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Their love of nature reveals itself in a hundred quaint, poetic phrases, in a familiarity with beasts and herbs; their love of dumb creatures in the number of their pets. Quick and versatile, all Gipsies readily adapt themselves to any state of life; they have so wonderful a gift of tongues that formerly it was reckoned against them for a proof of sorcery. That hitherto the race has produced, outside the realm of music, none but mute geniuses, is rather due to lack of education than of ability; but "Zingaro" seems to have only been a nickname of the Quentin Matsys of the South, Antonio Solario (1382-1455), and John Bunyan from parish registers does not appear to have had one drop of Gipsy blood (cf. Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vol. ii.). Physique. Outwardly as within Gipsies present strong contrasts, some being strangely hideous, others very beautiful, though not with a regular, conventional beauty. Finely proportioned, they are as a race of middle stature, but lithe and sinewy, insensible to cold or wet, capable of supporting great fatigue. They pride themselves on their small hands and feet; corpulence rarely occurs, and only with the older women. The hair, black or dark brown, inclines to coarseness, is often frizzled, and does not soon turn grey; the complexion, a tawny olive, was compared by the Plymouth Pilgrims (1622) to that of the Indians of North America. The teeth are of dazzling whiteness and perfect regularity, the cheekbones high; and the aquiline nose is overhung by a strongly-marked brow, knit often in deep lines of thought. But the most striking feature is the full, dark eye, now lustreless, then changing to an expression of mysterious, childlike sorrow, presently blazing forth with sudden passion. As is the case in other Oriental races, the Gipsies early develop and early fade. See, in the Archiv für Anthropologie (1872), M. Isidor Kopernicki's learned and exhaustive treatise on Gipsy craniology.

teller's powers. The Gipsy crone can no longer persuade | to such as are poorer than themselves, even though Gentiles. the yeoman's wife to bury her treasure in the earth, and return in a fortnight's time to find it-gone. Those halcyon days of maánzin are passed by; the servants' hall is now the only El Dorado left. Enclosure Acts have struck a deadly blow at English Gipsydom, driving the wanderers from breezy common and turf-edged lane to the smoky suburbs of great towns, or at best the outskirts of some watering place. Here, surrounded by Gentiles, the younger generation forget the wisdom of the Egyptians, relinquish time-honoured customs, and, wedding with the sons and daughters of the land, widen the stream of Romani blood, and so diminish its " 'depth." Several accounts have been furnished of Romani marriages, but they rarely tally, and some (Bright's, Borrow's, and Simson's) do not bear quotation. On the Continent one common feature is the breaking by the chief of a flowercrowned pitcher, from whose fragments, as they are many or few, he argues the fortunes of the bridal pair. There are many curious Gipsy practices relating to death and burial, such as waking the corpse, burning the deceased's effects, the fasting of his kinsfolk, and a species of tabu. The earliest record of Gipsies burning the property of their dead occurs in the Annual Register for 1773, p. 142: "The clothes of the late Diana Boswell, queen of the Gipsies, value £50, were burnt in the Mint, Southwark, by her principal courtiers, according to ancient custom" (cf. Liebich, p. 55). Abstention from flesh or some other delicacy is not always a sign of mourning for the dead (cf. Crofton in Papers of the Man. Lit. Club, 1877); but its most interesting form is where a Gipsy wife or child for ever renounces the favourite delicacy of the dead husband or parent. Like motives prompt the dropping of the dead Gipsy's name entirely out of use, any survivors who happen to bear the same changing it to another. Much might be written of a kind of ceremonial purity prescribed by Gipsy law, and indicated in the language by the distinction between chiklo, 'dirty," and mokado, unclean," To wash a tablecloth with clothes is mokado, since it is connected with food; and a German Gipsy woman may not cook for four months after childbirth, while a vessel touched by the skirt of a woman's dress is held to be defiled. But with one other widespread practice we must take our leave of Gipsy customs, that, namely, of leaving at a cross-road a handful of grass or leaves, a heap of stones, a stick or some such mark (patrin, "leaf") to guide the stragglers of the band. See Liebich, p. 96, and Smart and Crofton, p. 199; and com"Pola," in Sleeman's Ramaseeana, or a Vocabulary pare of the Thugs (Calcutta, 1836).

