge of the Arabic, Turkish, and Persian languages and literatures, which, on his final return to France, enabled him to render valuable assistance to Thevenot, the keeper of the royal library, and to D'Herbelot. After their deaths he lived for some time at Caen under the roof of Foucault the intendant, himself no mean archaeologist; and there he began the publication (1704-17) of Les Mille et Une Nuits, a translation which excited immense interest during the time of its appearance, and which is still the standard French translation (last edition 1872). In 1701 Galland had been admitted into the Academy of Inscriptions, and in 1709 he was appointed to the chair of Arabic in the Collège de France. He continued to discharge the duties of this post until his death, which took place February 17, 1715.


Besides a number of meritorious archæological works, especially in the department of numismatics, he also published a compilation from the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, entitled Paroles remarquables, bons mots et maximes des Orientaux (1694), and a translation from an Arabic manuscript, De l'origine et du progrès du Caffé (1699). The former of these works appeared in an English translation in 1795. His Contes et Fables Indiennes de Bidpai et de Lokman was published after his death (1724). Among his numerous unpublished manuscripts are said to be included a translation of the Koran and a Turkish dictionary.

GALLARATE, a flourishing town of Italy, the head of a circle in the province of Milan, situated on the railway 23 miles N.W. of Milan at the junction of the line running N. to Varese. It has a technical school, and carries on the manufacture of cotton and linen. In the Middle Ages it is mentioned as Galaratum and Glareatum, and especially in the 10th century it appears to have been a strongly fortified and important place. Population in 1871, 7576. GALLAS, or more correctly GALLA, a powerful race of eastern Africa, scattered over the wide region which extends for about 1000 miles from the interior of Abyssinia to the neighbourhood of the river Sabacki, in 3° 12′ of S. latitude. Almost nothing has been definitely ascertained about the early homes and migrations of the race; but it appears to have occupied the southern portion of its present territory for nearly four centuries at least. According to Ludolf and Bruce, the Galla invaders first crossed the Abyssiniau frontiers in the year 1537. The Gallas of Gojam (a district along the northern side of the river Abai) tell how their savage forefathers came from the south-east from a country on the other side of a bahr (lake or river), and the Yedju aud Raia Galla also point towards the east and commemorate the passage of a bahr.

the strange privilege of being the only merchant for his people, but in all public concerns must take the advice of the fathers of families assembled in council. The greater proportion of the tribes are still pagan, worshipping a supreme god Waka, and the subordinate god and goddess Oglia and Atilia, whose favour is secured by sacrifices of oxen and sheep. With a strange liberality of sentiment, they say that at a certain time of the year Waka leaves them and goes to attend to the wants of their enemies the Somali, whom also he has created. Some tribes, and notably the Wollo-Galla, have been converted to Mahometanism, and very bigoted adherents of the prophet they are. In the north a kind of superficial Christianization has taken place, to the extent at least that the people are familiar or St George, &c.; but to all practical intents paganism is still in with the names of Maremma or Mary, Balawold or Jesus, Girgis force. The serpent is a special object of worship, the northern Gallas believing that he is the author of the human race. A considerable number of the men find employment in the Abyssinian like. The total number of the Gallas was estimated by Krapf at armies, and in comparison with their neighbours are brave and warfrom six to eight millions, and Plowden mentions individual tribes that could bring into the field 20,000 or 30,000 horse. Among the more important tribes in the south (the name in each instance being compounded with Galla) are the Ramatta, the Kukatta, the Baôle, the Aurova, the Wadjole, the Ilani, the Arrar, and the Kanigo Galla; the Borani, a very powerful tribe, may be considered to mark the division between north and south; and in the north we find the Amoro, the Jarso, the Toolama, the Wollo, the Ambassil, the Aijjo, and the Azobo Galla. See Beke, "On the Origin of the Gallas," in Trans. of Brit. Assoc., 1847; Krapf., Travels in Eastern Africa, 1860; D'Abbadie, Douze Ans en Haute-Ethiopie, 1868; Brenner, Forschungen in Ost-Afrika," in Petermann's Mittheilungen, 1868; Plowden, Travels in Abyssinia and the Galla Country, 1868; and a paper by Louis Lande in Revue des Deux Mondes, 1878. ALBERT GALLATIN

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Copyright, 1879, by Henry Cabot Lodge.

