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as ne came afterwards to be called), there was constructed a magnificent system of canals which completely remedied the evils, and the desolate region soon became one of the finest parts of the canton. The whole cost of the works up till 1823 was 974,553 francs. When the new constitution of 1836 was introduced, the Roman Catholic minority, whose influence it greatly diminished, were urged on by Bossi, the bishop of Chur (Coire), to break off from their Protestant countrymen; but the Government expelled the few priests who refused to take the oath, and separated the canton from its connexion with the diocese of Chur. After Bossi's death the decree of separation was revoked. In the Sonderbund war of 1847 Glarus was true to the federation; and the same spirit was shown in the voting about the constitution in 1872-75.

See Valentin Tschudi, Kurze historische Beschreib- oder Erzellung, der in Kriegsund Fridenszeiten verloffenen Sachen und Handlen zu Glarus, a 16th-century chronicle, printed by J. J. Blumer, in Archiv für Schweizerische Geschichte, Zurich, vol. ix., 1853; Johann Heinrich Tschudi, Beschreibung des Lobl. Orths und Lands Glarus, Zurich, 1714; Christoph Trumpi, Neuere Glarner-Chronik, Wintherthur, 1774; J. M. Schuler, Die Linththäler, Zurich, 1814; Résultat moral du desséche des marais de la Linth, Geneva, 1825; Melchior Schuler, Geschichte des Landes Glarus, Zurich, 1834; J. J. Bäbler, Geschichte u. Inhalt der alten Verträge zwischen den Reformirten u Katholiken im Kanton Glarus, Glarus, 1836; J. J. Blumer, “Das Thal Glarus unter Seckingen und Oesterreich und scine Befreiung," in Archiv für Schweizerische Geschichte, Bd iii., Zurich, 1844; Dr Oswald Heer and J.J. BlumenHeer, Der Kanton Glarus, historisch-geographisch-statistisch geschildert, St Gall, 1846, forming part of Gemälde der Schweiz, Oswald Heer, Escher von der Linth. Ein Lebensbild, Zurich, 1873; Egli, Taschenbuch Schweizer. Geographie, Zurich, 1875. GLAS, JOHN (1695-1773), the founder of the sect generally known as Glassites or Sandemanians, was born at Auchtermuchty, Fife, where his father was parish minister, on the 5th of October 1695. On completion of his education for the ministry at the universities of St Andrews and Edinburgh, he was licensed as a preacher by the presbytery of Perth, and soon afterwards ordained by that of Dundee as minister of the parish of Tealing (1719). During his ministry there he gradually formed peculiar opinions, which as early as 1725 found expression in the formation of society "separate from the multitude," numbering nearly a hundred, and drawn from his own and neighbouring parishes. The members of this ecclesiola in ecclesia pledged themselves "to join together in the Christian profession, to follow Christ the Lord as the righteousness of His people, to walk together in brotherly love and in the duties of it in subjection to Mr Glas as their overseer in the Lord, to observe the ordinance of the Lord's Supper once every month, to submit themselves to the Lord's law for removing offences" (Matth. xviii.), and so on. From the scriptural doctrine of the essentially spiritual and heavenly nature of the kingdom of Christ, Glas in his public teaching drew the conclusions, not only that the church, as being identical with that kingdom, ought to consist of none but truly spiritual Christian men, but also that the civil establishment of the church was unlawful and utterly inconsistent with the spirit of Christianity. For the promulgation of these views, which were confessedly at variance with the doctrines of the standards of the national Church of Scotland, he was summoned (1726) before his presbytery, where, in the course of the investigations which followed, he affirmed with still more explicitness than formerly his belief that " 'every national church established by the laws of earthly kingdoms is antichristian in its constitution and persecuting in its spirit," and further declared opinions upon the subject of church government which amounted to an entire repudiation of Presbyterianism and an acceptance of Independency. For these opinions he was in 1728 suspended from the discharge of ministerial functions, and finally in 1730 deposed; the members of the society already referred to, however, for the most part continued to adhere to him, thus constituting the first "Classite" or "Glasite church. The seat of this congregation was shortly afterwards transferred to Dundee, whence Glas subsequently removed to Edinburgh, where he officiated for some time as an "elder." He next laboured in Perth for a few years, but ultimately returned to Dundee, where the remainder of his life 1 His argument is most fully exhibited in a treatise entitled The Testimony of the King of Martyrs concerning His Kingdom (John xviii. 36, 37) Explained and Illustrated (1729).