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Character. The Gipsy character, strange medley of evil and of good, presents itself as black and hateful to the outside world, whilst to the Romani race it is all that is fair and lovable. "There's nothing worse than mumply Gentiles" is a saying often in Gipsy mouths, which affords a clue to much that is puzzling in the Gipsy's nature. He is at war with mankind, for centuries his oppressors, and, all being fair in war, may plunder and beguile at will, so that he be not caught. Gipsies' light-heartedness and courtesy are patent to all men; but only to true or adopted members of the tribe are their inmost hearts revealed. Their principal faults are childish vanity, professional cunning, indolence (caused by the absence of ambition), and a hot passionate temper. But they are as ready to forgive as they are quick to resent a wrong; and before implicit confidence their cunning gives place to inviolate honour, a fact borne strongly out by an incident in the Life of the actor Charles Mayne Young (p. 186, ed. 1871). Their family affection is intensely strong, prompting a parent never to chastise a younger child, a grown-up son meekly to take a thrashing from his father; and they are lavishly generous

Theories as to Origin.-Several attempts have been made to identify Gipsies with nomad Indian tribes: Grellmann, for example, discovers them in the Sudras, Richardson in the Nats (Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. 1784), Leland in the Doms, and B. R. Mitra in the Bediyás (Memoirs of London Anthrop. Soc., vol. iii., 1870). These theories, however, need not detain us long; they rest merely on analogies, real or imagined, between the manners of Gipsies and such Indian vagrants, and not on the evidence of language. Nor, were it even shown that any or all of these pariahs speak Romani among themselves, would such a discovery throw of necessity much light on the origin of our European Gipsies; it might simply prove that India has its Gipsy tribes. It is otherwise with the identification of Gipsies with the Jats, who in the Punjab alone numbered (1871) 1,309,399,-a theory started by Pott, elaborated by Batail. the Geogr. Soc., vol. i., 1857), Professor de Goeje (Bijdrage tot de lard, and supported by Newbold, Sir H. Rawlinson (Proceedings of Geschiedenis der Zigeuners, Amst., 1875), Captain Burton (Academy, March 27, 1875), and a writer in the Edinburgh Review (July 1878). About 420 A.D., says Firdousi (circa 1000), the Persian monarch Behram Gur imported 10,000 minstrels from India, assigning them lands and cattle. But they, wasting their substance, angered the king, who bade them take their instruments, and roaming through the land procure by their songs a livelihood, "wherefore the Lari now wander about the world." Hamza, the Arab historian of Ispahan (c. 940), had already told how Behram dispersed through the cities of his realm 12,000 Indian musicians, "whose descendants are known as Zuth;" and of three writers who repeat the tale Mirkhond (15th century) calls the musicians Djatt. Thus Lari (mod. Pers. "Gipsy") appears to be synonymous with Zuth or Jat, the name on the one hand of Damascus Gipsies (?), on the other of an agricultural and cattle-breeding race inhabiting the valley of the Indus. Neither are records lacking of westward migrations of Jats from the Indus, as in 714 to Mopsuestia and Antioch, while in 810 we hear of them in the Tigris valley, in 834 in the marshes of Khuzistan, in 855 in the territory of the great migration that gave Europe its Gipsies, the Edinburgh Review Byzantine empire (Goeje). Jat theorists differ as to the date of the writer placing it at 1025, while Sir Henry Rawlinson regards our Gipsies as lineal descendants of Firdousi's Lûri. These writers, however, all agree in making the Gipsies Jats; but none have essayed the necessary comparison of Romani and Játakí (the idiom of the living Indian Jats), though Captain Burton himself has published a grammar of the latter in the Journal of the Bombay Asiatic Society 78

