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which is believed to be too high. population are given below:

Year.

White.

United States Census of 1850
United States Census of 1860
United States Census of 1870
Estimated for 1879.

3,469

Coloured.
708

6,127

1,180

10,810

3,008

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Total. 4,177 7,307 13,818 81,000

The past and estimated present | Corrib into two great divisions. The eastern, which comprehends all the county except the four western baronies, rests on a limestone base, and is, generally speaking, a level champaign country, but contains large quantities of wet bog. Its southern portion is partly a continuation of the Golden Vale of Limerick, so celebrated for its fertility, and partly occupied by the Slievebaughty Mountains. The northern portion of the division contains rich pasture and tillage ground, beautifully diversified with hill and dale. Some of the intermediate country is comparatively uncultivated, but forms excellent pasturage for sheep. The western division of the county has a substratum of granite, and is barren, rugged, and mountainous. It is divided into the three districts of Connemara, Jar-Connaught, and Joyce's Country; the name of Connemara is, however, often applied to the whole district. Its highest mountains are the grand and picturesque group of Binabola, or the Twelve Pins, which occupy a space of about 25 square miles, the highest elevation being about 2400 feet. Much of this district is a gently sloping plain, from 100 to 300

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In the business of receiving and shipping cotton, the leading production of the Southern States, Galveston ranks third in importance among the ports of the United States, New Orleans and Savannah standing before it, and Charleston, Norfolk, and Mobile after it in the order named. More than one-tenth of the cotton crop of the country finds a market through the port of Galveston. The following table shows the yearly receipts of bales of cotton at the six ports above named, for five years ending September 1, 1879:

1878-79. 1877-78. 1876-77.

1875-76. 1874-75.

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The value of imports from foreign countries for the two years feet above sea-level. Joyce's Country, further north, is an ending July 31, 1878, was as follows:

Imports of free commodities
Imports of dutiable commodities

Total

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The leading importations comprise coffee from Brazil and Mexico, and manufactured cotton, woollen, and iron goods. The duties collected during the year ending July 31, 1878, amounted to $62, 352.73, as against $95,980.49 during the previous year.

The value of domestic commodities, consisting largely of cotton, oil-cake, cattle, preserved meats, bone dust, cotton seeds, and lumber, exported to foreign countries during the year ending July 31, 1878, amounted to $11,963,132, as against $15,242,747 for the previous year.

The number and tonnage of vessels entered and cleared at the port of Galveston annually, for the six fiscal years ending June 30, 1878, are shown in the following tables:

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The decrease in the number of coasting vessels entered and cleared is accounted for in part by the fact that the Morgan line of steamers from New Orleans, which formerly entered here, now proceed up the bay to Clinton with original manifest, and make the entry there, merely touching at Galveston to land freight, passengers, and mails. The number of documented vessels owned in the customs district of Galveston during the year ending June 30, 1878, was 197, with an aggregate tonnage of 9310 tons; built during the year, 9, with an aggregate tonnage of 239 tons; and lost at sea, wrecked, or abandoned, 16, with a total tonnage of 387 tons.

GALWAY, a maritime county in the province of
Connaught, in the extreme west of Ireland, between 52°
54' and 53° 43' N. lat., and 7° 57' and 10° 20′ W. long.
It is bounded on the N. by Mayo and Roscommon;
E. by Roscommon, King's County, and Tipperary; S. by
Clare and the Bay of Galway; and W. by the Atlantic
Ocean. The area comprises 2447 square miles, or
1,566,354 acres, of which 90,230 are under water.
Surface. The county is naturally divided by Lough

elevated tract, with flat-topped hills of from 1300 to 2000 feet high, and deep narrow valleys lying between them.