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was spent. In 1739 the General Assembly, without any application either from him or from his friends, removed the sentence of deposition which had been passed against him, and restored him to the character and exercise of a minister of the gospel of Christ, though declaring that he was not to be esteemed a minister of the Established Church of Scotland, or eligible for a charge, until he should have renounced the principles embraced and avowed by him that were inconsistent with the constitution of the church. Besides the Testimony Glas wrote a number of papers, expository, polemical, or practical, which were published in a collected edition at Edinburgh in 1761 (4 vols. 8vo), and again at Perth in 1782 (5 vols. 8vo). He died in 1773.

The Glassite denomination, which has never been a numerous one, is distinguished by a number of peculiarities alike in doctrine, discipline, and worship, some of which have already been indicated. One of the most characteristic of its tenets is that which owes its elaboration to Robert Sandeman (1718-1771), the son-in-law of Glas, from whom is derived the name of Sandemanians, by which. the sect is principally known in England and America. In a series of letters (1757) to Hervey, the author of Theron and Aspasio, he maintained that justifying faith is a simple assent to the divine testimony concerning Jesus Christ, differing in no way in its character from belief in any ordinary human testimony. No distinctive theological system, however, has as yet been elaborated from this point of view. In their practice the Glassite churches aim at a strict conformity with the primitive type of Christianity of elders, pastors, or bishops, who as that is understood by them. Each congregation has a plurality of elders, pastors, or bishops, who are chosen according to what are believed to be the instructions of Paul, without regard to previous education or present occupation, and who enjoy a perfect equality in office. To have been married a second time disqualifies for ordination, or for continued tenure of the office of bishop. In all the action of the church unanimity is considered to be necessary; and if any member differ in opinion from the rest, he must either surrender his judgment to that of the church or be shut out from its communion. To join in prayer with any one who is not a member of the denomination is regarded as unlawful, and even to eat or drink with one who has been excommunicated is held to be a heinous sin. The Lord's Supper is observed weekly; and between forenoon and afternoon service every Sunday a love feast, at which it is incumbent on every member to be present, is held after the manner of the primitive Christians. Mutual exhortation is practised at all the meetings for divine service, it being lawful for any member who possesses the gift to speak. The practice of washing one another's feet was at one time observed; and it is still customary for each brother and sister to receive new members, on adm admission, with a holy kiss. 'Things strangled" and "blood are rigorously abstained from; the lot is regarded as sacred; the accumulation of wealth is regarded as unscriptural and improper, and each member considers his property as liable to be called for at any time to meet the wants of the poor and the necessities of the church. The number of adherents at present belonging to the denomination is probably a little under 2000.



GLASER, CHRISTOPHER, one of the minor chemists of little is known. He was a native of Basel, came to Paris, the 17th century, concerning the details of whose life very succeeded Lefebvre as demonstrator on chemistry in the and to the duke of Orleans. Jardin du Roi, and was appointed apothecary to Louis XIV. He is best known to us by his Traité de la Chymie (Paris, 1663), which gives a very favourable idea of the chemical science of his time. little work went through some ten editions in about fiveand English. Dumas and other writers indeed have spoken and-twenty years, and was translated into both German very disparagingly both of the Traité and of the author's to rest on altogether insufficient grounds. merits and character, but this adverse judgment appears One thing very


much against Glaser is his alleged connexion with the marchioness de Brinvilliers. It does not appear, however, that he had any share in the notorious poisonings beyond making the deadly substances which the marchioness and others employed in secret. He appears to have died some before 1676. sium) which he showed how to prepare, and the medicinal A salt (the normal sulphate of potasproperties of which he pointed out, was named Glaseri sal polychrestum, or salt of many uses. The native sulphate is still known as glaserite.