Among the southern Gallas tradition appears to be mainly FAMILY pride led the Gallatins to boast a descent from

concerned with the expulsion of the race from the country now occupied by the Somali. It is usually maintained It is usually maintained that the Gallas are ethnographically of Semitic affinity, and find their nearest kinsmen in the Somali, the Dankali, and the Abyssinians; but M. Lejean is of opinion that they rather belong to the Aryan race, and this is so far supported by their physiological characteristics. One thing is certain, that they have nothing in common with the negro type; the "musculation" of the arms, thighs, and calves is altogether different, and they have none of the fetor developed by the negro skin; their frame is large and powerful, their complexion a very dark brown, their brow broad and lofty, their eyes deep-sunk and lively, and their features not unfrequently of a regular and finely-shaped description. Of the Semitic affinity of the language their is no question, and according to the usual classification it belongs to the same Semitico-Hamitic group as the Somali, the Saho, and the Dankali.1

The Gallas are for the most part still in the nomadic and pastoral stage; though, as we advance northwards into Abyssinia, we find them more and more assimilated to the settled and agricultural inhabitants of that kingdom. Among the southern tribes it is said that about 7 or 8 head of cattle are kept for every man, woman, and child; and among the northern tribes, as neither man nor woman ever thinks of going any distance on foot, the number of horses is very large. The ordinary food consists of flesh, blood, milk, butter, and honey, the last being considered of so much importance by the southern Gallas that a rude system of bee-keeping is in vogue, and the husband who fails to furnish his wife with a sufficient supply of honey may be excluded from all conjugal rights. This last fact is one of those which indicate the comparatively high position occupied by the Galla women, who, moreover, have the right, but rarely granted in a savage state of society, of refusing an unacceptable offer of marriage. In the south monogamy is the rule, but in the north the number of a man's wives is limited only by his wishes and his wealth. Each tribe has its own heiitch or sultan, who enjoys

The similarity to the Semitic was pointed out by Benfey in Götting. Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1846, in a review of Tutschek's lexicon and grammar (1844, 1845). Further details in regard to its vocabulary and structure will be found in Lottner's paper in the Transactions of the Philological Society, London, 1860-61, and in the Novara Reise, 1867. Krapf had published a grammar as early as 1840.

Atilius Callatinus, the Roman consul (A. U. C.

494 and 498). A gap of fifteen hundred years between the consul and the first appearance of the name in European history tends to invalidate this rather splendid bit of genealogy, but there can be no doubt that the Gallatins were both an old and noble family. They are first heard of in Savoy in the year 1258, and more than two centuries later they came to Geneva (1510), united with Calvin in his opposition to Rome, and associated their fortunes with those of the little Swiss city. Here they remained, and with one or two other great families governed Geneva, and sent forth many representatives to seek their fortune and win distinction in the service of foreign princes, both as soldiers and ministers. On the eve of the French Revolution the Gallatins were still in Geneva, occupying the same position which they had held for two hundred years. They unostentatious in their habits of life, but genuine aristocrats were republican nobles, simple in their manners, frugal and of high breeding and cultivated ninds. They numbered among their friends such widely different persons as Voltaire and the landgrave of Hesse, and, although not wealthy, had everything that could reasonably be desired both socially and politically.

Albert Gallatin, the most famous of the name, was born in Geneva on the 29th of January 1761. His father died in 1765, his mother five years later, and his only sister in 1777. Although left an orphan at nine years old, Albert Gallatin was by no means lonely or unprotected. His grand-parents, a large circle of near relations, and Mlle. Pictet, an intimate friend, cared for him during his boyhood. He was thoroughly educated at the schools of Geneva, and graduated with honour from the college or academy in 1779. His grandmother then wished him to enter the army of the landgrave of Hesse, but he declined to serve a tyrant," and a year later slipped away from Geneva and

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*This is reprinted here, with the consent of Mr Henry Cabot Lodge, of Massachusetts, from his work entitled Albert Gallatin, by Henry Cabot Lodge. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons. 1879. Copyright, 1879, by Henry Cabot Lodge.