Coast.-Galway enjoys the advantage of a very extended line of sea-coast, indented by numerous harbours, which, however, are rarely used except by a few coasting and fishing vessels. Commencing at the coast of Mayo in the north are the Killeries, two bays which separate the counties of Galway and Mayo. The first bay on the western coast capable of accommodating large ships is Ballynakill, sheltered by Freaghillaun or Heath Island. Next in succession is Cleggan Bay, having Inishboffin in its offing. Streamstown is a narrow inlet, within which are the inhabited islands of Omey, Turbot, and Inishturk. Ardbear harbour divides itself into two inlets, the northern terminated by the town of Clifden, with excellent anchorage opposite the castle; the southern inlet has also good anchorage within the bar, and has a good salmon-fishery. Mannin Bay, though large, is much exposed, and but little frequented by shipping. From Slyne Head the coast turns eastward to Roundstone Bay, which has its entrance protected by the islands of Inishnee and Inishlacken. Next in order is Birterbuy Bay, studded with islets and rocks, but deep and sheltered. Kilkerrin Bay, the largest on this coast, has a most productive kelp shore of nearly 100 miles; its mouth is but 8 miles broad. Between Gorumna Island and the mainland is Greatman's Bay, and close to it Costello Bay, the most eastern of those in Connemara. The whole of the coast from Greatman's Bay eastward is comprehended in the Bay of Galway, the entrance of which is protected by the three limestone islands of Aran-Inishmore (or Aranmore), Inishmann, and Inisheer. Rivers. The rivers are few, and, except the Shannon, are of small extent. The Suck, which forms the eastern boundary of the county, rises in Roscommon, and passing by Ballinasloe, unites with the Shannon at Shannon bridge. The Shannon, which rises at the foot of Cuilcagh in the county of Cavan, forms the south-eastern boundary of the county, and passing Shannon Harbour, Banagher, Meelick, and Portumna, swells into the great expanse of water called Lough Derg, which skirts the county as far as the village of Mount Shannon. The Claregalway flows southward through the centre of the county, and enters Lough Corrib some 4 miles above the town of Galway. The Ballynahinch, considered one of the best salmon-fishing rivers in Connaught, rises in the Twelve Pins, passes through Ballynahinch Lake, and after a short but rapid course falls into Birturbuy Bay.

Lakes.-The Lakes are numerous. Lough Corrib extends from Galway town northwards over 30,000 acres, with a coast of 50 miles in extent. It has now been made navigable to Lough Mask (which lies chiefly in Mayo county) and to the sea at Galway. The lake is studded with many islands, some of them thickly inhabited. Near it is Lough Ross, which receives a large supply of water from streams, but has no visible outlet. The district to the west of Lough Corrib contains in all about 130 lakes, about 25 of them more than a mile in length. Lough Rea, at the town of the same name, Besides is more remarkable for scenic beauty than for extent. which are covered with water during a great part of the year. these perennial lakes, there are several low tracts, called turloughs,

Geology and Minerals.-The boundary line between the limestone and granitic district is easily discernible by the diminution of the verdant hue which distinguishes the latter. The high road from All the country Galway to Oughterard nearly marks the division. to the north and east of this limit is limestone, all to the south and west granite, excepting some detached masses of primitive limestone between Oughterard and Clifden, and some scattered portions of

other minerals, of great variety of appearance. The component | rock of Binabola is quartz, in general distinctly stratified, or at least schistose. The position of its beds is various. Towards the western shore they are vertical, easily splitting by intervening mica plates, and affording good building stone. Limestone occurs in some places along the foot of these mountains. Round the base of this group are also gneiss and mica slate, with bands of hornblende and primitive mica. Along the north side of Lough Corrib to Ballynakill the mica slate and hornblende rise into mountains, and the limestone disappears. From Lough Mask to the Killeries is a transition country of greenstone and grauwacke slate covered by the Old Red Sandstone or conglomerate. The hill of Glan, on the shore of Lough Corrib, exhibits, in a small compass, all the formations which occur in the district. The western end is quartz, the north-castern side mica slate; the middle is penetrated by beds of mica slate, containing hornblende and granular mica covered by thick beds of pyritous greenstone. On the south and east are granite and syenite, which runs under the sandstone conglomerate towards Oughterard, and this again passes under the flötz limestone, which, beyond Lough Corrib, occupies the greater part of Connaught and Leinster. Along the borders of the flötz limestone is a series of vast caverns, usually traversed by subterranean rivers. A fine gritstone, highly valued for making millstones, is raised near Dunmore. Crystalline sand, of a superior quality for scythe boards, occurs at Lough Coutra. Lead, zinc, copper, sulphur, and bismuth have been discovered in various parts of the western division of the county. Iron was raised at Woodford, and smelted until the timber was exhausted. The mountains of Slievebaughty, which separate Galway from Clare, are siliceous. In Connemara there is abundance of green variegated marble called serpentine; and a beautiful black marble, without spots or flaws, and susceptible of a high polish, is obtained near Oughterard. Mineral spas, mostly chalybeate, are abundant.