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(Bombay, 1849). We have seen that the dialect of the Turkish | Gipsies has remained unchanged for near five centuries, and the Jats are said to " preserve their vernacular tongue wherever they go. Supposing Gipsies then to have broken off from the main Jat stem so late as the eleventh, or even as early as the fifth century A.D., we should look for a striking resemblance between Játaki and Romani. Compare, however, with the foregoing paradigms the following from Burton's grammar:-SING. nom. ghord, "a horse;" gen. ghore-dá; dat. ghore-nún; acc. ghorá; abl. ghore-te or -ton, "from a horse;" PLUR. nom. ghore; gen. ghorián or ghorendá; dat. ghorián nún, &c. The Jatakí third personal pronoun, again, runs:-SING. nom. uha, "he;" gen. usadá; dat. and acc. usnún; abl. uste; PLUR. nom. uhe; gen. uhindá, &c.: its verbal formation is almost equally unlike the Romani. In the face of the great unlikeness of Romani and Játaki one may well concur with Bataillard in the rejection of this theory, and proceed to consider the later views of that writer as advanced in Les Origines des Tsiganes (Par., 1875), Les Tsiganes de l'Age du Bronze (Par., 1876), and État de la question de l'ancienneté des Tsiganes en Europe (Par., 1877). He now believes the Gipsies to have existed in Europe from immemorial times,-a conclusion to which he is led by the absence of any record of their passage across the Bosphorus, by their enslaved condition in Wallachia in the 14th century, by the casual notices cited above of their presence at a still earlier date, and by their present monopoly of metallurgical arts in South-Eastern Europe. These mainly negative proofs lose some of their force when we remark that neither is any record known to exist of the passage of Gipsies to England, Scotland, or America; and that at Corfu in 1346 (i.e., in historic times) we read of Gipsies being reduced to vassalage. Assuredly it is a mighty leap from the Athingani of the 9th century A.D. to the Sigynne of Herodotus (v. 9), whom Bataillard claims for the ancestors of the Gipsy race. The strength, however, of the theory lies less in attempted identifications than in its explanation of the unsolved problem, What was the race that carried bronze to Northern and Western Europe? Referring for a general survey of the question to the article ARCHEOLOGY, to E. Chantre's Age de Bronze (4 vols., Paris, 1877), and to Lubbock's Prehistoric Times (2d ed., London, 1869), we extract from the last-named work the following passages:-"The absence of implements made either of copper or tin seems to indicate that the art of making bronze was introduced into Europe, [a view confirmed by the fact that] wherever we find the bronze swords or celts they are the same, not similar in character, but identical. The discovery of moulds proves that the art of casting in bronze was known and practised in many countries. Hence it appears most probable that the knowledge of metal is one of those great discoveries which Europe owes to the East. The implements of bronze appear to have belonged to a race with smaller hands than those of the present European nation. As regards the smallness of the hands, we must remember that Hindus share this peculiarity with Egyptians. The Phoenicians were well acquainted with the use of iron. We have still very much to learn in regard to the race by whom the knowledge of metal was introduced into our continent." Each passage suggests or is explained by the supposition that this was no other than the small-handed and eastern Gipsy race. The Calderari work exclusively in copper, never in iron; no Gipsy bronze-smith would have spoilt his trade by introducing iron. Traces might perhaps yet be found in Norway of the workings of a band of Calderari, who visited that country in 1874; and certainly the utensils they wrought in France were exactly similar to those that they wrought in Norway. Bataillard's theory is strengthened by the fact that so high an authority as M. de Mortillet-who is followed by Chantre and Burnouf had been independently led to a like conclusion in 1874. Its strongest confirmation, however, is the important discovery of Dr Kopernicki that in Eastern Galicia there survive to the present day certain Zlotars (Ruth. "goldsmiths"), Gipsy workers in bronze, whose processes Bataillard minutely describes in Les Zlotars (Paris, 1878). Difficulties there are in accepting the theory:-the unsettled question of the antiquity of the Romani tongue; the yawning chasm of a thousand years; above all, the unnoticed fact that nearly all the metallurgical terms of Romani seem to be borrowed from Greek kalái, "tin" (kaλalov); khárkoma, "copper" (xáλkwμa); moliv, "lead" (uoλbßiov); kakkavi, "kettle" (kakkáẞn); amunt, "anvil' (anovi); rin, "file" (pil); sivri, "hammer" (opup!) ksilávi, "pincers" (undßiov); karfin, "nail" (app); klidi, "key" (Kλeidi); gampána, "bell" (xаμráva); and pétalo, "horseshoe" (Téralov). This looks like an insuperable objection, since certainly no Calderari of to-day would borrow from French or German the names for these the most familiar objects of his long-practised calling; and unless Bataillard be prepared to maintain that Greek took the terms from Romani, not vice versa, his theory falls. Bibliography. The literature on the Gipsies is richer in appearance than in reality. Miklosich (i. 54-59) and Bataillard (Les derniers Travaux relatifs aux Bohémiens, Paris, 1872) give the titles of 118 works, a number which might be largely increased. But many of these "works" are articles hidden away in periodicals, as The