embarked for the United States. No man ever had less reason to emigrate. A competent fortune, good prospects, social position, and a strong family connexion, were all thrown aside in order to tempt fate in the New World, His relations very properly opposed his course, but they nevertheless did all in their power to smooth his way, and continued to treat him kindly, and he himself in after-life always admitted the justice of their opinions. The temper of the times, a vague discontent with the established order of things, and some political enthusiasm imbibed from the writings of Rousseau, are the best reasons that can now be assigned for Gallatin's ill-considered desertion of home and friends.

In July 1780 Gallatin and his friend Serre landed in Massachusetts. They brought with them youth, hope, courage, and a little money, and at once entered into business. The times were unfavourable. The great convulsion of the Revolution was drawing to a close, and everything was in an unsettled condition. The young Genevans failed in business, passed an aimless and severe winter in the wilds of Maine, and returned to Boston penniless. Gallatin tried to earn a living by teaching French in Harvard College, apparently not without success, but the cold and rigid civilization of New England repelled him, and he made his way to the South. In the backwoods of Pennsylvania and Virginia there seemed to be better chances for a young adventurer. Gallatin engaged in land speculations, and tried to lay the foundation of his fortune in a frontier farm. In 1789 he married Sophia Allegre, and every prospect seemed to be brightening. But clouds soon gathered again. After only a few months of wedlock his wife died, and Gallatin was once more alone. The solitary and desolate frontier life became now more dreary than ever; he flung himself into politics, the only outside resource open to him, and his long and eventful public career began.

The constitution of 1787 was then before the people, and Gallatin, with his dislike of strong government still upon him, threw himself into opposition and became one of the founders of the AntiFederalist, or, as it was afterwards called, the Republican party. Elections followed to State conventions and legislatures, and Gallatin rose with surprising rapidity. Despite his foreign birth and his inability to speak English with correctness or fluency, he succeeded wonderfully. He was helped, of course, by his sound education; but the true cause of his success lay in his strong sense, untiring industry, courage, clear-sightedness, and great intellectual force. In 1793 he was chosen United States Senator from Pennsylvania by the votes of both political parties. No higher tribute was ever paid to character and ability than that conveyed by this election. But although party feeling did not run high enough in Pennsylvania to prevent Gallatin's election, the staunch Federalists of the Senate, who had begun to draw the party lines rather sharply, found the presence of the young Genevan highly distasteful. They disliked his French origin, and suspected him to be a man of levelling principles. His seat was contested on account of a technical flaw in regard to the duration of his citizenship, and the Senate annulled the election and sent him back to Pennsylvania with all the glory of political martyrdom.

The part he had already taken in the exciting scenes to which he now returned had without doubt been an efficient cause in his rejection by the Senate. The success of the new scheme of national government turned at the outset upon the re-establishment of sound finances. To carry out the great plans which he had set on foot, Hamilton had found it necessary to lay an excise on domestic spirits. This tax bore hardly upon the western counties of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina, where the people worked many small stills, and were thus able to get their grain to market in a portable form. Strong opposition was manifested. Hamilton and his party modified the original excise law, and partly by their action, partly through the influence of Washington, the murmurs in the two Southern States died away. But in Pennsylvania concession proved fruitless, and hostility became daily more active and dangerous.

In this resistance to the excise, which was peculiarly odious to the people among whom he lived, Gallatin took a leading part. He intended fully to restrain opposition within legal bounds, but he made the great mistake of embarking upon the stormy sea of resistance to law without sufficiently allowing for the character of the population. The frontiersmen of the Alleghanies were a rough and sturdy race, with a large and unfortunate admixture of wild Irish. The law-abiding American spirit was by no means supreme. Legal resistance soon developed into insurrection. Houses were burned, revenue officers assaulted and driven from the country, and the United States mail was stopped and the letters seized by the rioters. The people began to arm and associate, thus preparing forcible resistance to the Government.