Climate and Agriculture.-The climate is mild and salubrious, but variable, and violent winds from the west are not uncommon. Frost or snow seldom remains long on the western coast, and cattle of every description continue unhoused during the winter. The eastern part of the county produces the best wheat. Oats are frcquently sown after potatoes in moorish soils less adapted for wheat. The flat shores of the bays afford large supplies of seaweed for manure. Limestone, gravel, and marl are to be had in most other parts. When a sufficient quantity of manure for potatoes cannot be had, the usual practice is to pare and burn the surface. In many places on the sea-shore fine early potatoes are raised in deep sea-sand, manured with sea-weed, and the crop is succeeded by barley. Those parts of the eastern district less fitted for grain are employed in pasturage. Heathy sheep-walks occupy a very large tract between Monivea and Galway. An extensive range from Athenry, stretching to Galway Bay at Kinvarra, is also chiefly occupied by sheep. The total area under crop in 1878 was 214,685 acres, as compared with 235,168 in 1853. The following tables show the acres under the principal crops, and also the numbers of the different domestic animals, during those years :

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1878 28,538 14,384 169,002 652,778 57,314 10,927 751,116 1853 25,916 13,714 139,497 466,430 41,403 16,632 410,199

According to the returns or 1875-6, the total value of land, exclusive of the town of Galway, was £437,686, 15s., and the average value per acre was 5s. 11d., as compared with 6s. 9d. for the province, and 13s. 3d. for the whole of Ireland. The county was divided among 1235 proprietors, of whom 332, or 27 per cent., owned less than one acre. The following possessed more than 20,000 acres, viz:-Richard Berridge, 159,898; Marquis of Clanricarde, 49,025; Lord Dunsandle, 33,543; Allan Pollok, 29,366; Lord Clonbrock, 28,246; Sir Thomas J. Burke, 25,258; Earl of Clancarty, 23,896. Manufactures.-Manufactures are not carried on beyond the demand caused by the domestic consumption of the people. Coarse friezes, flannels, and blankets are made in all parts, and sold largely in Galway and Loughrea. Connemara has been long celebrated for its hand-knit woollen stockings. Coarse linen, of a narrow breadth, called bandle linen, is also made for home consumption. A linenweaving factory has been established at Oughterard. The manufacture of kelp, formerly a great source of profit on the western shores, is still carried on to some extent. Feathers and sea-fowls' eggs are brought in great quantities from the islands of Aran, the produce of the puffins and other sea-fowl that frequent the cliffs. Fish

ing affords occupation to many of the inhabitants, but from want of capital is not prosecuted with sufficient vigour. In 1877 the number of vessels engaged was 451, with 1104 men and 58 boys. Population.—The county includes one parliamentary borough, Galway; and three townships, Ballinasloe (part of which is, however, in the county of Roscommon), 4159; Loughrea, 3072; and Tuam, 4223. The largest of the villages are Gort, 1773; Clifden, 1313; Athenry, 1194; Headford, 870; Oughterard, 861; and Eyrecourt, 747. The population in 1831 was 414,684; in 1851, 321,684; and in 1871, 248,458, of whom 122,496 were males and 125,962 females. In 1871 the number of Catholics was 239,902, and of Protestants 8556, of whom 7464 were Episcopalians and 615 Presbyterians. Of persons five years and upwards 173,361 were illiterate, a proportion of 56-9 per cent.; and 30,239 could speak Erse only, as compared with 41,572 in 1861. Emigration from this county has drafted off a very large number of its inhabitants. From the 1st of May 1851 to 31st December 1877 there were 104,691 emigrants, or an annual average of 3950.

Representation and Administration.-Two members of parliament are returned for the county, and two for Galway borough. There are in the county 35 petty-sessions districts, and part of another. Quarter-sessions are held at Ballinasloe, Clifden, Galway, Gort, Loughrea, Oughterard, Portunina, and Tuam. There are five poor-law unions wholly within the county, Galway, Loughrea, Mount Bellew, Portumna, and Tuam; nearly the whole of Clifden, Gort, and Oughterard; and parts of five others-Ballinasloe, Ballinrobe, Glennamaddy, Roscommon, and Scarriff. The county is within the Dublin military district, and there are barrack stations at Loughrea, Dunmore, Portumna, Galway, Gort, and Oughterard. It is divided into 18 baronies.