GLASGOW, the most populous city in Great Britain | added to the population of the city; this indeed is the next to London, is situated on the banks of the river Clyde, in the Scottish county of Lanarkshire, about 20 miles above Greenock, where the river spreads out into a noble estuary, with branching lochs running deep into the heart of the Western Highlands. It is within ten hours' railway run (405 miles) of the metropolis, and an hour and a quarter (45 miles) of Edinburgh, the latitude being 55° 51' 32" N., and the longitude 4° 17' 54" W. The extreme breadth of the city is about 3 miles from north to south, and the extreme length 5 miles from east to west. The circumference is about 10 miles; and the area embraced within the municipal boundaries is now (1879) 6111 acres. The population when the last census was taken in 1871 was 477,732, but during the eight years that have elapsed, the increase of inhabitants both in the city proper and in its suburbs has been very great. It is within the mark to say that above 100,000 have been

estimate given in official registration returns, which set down the population estimated to the middle of 1879 as 578,156. The smaller burghs which have sprung up round Glasgow within the last twenty or thirty years have kept pace with the mother burgh in development, and now contain a population amongst them of about 170,000. As these burghs are essentially parts of Glasgow, having been formed by the overflow of its population, they ought to be added to the city in any estimate of its size and importance. The population of Glasgow, taking this basis, is therefore close upon three quarters of a million (750,000). The increase of the population during the present century has been greater perhaps than that of any other city or town of the Old World. In 1801 it was only 77,385; in 1821 it was 147,043; in 1841, 255,650; in 1861, 395,503; and in 1871, 477,732. In 1877 the dwelling-houses numbered 105,062, and the rental exceeded £3,250,000.

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Unlike the " grey metropolis of the north," Glasgow shows rather poorly in the history of Scotland. Its own real history-the history of its commerce and industries-can hardly be dated farther back than the beginning of the last century, when the union of England and Scotland roused into extraordinary activity the trading spirit of its inhabitants. And yet Glasgow is an old city. Its foundations were laid when the half-mythical Kentigern sat down by the banks of the Molendinar, to teach the rough Celts of Strathclyde the truths of Christianity. It was about the middle of the 6th century that this apostle of truth made his appearance in the west of Scotland, and built his little wooden church on the spot upon which some centuries later his successors reared the noble cathedral which still stands in perfect beauty. One can only guess that the inhabitants of this portion of Strathclyde gathered round the abode and

church of St Mungo, and that as the site was pleasant, and the Molendinar and the Clyde supplied ample store of trout and salmon, the village under the fostering care of the monks grew slowly till it became a place of importance. Of that growth, however, nothing is really known till we reach the 12th century. In the year 1115 an investigation was ordered by David, then prince of Cumbria, of the lands and churches belonging to the bishopric of Glasgow, and from the deed which still exists it is evident that at that time a cathedral had been endowed. A few years later David succeeded to the Scottish throne on the death of his brother Alexander I., and among the many endowments he made for religious purposes, we find that he gave to the see of Glasgow the lands of Partick, besides restoring many possessions of which it had been despoiled. Jocelyn was bishop of Glasgow for a long period, and is memorable for

the efforts he made to rebuild the cathedral which had been destroyed by fire. He collected funds with so much success that in 1197 the new structure was sufficiently advanced to be dedicated. The next bishops of note were Bodington and Wisheart. The former carried on the building work of Jocelyn; the latter was a patriotic Scot who resisted the conquering army of Edward L., and was among the first to join in the revolt of Wallace, and to receive Robert Bruce when he was proscribed by Edward and lay under the ban of the church for the murder of the Red Comyn. Wisheart was a prisoner from the year 1306 to the battle of Bannockburn, and he lived to see Bruce firmly established upon the Scottish throne. Bishop Rae deserves mention for having built a stone bridge over the Clyde (1345). Bishop Turnbull was the greatest benefactor the city had till then found; for he was the founder of Glasgow university (1450). He also received a charter from James II. in 1420, erecting the town and the lands of the bishops into a regality. In 1491 the see was made metropolitan through the influence of James IV., who had been a canon of the cathedral in early life. The last Roman Catholic archbishop of Glasgow was James Bethune, consecrated in 1552. At the Reformation in 1560 the archbishop fled to France, carrying with him all the relics, documents, and valuables belonging to the see. The cathedral, upon which so much care had been bestowed by the successors of Bishop Jocelyn, very nearly suffered the devastation which was inflicted upon so many abbeys and churches by the more bigoted of the Reformers. It was saved by the craftsmen of Glasgow turning out in their strength and chasing away the destroyers of the "rookeries," who had already begun to lay sacrilegious hands upon the venerable building. After the Reformation, and till the Revolution of 1688, which re-established Presbyterianism as the religious form of worship in Scotland, the see of Glasgow was occupied by a number of archbishops, the tenure of whose office in many cases was precarious. The most notable fact after the Reformation in the history of the Glasgow Church was the Assembly of 1638 which was held in the city, when Episcopacy was energetically abjured, the Solemn League and Covenant accepted, and its signature made binding upon all who claimed the ordinances of the Presbyterian Church. The fact that the craftsmen were zealous for the preservation of their fine old cathedral indicates probably that the Reformation doctrines were not received so enthusiastically in Glasgow as in many other places in Scotland; but they took deep root latterly, and in the struggles for religious and civil liberty in the 17th century the inhabitants were among the foremost to assist and endure in the good cause.