Gallatin did his best to retrieve his error and prevent open

war. With fine courage he faced the excited bands of riflemen who gathered at Redstone Old Fort on the 20th of August 1794, and opposed with vigorous eloquence the use of force against the Government. He checked the excitement sufficiently to prevent bloodshed; but he was only just in time. Washington and Hamilton had at last determined to test the strength of the new Government, and were moving with an overwhelming force upon the western counties. Gallatin had blundered in exciting and also interposed with sufficient effect to stop desperate measures, leading opposition to law among so rude a people, but he had and the whisky rebellion faded away helplessly before the national power.

Of all the men who took part in this opposition to the excise, Gallatin alone came out with credit. He was at once elected to Congress, and took his seat as a member of the Lower House in the autumn of 1795. A foreigner, still young, and speaking English with a very defective pronunciation, he nevertheless by sheer force of ability and industry wrested from all competitors the leadership of the Republicans in the house, and almost at once became the most dangerous opponent whom the Federalists had ever encountered in Congress. That great party, by simple weight of ability, generally in a minority, and never in full sympathy with the mass of their countrymen, maintained their power unbroken for the first twelve years of the Government. They had established and organized that Government, and in so doing had borne down opposition with a high hand. They were as domineering as they were able, and inflamed with hatred of France, just then rising to the dignity of a party principle, they found in Gallatin an enemy ho was both by origin and opinion peculiarly obnoxious to them. They attacked him unsparingly, but in vain. His perfect command of temper, and moderation of speech and action, in a bitterly personal age, never failed, and were his most effective weapons; but he made his power felt in other ways. His clear mind and industrious habits drew him to questions of finance. He became the financier of his party, and preached unceasingly his cardinal doctrines of simplicity and economy, and was an effective critic of the measures of Government. Cool and temperate, Gallatin, when following his own theories, was usually in the right, although accused by his followers of trimming. Thus, in regard to the Jay treaty, he defended the constitutional right of the house to consider the treaty, but he did not urge rejection in this specific case. On the other hand, when following a purely party policy, he generally erred. He resisted the navy, the mainspring of Washington's foreign policy and the chief glory of the Federalists. He opposed commercial treaties and diplo matic intercourse in a similar fashion. On all these points he was grievously wrong, and on all he changed his views after a good deal of bitter experience. The greatest period of Gallatin's career in Congress was in 1798, after the publication of the famous X. Y.Z. despatches. The insults of Talleyrand, and his shameless attempts to extort bribes from the American commissioners, roused the deep anger of the people against France. The Federalists swept all before them, and the members of the opposition either retired from Philadelphia or went over to the Government. Alone and singlehanded, Gallatin carried on the fight in Congress. The Federalists bore down on him unmercifully, and even attempted a constitutional amendment in regard to citizenship, in order to drive him from office. Still he held on, making a national struggle in the national legislature, and relying very little upon the rights of States so eagerly grasped by Jefferson and Madison. But even then the tide was turning. The strong measures of the Federalists shocked the country; the leaders of the dominant party quarrelled fiercely among themselves; and the Republicans carried the elections of 1800.

Jefferson and Burr obtained an equal number of votes, and as the constitution then stood either was entitled to the presidency, although no one questioned that it had been intended for Jefferson. The election was thrown into the house, and the Federalists, maddened by defeat, strove to give the presidency to Burr. They fortunately failed, but it was Gallatin who led the Republicans, prevented rash measures, retained the sympathy of the country, and had a careful plan prepared for any emergency.

When, after this exciting contest, Jefferson took possession of the White House (1801), there were two men, and two only, whose com. manding abilities marked them for the first places in the cabinet. James Madison became secretary of state, and Albert Gallatin secretary of the treasury. Wise, prudent, and conservative, Gallatin made few changes in Hamilton's arrangements, and for twelve years administered the national finances with the greatest skill. He and Jefferson were both imbued with the idea that government reduced to the lowest possible point could be carried on upon a priori principles resting on the assumed perfectness of human nature, and that, if this were done honestly, its authors would be implicitly trusted, and a political millennium would surely ensue. The chief burden of carrying out this theory fell upon Gallatin. His guiding principles still were simplicity of administration and speedy extinction of all debt, and everything bent to these objects. Fighting or bribing

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