Antiquities.-Amongst these are the round towers of Ardrahan, Ballygaddy, Kilbannon, Kilmacduagh, Meelick, and Murrough. Raths are numerous, and several cromlechs are still to be seen in good preservation. The ruins of monastic buildings are also numerous. That of Knockmoy, about 6 miles from Tuam, said to have been founded in 1180 by Cathal O'Connor, was adorned with rude fresco paintings, still discernible, which were considered valuable as being the best authentic representations existing of ancient Irish costumes. Ancient castles and square towers of the Anglo-Norman settlers are frequently met with; some have been kept in repair, but the greater number are in ruins. The castle of Tuam, built in 1161 by Roderick O'Connor, king of Ireland, at the period of the English invasion, is said to have been the first building of this description of stone and mortar in Ireland. The remains of a round castle, a form of building very uncommon in the military architecture of the country, are to be seen between Gort and Kilmacduag.

It

GALWAY, the county town, and a parliamentary borough, is also a county in itself, with an exclusive jurisdiction extending two miles on every side except the south. stands on the northern shore of the Bay of Galway, on both sides of the river Corrib, which connects Lough Corrib with the sea. The space within the walls formed an oval of about 3426 square perches. Some of the streets are very narrow, and contain several curious specimens of old buildings, chiefly in the antique Spanish style, being square, with a court in the centre, and a gateway opening into the street. The finest of these is the pile of buildings known as Lynch's Castle. During the last few years many large shops have been built in the principal streets, and several handsome residences have been erected in the suburbs. St Nicholas church is the most remarkable building in the town. It is cruciform, 152 feet long by 126 broad, with a steeple rising over the nave, and the side aisles separated from the centre by Gothic pillars. It contains several antique monuments. The exchange, near the church, consists of an open corridor, 90 feet long by 28 broad, with a front of arches supporting an upper story, in which are purposes. St Augustine's church (Roman Catholic), an apartments for holding the local courts, and for other public edifice in the First Pointed style, was erected in 1859. The county court-house is an elegant and commodious building; near it are the county and town prisons. The town also contains a county infirmary, a union workhouse, a fever hospital, three monasteries, five nunneries, and two barracks. A grammar-school is in the immediate neighbourhood of the town. Queen's College, built of beautiful grey limestone, is an elegant and extensive quadrangular structure in the Tudor Gothic style. Near the college is a national school. The shipping trade of Galway has for some time been gradually

increasing. In 1877 the number of British vessels that entered the port was 153, with a tonnage of 30,034; of foreign vessels 33, with a tonnage of 16,166. The number of British vessels that cleared was 136, with a tonnage of 29,827; of foreign vessels 27, with a tonnage of 13,225. The chief articles exported are agricultural produce, wool, and marble. There are a brewery, a distillery, a paper mill, a tannery, and several flour mills; and a company has recently been formed for the purpose of extracting iodine and marine salts from seaweed. The salmon fishery is of considerable value. Galway is divided into the old and new towns, and the maritime suburb of Claddagh, inhabited almost entirely by fishermen and their families, who have acquired or retained certain peculiar usages and habits of their own, Little is known of the history of Galway until after the arrival of the English, at which time it was under the protection of O'Flaherty, who possessed the adjoining district to the west. On the extinction of the native dynasty of the O'Connors, the town fell into the hands of the De Burgos, the head of a branch of which, under the name of M'William Eighter, long governed it by magistrates of his own appointment. After it had been secured by walls, which began to be built in 1270, it became the residence of a number of enterprising settlers, through whom it attained a position of much commercial celebrity. Of these settlers the principal families, fourteen in number, were known as the tribes of Galway. They were of Norman, Saxon, or Welsh descent, and became so exclusive in their relationships that dispensations were frequently requisite for the canonical legality of marriages among them. The town rapidly increased from this period in wealth and commercial rank, far surpassing in this respect the rival city of Limerick. Richard II. granted it a charter of incorporation with liberal privileges, which was confirmed by his successor. It had the right of coinage by Act of Parliament, but there is no evidence to show that it exercised the privilege. Another charter, granted in 1545, extended the jurisdiction of the port to the islands of Aran, permitted the exportation of all kinds of goods except linens and woollens, and confirmed all the former privileges. Large numbers of Cromwell's soldiers are said to have settled in the town; and there are many traces of Spanish blood among the population. Its municipal privileges were extended by a charter from James I., whereby the town, and a district of two miles round in every direction, were formed into a distinct county, with exclusive jurisdiction and a right of choosing its own magistrates. During the civil wars of 1641 the town took part with the Irish, and was surrendered to the Parliamentary forces under Sir Charles Coote; after which the ancient inhabitants were mostly driven out, and their property was given to adventurers and soldiers, chiefly from England. On the accession of James II. the old inhabitants entertained sanguine hopes of recovering their former rights. But the successes of King William soon put an end to their expectations; and the town, after undergoing another siege, again capitulated to the force brought against it by General Ginkell. In the beginning of the present century the walls were thrown down, and buildings erected on their site.