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English Gipsies," by the Rev. S. James, in The Church of Eng. land Magazine, 1875; many are mere rechauffés of earlier publications. Imperfect though it be, Grellmann's Historischer Versuch über die Zigeuner (1788; 2d and enlarged ed., Gött., 1787; Eng. translation by M. Raper, 1787) remains the only attempt at a full history of the Gipsy race; its grave deficiencies are best supplied by Sprengler's Dissertatio historica-juridica de Cinganis sive Zigeunis Leyden, 1839), by Hopf's Einwanderung der Zigeuner in Europa (Gotha, 1870), by the historical portions of Miklosich's work, and above all by Bataillard's De l'Apparition et de la Dispersion des Bohémiens en Europe (Paris, 1844), Nouvelles Recherches (Paris, 1849), and État de la Question, &c. (Paris, 1877). On the language viewed as a whole the chief authorities are-Die Zigeuner in Europa und Asien (2 vols., Halle, 1844-45), by A. F. Pott; Zigeunerisches (Halle, 1865), by G. H. Ascoli; and Ueber die Mundarten und die Wanderungen der Zigeuner Europa's (8 parts, Vienna, 1872-78), and Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Zigeunermundarten (4 parts, Vienna, 1874-78), by F. von Miklosich. From works on the Gipsies of different European lands the following may be given as a selection (the more important being marked with an asterisk):-for Turkey, *Études sur les Tchinghianés (Constan., 1870), by A. G. Paspati; for Roumania, the unsatisfactory Grammaire, Dialogues, et Vocabu laire de la Langue des Cigains (Paris, 1868), by J. A. Vaillant; for Hungary, A' czigány nyelv elemei (Pesth, 1853), by J. Bornemisza ; for Bohemia, *Romání Czib (Prague, 1821), by A. J. Puchmayer; for Germany, *Die Zigeuner in ihrem Wesen und ihrer Sprache (Leipsic, 1863), by R. Liebich; for Poland, Rys historiczny ludu cyganskiego (Wilna, 1830), by T. Narbutt; for Russia, Ueber die Sprache der Zigeuner in Russland (St Pet. 1853), by O. Böhtlingk; for Norway, Beretning am Fante- eller Landstrygerfolket i Norge, (5 parts, Christian., 1850-65), by E. Sundt; for Denmark, Tatere og Natmandsfolk i Danmark (Copenh., 1872), by F. Dyrlund; for England, *The English Gipsies and their Language (London, 1873), by C. G. Leland, Romano Lavo-Lil: Word-book of the English Gipsy Language (1874), by G. Borrow, and *The Dialect of the English Gipsies (1875), by B. Smart and H. T. Crofton; for Scotland, A History of the Gipsics (London, 1865), by W. Simson; for Italy, Zigeunerisches (Halle, 1865), by Ascoli; for the Basque Country, Vocabulaire de la Langue des Bohemiens habitant les Pays Basques Français (Bord. 1862); for Spain, The Zincali (2 vols., Lond., 1841; new ed. 1873), by Borrow. From works on non-European Gipsies selection is unnecessary, since their sum total is as follows:- "Ueber die Sprache der Zigeuner in Syrien," by Pott, in Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft der Sprache (Berlin, 1846); Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, &c. (Berlin, 1854), by U. J. Seetzen, containing a Syro-Romani vocabulary; "The Gipsies of Egypt," in the Journ. of the Roy. Asiatic Soc. (Lond., 1856), by Captain Newbold, comprehending vocabularies from Egypt, Syria, and Persia; "Die Zigeuner in Egypten," in Petermann's Mittheilungen (Gotha, 1862), by A. von Kremer; Notes et Questions sur les Bohémiens en Algerie (Paris, 1874), by P. Bataillard; and Travels in the East (Lond., 1823), by Sir W. Ouseley, vol. iii. of which gives a Karáchi vocabulary. To these may be added the specimens of the Gipsy dialects of Asia Minor, furnished by Paspati, and vocabularies from Armenia and Siberia in Miklosich's Beiträge (iv. pp. 38-41). (F. H. G.)

GIRAFFE (Camelopardalis giraffa), a mammal belonging to the ruminant group of the Artiodactyle Ungulates, and the single living representative of the family Camelopardalide. Intermediate between the members of the deer and ox families, the giraffe differs from both in having neither true horns nor antlers. It possesses however two solid, bony, and persistent appendages, attached partly to the frontal and partly to the parietal bones; and not to the former only as in the true horned ruminants, and these, unlike the processes of the latter, are distinct bones, separable, at least in the young animal, from those of the forehead. These horn-like peduncles are completely covered over by the skin of the forehead, and are terminated by a tuft of bristles, while in front of them there is a protuberance in the male to have been frequently described as a third caused by a thickening of the bone, sufficiently prominent horn. The giraffe is the tallest of existing animals, measuring usually from 15 to 16 feet high-the females being somewhat less-but attaining in the largest examples a height of 18 feet. This exceptional elevation is chiefly due to its great length of neck and limb, the cervical vertebræ, although only seven in number as in other mammals, being in this case exceedingly long. Its body is proportionately short, measuring only 7 feet between the breast and rump. and slants rapidly towards the tail-a peculiarity which has