Glasgow owed its erection into a burgh to its ecclesiastic lords. One of these obtained a royal charter from William the Lion in the last quarter of the 12th century (between the years 1175 and 1178), which made the town a burgh, and gave it a market with freedom and customs. Another charter, it is supposed, was granted in 1190, and according to a deed dated 1268 the town was governed by a provost and bailies, and had courts of justice for settling disputes among the inhabitants. There are no records, however, till almost quite recent times. A few incidents of national history with which Glasgow was connected may be noted, to fill up the blank from the period when it was an ecclesiastical town to the date at which it started its great career as the capital of Scottish industry and commerce. Wallace fought one of his successful battles for Scottish liberty in the High Street of Glasgow in the year 1300. In 1350 the plague raged in the city, and returned thirty years afterwards, though not in so severe a form. About 1542 the bishop's castle, which was garrisoned by the earl of Lennox, was besieged by the earl of Angus, then regent, and after its surrender on terms which were dishonoured, a skirmish

took place between the parties at the Butts to the east of the town. The regent's troops were successful, and to punish the inhabitants for their devotion to the Lennox family the town was pillaged. The unfortunate Queen Mary visited her husband Darnley when he lay ill at his father's house Limmerfield, near Glasgow-a visit which afterwards was made of fatal significance to her when her case was heard before Queen Elizabeth in council. The inhabitants of Glasgow had no liking for the fair queen, for many of them fought against her at the battle of Langside, where she lost her crown and kingdom. Glasgow seems to have been fairly prosperous after the accession of James VI. and the union of the crowns of England and Scotland. It was recovering from the loss which it sustained by the Reformation through the dispersion of the wealth of its ecclesiastical lords. A little trade was springing up with foreign parts, chiefly with the Low Countries. But the city suffered somewhat severely in the reign of Charles I. Its inhabitants had become fiercely anti-prelatical, and were obnoxious to the ruling powers. When Montrose in his victorious course marched into the city after the battle of Kilsyth he levied a heavy contribution, although the city was suffering at the time from one of the periodical visits of the plague. In 1648 the provost and his bailies were deposed for contumacy to Charles I., and were imprisoned for a few days, while four regiments of foot and horse were quartered on the magistrates, council, and session. Plague and famine prevailed during the following year; in 1652 there was a great fire which destroyed about a third of the town and £100,000 worth of property. After the restoration of Charles II., and during the persecutions of his and his brother's reign, Glasgow suffered severely. It was a centre of disaffection against the Government, the headquarters of the Whigs of the west of Scotland. Glasgow prison was filled to overflowing with the rebels, as they were called, and it is a proof of the sympathy with which they were regarded by the citizens that on the occasion of another great fire in 1678 the doors of the prison were thrown open, and the prisoners set at liberty. The Government retaliated by sending an army of wild Highlanders to the city, who savagely oppressed the inhabitants and roused up the spirit of resistance which vented itself at Loudon Hill and Bothwell Bridge. With the Revolution peace and prosperity came to Glasgow, only to be partially interrupted by the risings in 1715 and 1745. A regiment of 500 men was raised in Glasgow to support William and Mary and Presbyterian rights and privileges; and in return the city was declared free by a charter, the citizens having the right of electing their own municipal rulers.

Glasgow was not aware of the vast benefits that were conferred upon her by the union of England and Scotland in 1707. The measure was stoutly resisted by the inhabitants, and its proclamation nearly led to a riot; but the merchants very soon saw that by the water highway which flowed through the town they could have access to the profitable trade that had been opened up in North America. Glasgow's situation for the western foreign traffic was the best in Scotland, and inferior to none of the great towns of England. The Treaty of Union put every Scottish port, so far as trade was concerned, on an equal footing with the English ports; and there was no reason why Glasgow should not share in the wealth which in ever-increasing amount was yearly coming across the Atlantic. As has been already stated, after the troublous times of the Reformation the trade prosperity of Glasgow was considerable. In the middle of the 16th century there were ten towns in Scotland above it in population and importance, but by the close of the 17th century it had risen to the second rank, with a population of about 10,000 or 11,000. This