Galway is governed by a high sheriff, a recorder, local magistrates, and a board of 24 commissioners elected triennially. The area of the municipal borough is 955

acres.

The population in 1861 was 16,967, and in 1871 15,597, of whom 14,424 were Roman Catholics. The parliamentary borough has an area of 22,493 acres, and a population of 19,843.

GAMA, VASCO DA (c. 1460-1524), the celebrated Portuguese navigator and discoverer, was born at Sines, a small sea-town in the province of Alemtejo. No one will deny that his name deservedly stands high in the roll of naval heroes; yet it cannot be doubted that he owes

the brilliancy of his reputation to his country's illustrious poet, Luiz de Camoens, by whom his discoveries in India and their results have been assigned the foremost place in the great national epic Os Lusíadas. Of Vasco's early history | little is known. His descent, according to the Nobiliario of Antonio de Lima, is derived from a noble family which is mentioned in the year 1166; but the line cannot be traced without interruption farther back than the year 1280, to one Alvaro da Gama, from whom was descended Estevão da Gama, Alcaide Mór of Sines, whose third son, the subject of this notice, was born probably about the year 1460. About this period died Prince Henry the Navigator, son of João I., who had spent his life in fostering the study of navigation, and to whose intelligence and foresight must be traced back all the fame that Portugal gained on the seas in the 15th and 16th centuries. Explorers sent out at his instigation discovered the Western Isles, and unknown regions on the African coast, whence continually came reports (which by and by affected Da Gama's history) of a great monarch, "who lived east of Benin, 350 leagues in the interior, and who held both temporal and spiritual dominion over all the neighbouring kings," a story which tallied so remarkably with the accounts of "Prester John " which had been brought to the Peninsula by Abyssinian priests, that João II. steadfastly resolved that both by sea and by land the attempt should be made to reach the country of this potentate. In the hope of making this discovery, Pedro Covilham and Affonso de Payva were despatched eastward by land; while Bartholomeu Dias, in command of two vessels, was sent westward by sea. Neither of the landward travellers ever returned

to his country; but Covilham, who, in his fruitless search for a mythical sovereign, reached the Malabar coast and the eastern shores of Africa, sent back to Lisbon, along with the tales of the rich lands he had visited, this intelligence, "that the ships which sailed down the coast of Guinea ought to be sure of reaching the termination of the continent by persevering in a course to the south." King João was now seized with an ardent desire of reaching these eastern countries by the route indicated by Covilham. That there was in truth such an ocean highway was confirmed by Dias, who shortly after returned (in 1487) with the report that when sailing southward he was carried far to the east by a succession of fierce storms, past-as he discovered only on his return voyage-what he perceived to be the southern extremity of the African continent, and to which, on account of the fearful weather he had encountered, he gave the name of the Cape of Storms, an appellation which to the king, who was then elated with high hopes of enriching his kingdom by the addition of eastern poɛsessions, appeared so inauspicious that he changed it to that of Cape of Good Hope. The state of João's health, however, and concerns of state, prevented the fitting out of the intended expedition; and it was not till ten years later, when Manoel had succeeded to the throne, that the preparations for the great voyage were completed,-hastened, doubtless, by Columbus's discovery of America in the meanwhile. For the supreme command of this expedition the king selected Vasco da Gama, who had in his youth fought in the wars against Castile, and in his riper years gained distinction as an intrepid mariner. The fleet, consisting of four vessels specially built for this mission, sailed down the Tagus on the 8th July 1497, after prayers and confession made by the officers and crews in the presence of the king and court, in a small chapel on the site where now stands the church of S. Maria de Belem, afterwards built to commemorate the event. Four months later it cast anchor in St Helena Bay, South Africa, rounded the Cape in safety, and in the beginning of the next year reached Melinda. Thence, steering eastward, under the direction of a pilot X.