given rise to the erroneous impression that the fore legs of the giraffe are longer than the pair behind. Its feet terminate in a divided hoof, which, says Sir Samuel Butler, "is as beautifully proportioned as that of the smallest gazelle"; and the accessory hoofs found in most ruminants are entirely awanting. Its head is small, its eyes large and lustrous; and these, which give to the giraffe its peculiarly gentle appearance, are capable of a certain degree of lateral projection, which enable the creature without turning its head to see around and to a certain extent behind it. The elevated eyes of the giraffe thus enjoy a wider range of vision than those of any other quadruped. Its nostrils are provided with a peculiar mechanism of sphincter muscles, by which they can be opened or closed at will, and the animal is thus enabled to avoid the injurious effects of the sand storms which occasionally pass over its native haunts.

Giraffe.

Its tongue is remarkable for its great length, measuring about 17 inches in the dead animal, and for its great elasticity and power of muscular contraction while living. It is covered with numerous large papillæ, and forms, like the trunk of the elephant, an admirable organ for the examination and prehension of its food. The graceful appearance presented by the giraffe, to which it owes its name through the Arabian Xirapha, is greatly heightened by the orangered colour of its hide, mottled as it is all over with darker spots; while in its long tail, ending in a luxurious tuft of dark-coloured hair, it possesses an admirable fly-whipper, without which it would probably be impossible for the giraffe to maintain its ground against the seroot fly and other stinging insects of central Africa. It lives on open plains in the neighbourhood of low woods, high forest being scrupulously avoided, as depriving it of the exten

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sive prospect which forins its chief defence against the attacks of its two great enemies-the lion and man. It feeds almost exclusively on the foliage of trees, showing a preference for certain varieties of mimosa, and for the young shoots of the prickly acacia, for browsing on which the prehensile tongue and large free lips of the giraffe are specially adapted. It is gregarious in its habits, living in small herds rarely of more than twenty individuals, although Sir S. Baker, who hunted it in Abyssinia, states that he has seen as many as a hundred thus herding together.

There is probably no animal more difficult of approach than the giraffe, owing to that exceeding wariness which prompts it to place sentinels to give the herd timely warning of approaching danger, as well as to its ability, from the elevated position of its eyes, and the openness of the ground it frequents, to see danger, and from its keenness of scent to smell it from afar. It is a fleet though by no means graceful runner, its awkward, shambling gait being due to its moving the fore and hind legs of the same side simultaneously. In hunting it on horseback the rule to be observed, according to the traveller already mentioned, is to press the giraffe the instant he starts; "it is the speed that tells upon him, and the spurs must be at work at the very commencement of the hunt, and the horse pressed along at his best pace; it must be a race at top speed from the very start, but should the giraffe be allowed the slightest advantage for the first five minutes the race will be against the horse." In pursuing it thus on horseback the experienced hunter avoids too close an approach to the creature's heels, a blow from which he has probably learnt to regard, with Dr Livingstone, as leaving little to choose between it and "a clap from the arm of a windmill." Although trusting for safety to flight, it will, when brought to bay, even turn upon the lion; and not seldom does it defend itself successfully against his attacks by the vigorous blows of its powerful limbs. It is, however, powerless against the "king of beasts" when taken unawares, and with this object the latter lies in wait by the banks of streams, and springs upon the giraffe as it seeks to quench its thirst. In captivity it is said to make use of its skin-covered horns as weapons of defence, giving impetus to the blow, not by depressing and then elevating the head, as in the butting of an ox or sheep, but by a sidelong swing of its muscular neck. The skin of the giraffe is in many parts so thick that the bullet of the hunter often fails to pierce it, the surest method of hunting it being that pursued by the Hamran Arabs of Abyssinia, who run it down, and when galloping at full speed cut the tendons of its legs, or "hamstring" it, as this operation is called, with their broadswords, and thus completely disable it.

The giraffe is only found wild in Africa, where it ranges throughout the open country of Ethiopia as far south as the confines of Cape Colony. Until about fifty years ago it was almost totally unknown in Europe; it is now, however, to be found in most of the European zoological gardens, where it appears to thrive as well on corn and hay as on the mimosas of its native haunts. It also breeds freely in confinement, so that it may now be regarded as acclimatized in Europe. The giraffe family was more largely represented and enjoyed a wider distribution during the Miocene period, fossil remains of extinct species having been found in Greece and the Siwalik Hills; while an allied genus, Helladotherium, with less neck and more body than the existing giraffe, extended during the same period from the south of France to north-west India.