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increase is to be ascribed to the monopoly which the inhabitants had secured in the middle of the 17th century of the sale of raw and refined sugars for the most of Scotland. Besides this they had the right of distilling spirits from molasses free of duty; they conducted a considerable trade in cured herrings and salmon, were manufacturers of soap, and sent to the English ports hides and linen, bringing back in exchange tobacco and manufactured goods, which they distributed north of the Tweed. Bristol was then the great emporium of tobacco, and Glasgow's commercial connexions with it naturally turned the attention of its traders to that lucrative branch of commerce. When it became possible for Glasgow merchants to enter into competition with the merchants of Bristol, companies were formed to carry on the trade with the North American colonies, and a large trade was soon established. Ships were chartered, and as wealth poured in were built, and sailed regularly for Virginia, Maryland, and Carolina, taking out goods in barter for cargoes of tobacco. In 1760 Glasgow had completely rivalled Bristol in the tobacco trade, and in 1772 its importations were more than half of the entire quantity brought into the United Kingdom. The Virginian trade being exceedingly lucrative, Glasgow flourished under it. The town rapidly extended westward, handsome mansion-point to point of the jetties so as to render the channel uniform, houses for the "tobacco lords were erected, and the austerity of manners which had come down from the covenanting days was somewhat relaxed. The money made by tobacco found its way into other branches of commerce and stimulated new industries. The tobacco trade however received a crushing blow at the outbreak of the American War,- —a blow from which it never wholly recovered, for after the war was over, and the thirteen colonies had become the United States of North America, Glasgow was engaged in other commercial enterprises. The distress in the city was keen during the first years of the war, and Glasgow capitalists turned their attention to the West Indies and the cultivation of the sugar cane. The manufacture of cotton goods was introduced also about this time, and proved a new source of wealth and prosperity. Calico printing, which Calico printing, which was soon to develop into a great industry employing thousands of persons, was started at Pollokshaws in 1742; the inkle loom was set up in 1732; glass-making was established in a feeble way in 1730; and the brewing of beer and ale on a large scale was attempted with success. In 1764 James Watt perfected his first model of a steam engine in a small workshop, which had been granted to him. by the senatus of the university, within the college walls. From the Treaty of Union down to the end of the 18th century, the progress of the city had been remarkable. In 1708 the population was estimated to be upwards of 12,000; at the end of the century it was close upon 80,000.

The Harbour.-The energies of the traders of Glasgow were naturally somewhat confined by having a port so far away as PortGlasgow, and there is little wonder that, when their commerce began to extend, they should have cast about for plans to deepen the water-way and enable them to bring their merchandise to their own warehouses in the city. The task which lay before them was one involving numerous difficulties. A hundred years ago," says Mr Deas, the engineer of the Clyde trust, in his interesting sketch of The Rise and Progress of the Harbour of Glasgow, "the river was almost in a state of nature, and was fordable on foot at Dumbuck Ford, more than 12 miles below Glasgow." As early as 1566 the authorities of the towns of Glasgow, Renfrew, and Dumbarton endeavoured to remove a sandbank, a little above the latter town, and though operations were intermittingly carried on for some years, they do not appear to have been very successful. Prior to 1658 the shipping port of Glasgow was Irvine in Ayrshire, but the passage of lighters from that place was tedious and the land carriage expensive. It was determined in 1658 by the magistrates of Glasgow to purchase ground at Dumbarton, and construct a spacious harbour there. The magistrates of that royal burgh, however, objected, on the plea that "the great influx of mariners and others would raise the price of provisions to the inhabitants." The Glasgow authorities, how ever, were determined to have a harbour nearer than Irvine, and in