obtained from Indian merchants met with at this port, Gama arrived at Calicut, on the Malabar coast, on the 20th May 1498, and set up, according to the custom of his country, a marble pillar as a mark of conquest and a proof of his discovery of India. His reception by the zamorin, or ruler of Calicut, would have in all probability been favourable enough, had it not been for the jealousy of the Moorish traders who, fearing for their gains, so incited the Hindus against the new comers that Gama, after escaping from enforced detention on shore, was obliged to fight his way out of the harbour. Having seen enough to assure him of the great resources of this new country, he returned home in September 1499 with a glowing description of it. The king received him with every mark of distinction, created him a noble, and ordered magnificent fêtes to be held in his honour in the principal towns of the kingdom, "for he had brought back (not without severe loss in ships and in men) the solution of a great problem, which was destined to raise his country to the acme of prosperity." In prosecution of Gama's discoveries another fleet of 13 ships was immediately sent out to India by Manoel, under Alvarez Cabral, who, in sailing too far westward, by accident discovered Brazil, and on reaching his destination established a factory at Calicut. The natives, again instigated by the Moorish merchants, rose up in arms, and murdered all whom Cabral had left behind. To avenge this outrage a powerful armament of ten ships was fitted out at Lisbon, the command of which was at first given to Cabral, but was afterwards transferred to Gama on his urgent petition; for, "Sire," he said, "the king of Calicut. arrested me and treated me with contumely, and because I did not return to avenge myself of that injury he has again committed a greater one, on which account I feel in my heart a great desire and inclination to go and make great havoc of him." In the beginning of 1502 the fleet sailed, and on reaching Calicut Gama immediately bombarded the town, enacting deeds of inhumanity and savagery too horrible to detail, and equalled only by the tortures of the Inquisition. Gama was naturally "very disdainful, ready to anger, and very rash;" but no peculiarities of disposition-nothing whatever can excuse such acts as his, which have justly left a stain on his character that neither time nor the brightness of his fame as a navigator can in the slightest degree obliterate. From Calicut he proceeded in November to Cochin, "doing all the harm he could on the way to all that he found at sea," and having made favourable trading terms with it and with other towns on the coast, he returned to Lisbon in September 1503, with richly laden ships. He and his captains were welcomed with great rejoicings; "but to Dom Vasco the king gave great favours, and all his goods free and exempt; he granted him the anchorage dues of India, made him admiral of its seas for ever, and one of the principal men of his kingdom." Soon after his return Vasco retired to his residence in Evora, and for twenty years took no part in public affairs, either from pique at not obtaining, as is supposed by some, so high rewards as he expected, or because he had in some way offended Manoel. During this time the Portuguese conquests increased in the East, and were presided over by successive viceroys. The fifth of these was so unfortunate that Gama was recalled from his seclusion by Manoel's successor, João III., created count of Vidigueira, and nominated viceroy of India, an honour which in April 1524 he left Lisbon to fill. Arriving at Goa in September of the same year, he immediately set himself to correct, with vigour and firmness, the many abuses and evil practices which had crept in under the rule of his predecessors. He was not destined, however, to prosecute far the reforms he had inaugurated, for, on the Christmas-eve following his arrival he died, while at Cochin, after a short illness, and was

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buried in the Franciscan monastery there. In 1538 his body was conveyed to Portugal and entombed in the town of Vidigueira, of which he was count, with all the pomp and honour due to one who had been the king's representative. The important discoveries of Vasco da Gama had the immediate result of enriching Portugal, and raising her to one of the foremost places among the nations of Europe, and by degrees the far greater one of hastening the colonization and civilization of the East by opening its commerce to the great Western powers.

For further information the following works may be consulted:The Three Voyages of Vasco da Gama and his Viceroyalty, by Gaspar Correa (Hakluyt Society); Calcoen (i.e., Calicut), A Dutch Narrative of the Third Voyage of Vasco da Gama, written by some unknown seaman of the expedition, printed at Antwerp about 1504, reprinted in facsimile, with introduction and translation, by J. Ph. Berjeau, London, 1875; Discoveries of Prince Henry of Portugal, by R. H. Major; The Lusiads of Camoens; Cooley, History of Mas Maritime Discovery; Barros, Decades; Alvaro Velho, Roteiro da viagem que em descobrimento da India pelo cabo de Boa Esperança fez dom Vasco da Gama em 1479, the manuscript of which is preserved at Coimbra, and a translation of which by Ferdinand Denis may be found in E. Charton's Voyageurs Anciens et Modernes, vol. iii., 1855; Castan Leda, Historia do Descobrimento da India, Coimbra, 1551 (largely based on Alvaro Velho's MSS.). (H. O. F.)