The skin of the giraffe forms a valuable leather material, that made from the thicker parts being in special request for sandals; its flesh, according to Sir S. Baker, was, when roasted, the best he had ever tasted; the tendons of its long legs are valued by the Arabs as thread for sewing

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leather, and as strings for their musical instruments; while | Hecatommithi or Ecatomiti, a collection of tales told someits leg bones, which differ from those of other ruminants in what after the manner of Boccaccio, but still more closely rebeing solid, are largely used in England in the manufac-sembling the novels of Giraldi's contemporary Bandello, only ture of buttons and other articles of bone. much inferior in workmanship to the productions of either author in vigour, liveliness, and local colour. Something, but not much, however, may be said in favour of their professed claim to represent a higher standard of morality. Originally published at Monteregale, Sicily, in 1565, they were frequently reprinted in Italy, while a French translation by Chappuys appeared in 1583, and one in Spanish in 1590. They have a peculiar interest to students of English literature, as having furnished, whether directly or indirectly, the plots of Measure for Measure and Othello. That of the latter, which is to be found in the Hecatommithi (iii. 7), is conjectured to have reached Shakespeare through the French translation; while that of the former (Hecat., viii. 5) is probably to be traced to Wheatstone's Promos and Cassandra (1578), an adaptation of Cinthio's story, and to his Heptamerone (1582), which contains a direct English translation. To Giraldi also must be attributed the plot of Beaumont and Fletcher's Custom of the Country.

GIRALDI, GIGLIO GREGORIO (1479-1552), or Lilius Gregorius Gyraldus, one of the scholars and poets of the golden age of Italian literature, was born June 14, 1479, at Ferrara, where he early distinguished himself by his talents and acquirements. On the completion of his literary course he removed to Naples, where he lived on familiar terms with Pontano and Sannazaro; and subsequently to Lombardy, where he enjoyed the favour of the Mirandola family. At Milan in 1507 he studied Greek under Chalcondylas; and shortly afterwards, at Modena, he became tutor to Ercole (afterwards Cardinal) Rangone. About the year 1514 he removed to Rome, where, under Clement VII., he held the office of apostolic protonotary; but having in the sack of that city (1527), which almost coincided with the death of Cardinal Rangone his most powerful patron, lost all his property, he returned in poverty once more to Mirandola, whence again he was driven by the troubles consequent on the assassination of the reigning prince in GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS. See BARRI. 1533. The rest of his life was one long struggle with ill GIRARD, PHILIPPE HENRI DE (1775-1845), a celebrated health, poverty, and neglect; and he is alluded to with French mechanician, was born at Lourmarin, in the departsorrowful regret by Montaigne in one of his Essais (i. 34), ment of Vaucluse, 1st February 1775. In his early life he as having, like Sebastian Castalio, ended his days in utter manifested a strong aptitude for mechanical invention, and destitution. He died at Ferrara in February 1552; and he also at that time devoted his attention to botany, painthis epitaph makes touching and graceful allusion to the ing, and literature. When at the Revolution his family sadness of his end. Giraldi was a man of very extensive took refuge in Italy he supported himself there for some. erudition; and numerous testimonies to his profundity and time by painting, but afterwards, at the age of eighteen, he accuracy have been given both by contemporary and by established a soap manufactory at Leghorn. Returning to later scholars. His Historia de Diis Gentium marked a France after the fall of Robespierre, he began to conduct a distinctly forward step in the systematic study of classical chemical work at Marseilles, but soon afterwards judged it mythology; and by his treatises De Annis et Mensibus, and prudent to go to Nice, where he obtained the professorship on the Calendarium Romanum et Græcum, he contributed of chemistry and of natural history. Returning to Marto bring about the reform of the calendar, which was ulti-seilles about 1800, he afterwards went to Paris, where, in mately effected by Pope Gregory XIII. His Progymnasma company with his brother Frederick, he established a soap adversus Literas et Literatos deserves mention at least manufactory. In 1804 he and his brother took out a among the curiosities of literature; and among his other patent for what is known as the fountain lamp; and works to which reference is still occasionally made are His- at the "Exposition" of 1806 he was awarded a gold medal toriæ Poetarum Græcorum ac Latinorum; De Poetis suorum for his one-cylindered direct acting steam engine. Napoleon temporum; and De Sepultura ac vario sepeliendi ritu. having in 1810 decreed a reward of one million francs to Giraldi was also an elegant Latin poet. His Opera Omnia whoever should invent a machine for the spinning of flax were published at Leyden in 1696. equally successful with those in use for the spinning of hemp, Girard, after a course of experiments, invented and patented a flax-spinning machine. In 1813 he established a flax mill at Paris and another at Charonne, in both of which he made use of his machine; but although he was declared to have earned the reward offered for the invention the fall of Napoleon in 1815 left the decree unfulfilled. Girard, who expected that the expenses connected with his experiments would be met by the promised premium, now got into serious money difficulties, and had to leave France for Austria, where, besides establishing a flax mill at Hirtenberg, he built the first line of steam ships on the Danube. In 1825, at the invitation of the emperor Alexander I. of Russia, he went to Poland, where he erected a flax manufactory, round which grew up a village which received the name of Girardow. He was also appointed chief engineer of the mines of Poland. In 1844 he returned to Paris, and exhibited at the Exposition a large number of inventions, including a machine for combing flax, a machine for making gunlocks, several new improvements in guns, a piano of double octaves, and a new instrument called the Tremolophone. For his inventions connected with the manufacture of flax a gold medal was decreed to him by the jury; and in 1845 the Society of Inventions awarded him a sum which raised the pension he received from the Russian Government to 6000 francs. Besides the inventions already mentioned, Girard was the