GAMALIEL, i.e., God is a rewarder, Taμaλinλ), a Hebrew proper name, which occurs more than once in the Old Testament (Numb. i. 10; ii. 20), is repeatedly met with in the history of later Judaism. Of the persons designated by it the most important are enumerated below:

1. GAMALIEL, or Rabban Gamliel the elder, as he is invariably called in the Talmud to distinguish him from his grandson, Rabban Gamaliel or Gamliel of Jabneh (Jamnia), was the son of Rabbi Simeon, and the grandson of Rabbi Hillel. Of his biography little is known beyond the facts that, early in the 1st century, he lived and taught in Jerusalem, where Saul of Tarsus was for some time his pupil; and that he was a member of the Sanhedrim, which body he successfully counselled to moderation in their treatment of the followers of Jesus. He appears to have died before the destruction of the city. The Talmudists speak of him as having enjoyed the confidence of Cypros, the wife of Agrippa, and as having been president of the Sanhedrim during the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius; but the latter representation at least is certainly unhistorical, as may be learned from the New Testament and from Josephus, where it is invariably the high priest who presides over the council. Gamaliel the elder is also represented by Jewish tradition as having in some respects modified the provisions of the law with respect to divorce and marriages of widows, and as having made some new arrangements with regard to the calendar; but there is reason to believe that in this last statement he has been mistaken for Gamaliel of Jabneh. The fact that he is spoken of in the records of Judaism as having been the first of the seven "rabbans" (rabban being a honorific form of the title rabbi) is of itself alınost conclusive against the late and otherwise improbable Christian tradition to the effect that he ultimately became a Christian and received baptism at the hands of Peter and John (Clem. Recog., i 65; Photius, cod. 171, p. 199). 65; Photius, cod. 171, p. 199). Compare Ewald, Gesch. d. V. Isr., vi. 256 sq.; Derenbourg, Hist. de Palestine, p. 239 sqq.; Schürer, NTliche Zeitgesch., p. 458.

2. GAMALIEL of Jabneh ranks with his grandfather, Gamaliel the elder, as one of the seven great rabbans of the Talmudists. His father also was named Simeon. On the death of Rabbi Johanan ben Zacai, Gamliel was chosen to succeed him as head of the famous school

1 The criticisms of Baur and others upon the speech, as recorded in Acts v. 34-39, do not affect the general fact as now stated.

which had transferred itself to Jamnia or Jabneh shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem. For a considerable period after that event Jabneh became in some sense the metropolis of Judaism, and Gamliel, as head of the supreme judicial and legislative body which sat there, may be said to have been the first nasi or "prince" of the rabbinical period. An interesting account of his position as legislator will be found in chapter xx. of Derenbourg's Histoire de Palestine. As representing the Jewish nation and the Jewish faith, he visited Rome in the autumn of 95 A.D., and the Talmud abounds with references to the incidents of that journey. Gamliel was the friend of Rabbi Akiba, and the master of Aquila (the "Onkelos" of the Babylonian Talmud). He died about 115 A.D. (see Ewald, Gesch. d. V. Isr., vii. 388).

3. A third GAMALIEL, son of Jehudah-ha-Nasi, is mentioned in Aboth, ii. 2, as having specially insisted on the necessity of combining with the study of the law some active employment in order to the maintenance of a healthy moral tone.

GAMBIA, GAMBRA, BA DIMMA, or FURA, an important river of Western Africa, which enters the Atlantic about 13° 50' N. lat. Its sources are in the central plateau of the Futa Jallon highlands, a tract of country about 240 miles inland, which also contains the head waters of the Senegal, the Faleme, the Rio Grande, and some tributaries of the Niger. Flowing almost due N. for the first 200 miles of its course, it turns somewhat abruptly to the W., and continues in that direction through a country of great fertility. Steamers can proceed up the river as far as Yaba Tenda; the channel remains navigable for boats 300 miles from the mouth to the falls of Barraconda; and above the falls it is again navigable, as was shown by Governor Macdonnell's expedition in 1851, for at least 160 miles farther. The principal affluent is the Neries, which, coming from the north, joins the main stream about 30 or 35 miles above the falls. At Fattatenda, a short distance below the falls, the river has a breadth, even in the dry season, of about 320 feet, with a depth of from 13 to 20 feet. In the rainy season it rises from 20 to 50 feet, and the whole country downwards to the sea is laid under water, and receives a rich alluvial deposit.

The British colony of Gambia comprises a considerable territory mainly on the left bank at the mouth of the river, Elephant's Island about 100 miles from the sea, and Macarthy's Island still further inland. The whole area under British authority is 21 square miles. The population in 1851 was stated at 5693, in 1861 at 6939, and in 1871 at 14,190 (7306 males and 6884 females). In the 15 years from 1860 to 1874 the total gross revenue was £268,232, making an annual average of £17,802; and the gross amount of public expenditure in the same period was £255,291, making an annual average of £17,019, or a total surplus of revenue over expenditure of £2941. In 1862, 1863, and 1864 the liabilities exceeded the assets by £3638, £4817, and £5492 respectively, but there is no funded debt. The Gambia settlement, which formerly cost the imperial revenue from £20,000 to £25,000 per annum, now provides for its own defence, an armed police force, recruited mainly from the Mahometan tribe of the Houssas, having been substituted since 1869 for the imperial troops. The parliamentary grant, which had averaged about £4200 per annum from 1860 to 1867, was reduced to £1500 in 1868, and finally withdrawn in 1871, and all expenses are met by the local revenue. The Gambia district was originally united with Sierra Leone on the dissolution of the African Company in 1822; in 1843 it was made a separate colony, the first governor being Henry Frowd Seagram; in 1868 it was reunited to Sierra Leone; and it is now governed by an adminis

trator. The capital of the colony is Bathurst, a town on | the eastern side of St Mary's Island.

St Mary's Island lies at the mouth of the river on the south side, close to the mainland, from which it is separated by a stretch of mangrove swamp and a narrow arm of the river called Oyster Creek. It is about 15 miles in length by less than a mile in breadth, and consists of a slightly elevated plain of sandy soil, which in the dry season becomes a bed of hot and shifting dust. There are naturally not many trees on the island, though a few cocoa-nuts, palms, papaws, willows, bananas, oleanders, and guavas manage to maintain a precarious existence. The Barbados pride, however, flourishes luxuriantly (Captain Hewitt). Bathurst is on the whole a well-built town, the principal material employed being a dirty red sandstone coated with whitewash. It lies about 12 or 14 feet above the level of the river. The market house is built of iron, and the market place was planted with trees in 1869. Besides the Government house and the barracks, there is a hospital founded by General Macdonnell, a court-house, and an Episcopal church completed about 1869. The population of the town is of a very motley description, including, besides the white officials, and traders to the number of about 50, half-castes of all shades, liberated negroes, Jolloffs, Barras, and other local tribes. The part of the mainland immediately contiguous to St Mary's is known as British Combo, an area of about 6 miles long by from 2 to 3 miles broad having been secured by treaty with the king of Combo in 1853.

M'Carthy's Island lies about 180 or 200 miles above St Mary's. It is about 5 miles in length and 1 in breadth. There are two or three "factories," a considerable trading town, peopled partly by liberated Africans, a fort, a Methodist church, and a schoolhouse. Though this was the last spot actually in British possession, it was long understood by Gambia traders that they were under British protection much farther up the stream; but, according to the de. spatches of Lord Carnarvon in 1877, they must proceed at their own risk as soon as they advance beyond British territory. St James's Island, which was the seat of the British factory in the 18th century, is about 17 miles from St Mary's. It still bears traces of European occupation, but is gradually being washed away by the river.

The chief exports are ground nuts, wax, hides, ivory, gold dust, palm oil, and gum arabic; but even these are obtained in quantities that look ridiculously small when the natural richness of the At the country through which the Gambia flows is considered. close of the 18th century only two or three ships were employed in the trade; in 1839 no fewer than 239 merchant vessels visited the river; and in 1871 75 British and 154 foreign vessels entered, with a total tonnage of 51,853 tons. During the four rainy months, from July to October, the native trader conveys his employer's rice or corn up the river, and receives in exchange the pagnes or country cloths; in November he barters these same cloths for ground nuts, hides, and wax; and for the rest of the year, till the rainy season comes round again, he supplies the natives with arms, powder, rum, French traders, however, who are gradually getting a large share of Madras handkerchiefs, and other European productions. The the commerce into their hands, have introduced the custom of money transactions, and the innovation is well received by the

natives.

In 1836 the value exported was only £838; in 1837 it reached

The trade in ground nuts is of comparatively recent development.

£8053, and in 1840 no less than £15,209. In 1860 the value was £79,611, and in 1861 £101,060. The average quantity between 1850 and 1860 was 11,196 tons; between 1870 and 1877 it was 14,000 tons. The supply is greatly affected by the political state of the is performed by the tribe of the Sera-Woullis, who come down from country in which the nuts are grown. Most of the necessary tillage the interior in great numbers, and return home when they have earned what they desire. The French markets are the principal destination of the nuts. American traders deal mainly in hides, horns, and beeswax; and the honey is chiefly purchased for the German market. The Roman Catholics maintain a mission and a small convent in the Gambia, and the Wesleyans have long had a number of stations. The latter have done great service to education

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