GIRALDI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1504-1573), surnamed CYNTHIUS, CINTHIO, or CINTIO, Italian novelist and poet, born at Ferrara in November 1504, was educated at the university of his native town, where in 1525 he became professor of natural philosophy, and where, twelve years afterwards, he succeeded Celio Calcagnini in the chair of belleslettres. Between 1542 and 1560 he acted as private secretary, first to Ercole II. and afterwards to Alphonso II. of Este; but having, in connexion with a literary quarrel in which he had got involved, lost the favour of his patron in the latter year, he removed to Mondovi, where he remained as a teacher of literature till 1568. Subsequently, on the invitation of the senate of Milan, he occupied the chair of rhetoric at Pavia till 1573, when, in search of health, he returned to his native town, where on the 30th of December he died. Besides an epic entitled Ercole (1557), in twenty-six cantos, Giraldi wrote nine tragedies, the best known of which, Orbecche, was produced in 1541. The sanguinary and disgusting character of the plot of this play, and the general poverty of its style, are, in the opinion of many of its critics, almost fully redeemed by occasional bursts of genuine and impassioned poetry; of one scene in the third act in particular it has even been affirmed that, if it alone were sufficient to decide the question, the Orbecche would be the finest play in the world. Of the prose works of Giraldi the most important is the

Sainte Camille at the Siege of Barcelona; and not long after she published two volumes of miscellaneous pieces, Essais poétiques (1824) and Nouveaux essais poétiques (1825). A visit to Italy in 1827, during which she was enthusiastically welcomed by the literati of Rome and even crowned in the capitol, was productive of various poems, of which the most ambitious was Napoline (1833). Her marriage in 1831 to M. Émile Girardin opened up a new literary career. The contemporary sketches which she contributed from 1836 to 1839 to the feuilleton of La Presse, under the nom de plume of Charles Delaunay, were collected under the title of Lettres Parisiennes (1843), and obtained a success which has proved as permanent as it was brilliant. But it was to more elaborate efforts that the authoress would have prein a half serious half mocking mood, that it was almost a disappointment to find herself famous for so slight a thing. To the close of her life she continued to appear both as a novelist and as a writer for the stage, and in both departments she reaped a wide popularity through the wit and emotional force of her productions. Contes d'une vieille fille à ses neveux (1832), La canne de Monsieur de Balzac (1836), and Il ne faut pas jouer avec la douleur (1853) are among the best known of her romances; and her dramatic pieces include L'École des journalistes (1840), Judith (1843), Cléopatre (1847), C'est la faute du mari (1851), Lady Tartufe (1853), La joie fait peur (1854), Le chapeau d'un horloger (1854), and Une femme qui déteste son mari, which did not appear till after the author's death. In the literary society of her time Madame Girardin exercised no small personal influence, and among the frequenters of her drawing-room were Gautier and Balzac, Alfred de Musset and Victor Hugo. During the latter years of her life a pensive melancholy gathered round her: for long years she had prayed the prayer of Hannah, and her woman's heart had not been comforted. Her collected works were published in six volumes, 1860-1861.

author of a large number of others, many of them of considerable importance in connexion with various departments of industrial machinery. He died at Paris August 26, 1845. A pension of 6000 francs was bestowed in 1857 on his only surviving brother, and another on his niece. GIRARD, STEPHEN (1750-1831), American philanthropist, was born at Bordeaux on 21st May 1750. At the age of thirteen he commenced life as a sailor, and followed bis avocation with such assiduity that he was enabled, before the French requisitions of age and service allowed, to become master and captain, in October 1773. His first mercantile venture was to St Domingo in February 1774, whence he proceeded in July to the then colony of New York. After trading for three years between New York, New Orleans, and Port au Prince, he went to Phila-ferred to entrust her reputation, and she indeed confesses, delphia in May 1777, and gave up the sea for a mercantile career. While he was engaged most successfully in the prosecution of an extensive trade, the yellow fever in its most malignant type broke out in Philadelphia, sweeping away one-sixth of its population. When, during its height, a hospital was established, for which it seemed almost impossible to secure competent management, Girard devoted himself personally, fearless of all risks, to the care of the sick and the burial of the dead, not only in the hospital, of which he became manager, but throughout the city, supplying the poorer sufferers with money and provisions. Two hundred children, made orphans by the ravages of the fever, were in a great measure thrown upon his care. From this period his success commercially and financially was unexampled. He gave a portion of his time to the management of municipal affairs for several years, and rendered efficient service as warden of the port and as director of many public institutions. On the dissolution of the Bank of the United States, he instituted what is known now as the Girard Bank. During the war of 1812 "he rendered valuable services to the Government by placing at its disposal the resources of his bank at a time of difficulty and embarrassment, subscribing to a large loan which the Government had vainly sought to obtain." Girard added to his other avocations that of a practical agriculturist. He died December 26, 1831.

Girard College was founded by him for the education and support of the poor white orphans of his adopted city. His fortune amounted to about seven and a half millions of dollars. After specific legacies of two millions for the erection and endowment of the college, $140,000 to his relatives, $300,000 to the State for internal improvements, $500,000 to the city of Philadelphia to improve its eastern front, $116,000 to public charities, and various annuities and legacies, he bequeathed the residue of his estate to the city of Philadelphia, mainly for the improvement and maintenance of the college. The most minute directions were given by Girard in regard to the buildings to be erected, and the admission and management of the inmates. He specifically requires that the orphans be instructed in the purest principles of morality, so that on their entrance into active life they may evince benevolence towards their fellow creatures, and a love for truth, sobriety, and industry. As for religious belief they are left to adopt such tenets as their matured reason may lead them to prefer; and to secure this he interdicts the employment, and even the admission into the grounds, of any ecclesiastic whatever. GIRARDIN, MADAME ÉMILE DE, a French authoress, was born at Aix-la-Chapelle, January 26, 1804, and died at Paris June 29, 1855. Her maiden name was Delphine Gay, and her mother, the well-known Madame Sophie Gay, brought her up in the midst of that brilliant literary society of which she was afterwards a conspicuous ornament. In 1822 she obtained peculiarly honourable mention from the Academy for a poem on the Devotion of the Sisters of

See Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, t. iii.; G. de Molènes, "Les femmes poètes," in Revue des Deux Mondes, July 1842; Taxile Delord, Les Matinées littéraires, 1860; L'esprit de Madame Girardin, avec une préface par M. Lamartine, 1862: G. d'Heilly, Madame de Girardin, sa vie et ses œuvres, 1868.

GIRARDIN, SAINT-MARC (1801-1873), a politician and man of letters whose real name was Marc Girardin simply, was born at Paris in 1801, and died at Morsang-sur-Seine on the 11th of April 1873. His school career at the Lycée Henri IV. was a distinguished one, and he afterwards took university honours both in literature and law, but he never practised at the bar. During the reign of Charles X. he obtained several Academy prizes, and a mastership at the Lycée Louis le Grand, though his liberal principles stood a little in his way. In 1828 he began to contribute to the Journal des Débats, on the staff of which he remained for nearly half a century. At the accession of Louis Philippe he was appointed professor of history at the Sorbonne and master of requests. Soon afterwards he exchanged his chair of history for one of literature, continuing to contribute political articles to the Débats, and sitting as deputy in the chamber from 1835 to 1848. As a professor he directed his efforts chiefly against the clerical reaction. In 1844 he was elected a member of the Academy. During the revolution of February 1848 Girardin was for a moment a minister, but after the establishment of the republic he was not re-elected deputy, nor did he take any prominent part in politics during the second empire save with his pen. In the capacity of journalist he continued to be active, and interested himself not merely in moderate opposition to the Government at home but also in foreign politics, especially in the affairs of Syria, Greece, and Turkey. After the war of 1870 he was returned to the Bordeaux assembly by his old

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