1662 they purchased 13 acres of ground on the south side of the river
(now Port-Glasgow), where they built harbours and constructed the
first graving dock in Scotland. In 1688 a quay was built at the
Broomielaw, although nothing had yet been done for the deepening
of the river. It was only after the city had experienced the vast
importance of foreign traffic that the magistrates, most of whom
"tobacco lords," seriously turned their attention to the ques-
tion. In 1740 the town council authorized the expenditure of £100
in making a deepening experiment below the Broomielaw quay, and
fifteen years later they employed Smeaton the well-known engineer
to report on the subject. He found the two shallowest places at
the Pointhouse Ford, now the western boundary of the harbour, and
former was 15 inches and at the latter 18 inches, while at high
at Hirst, now within the harbour. The depth at low water at the
water it was 3 feet 3 inches and 3 feet 8 inches respectively.
Smeaton proposed a lock and dam, four miles below Glasgow Bridge,
so as to secure 4 feet 6 inches of water at the Broomielaw quay.
Fortunately his report was not adopted. In 1768 the first begin-
nings were made on the report of Mr John Golborne, who suggested
the contraction of the river by the construction of rubble jetties and
the removal of the shoals by dredging. James Watt reported in
1769 to the magistrates on the declivity of the bed of the Clyde
In 1773 Mr Golborne contracted with the town council to make this
from Broomielaw quay to that obdurate obstacle Dumbuck Ford.
ford 6 feet deep at low water and 300 feet wide, and carried out his
contract successfully in 1775. Rennie reported on the river in 1799,
and recommended "the shortening of some of the jetties, the con-
struction of new ones, and the building of low rubble walls from
and prevent the accumulation of shoals." His suggestions were
carried out, and upwards of 200 jetties were constructed between
Glasgow and Bowling, the result being a considerable improvement
in the navigation, and reclamation of land to the proprietors on
both banks from the alveus of the river, the greater portion of which
has since had to be purchased at high prices for other improvements.
Telford reported in 1806, and Rennie again in 1807, and the
deepening process went on without pause. In 1836 the engineer
of the Clyde Trust reported to the trustees that there was then from
7 to 8 feet of water at the Broomielaw quay at low water, that the
lift of a neap tide, which was only sensible in 1755, was 4 feet, and
of a spring tide 7 or 8 feet, making a depth of 12 feet at high water
of a neap and of 15 feet of a spring tide. The river had become
capable of taking craft of 400 tons to Glasgow. In 1840 parliament
sanctioned an Act for carrying out plans for the further improve-
ment of the navigation of the entire river under the jurisdiction of
the trustees. Upon the lines then laid down the improvements
have ever since proceeded, with only very slight modifications, but
the result may probably be best expressed in the following figures.
and from the harbour, in 1884 of 19 feet draught, in 1861 of 20
In 1839 vessels of 17 feet draught of water were safely navigated to
feet draught, in 1862 of 21 feet draught, and in 1870 of 22 feet
draught. Only a few years ago vessels of 15 feet draught were two
and often three tides in the river in their passage up and down, but
now vessels of 22 feet draught leaving Glasgow two or three hours
before high water get to sea in one tide. The rapidity of the
deepening process has been due almost entirely to the powerful
steam dredgers employed by the trustees, to the use of the diving
bell for blasting purposes, and latterly to the introduction of steam
drilling and dynamite. The quantity of dredged matter taken
from the river every year is somewhere about a million and a
quarter of tons, which is carried off by barges and deposited in Loch
Long, an arm of the Firth running up into the Western Highlands.
During the last thirty-one years upwards of 20 million tons have
been dredged from the river, and since the year 1770 the cost for
dredging and depositing alone has been between £500,000 and
£600,000. The total expenditure upon the river since the year
above named has been upwards of seven millions sterling; and the
revenue, which a hundred years ago was £1733, is now about
£210,000. The first dock constructed at the Glasgow harbour was
opened so late as 1867. Though Acts of Parliament had been
obtained more than twenty years before, the sides of the river were
utilized for quayage extension; but within the last ten or twelve years
the pressure for space became very great, and the new dock, which is
tidal, and covers 5 acres of water space, was found to be quite inade-
quate. A new Act was obtained in 1870 to construct docks at Stob-
cross, and these, which are now nearing completion, will have an area
of 30 acres, and will accommodate one million tons of shipping. The
estimated cost, including the purchase of land, is £1,163,000.

The traffic on the Clyde received an extraordinary impetus by the application of steam to navigation, and from the date of the "Comet," which was built on the Clyde in home of steam navigation. The steam shipbuilding trade 1811-12 for Mr Henry Bell, Glasgow has been the true has become one of the largest industries of the city, and with its growth the commerce of Glasgow has kept pace.

artificial light within and beyond the municipal boundaries,
and is at present engaged in bringing to a successful close
a series of city improvements on a very large scale.
City Improvements.-As the last-mentioned work is the
most important upon which the corporation has been
engaged since the introduction of Loch Katrine water, and
formed the model upon which Mr Cross, the home secre-
tary, framed his Artisans Dwellings Act, a slight sketch
of the plan upon which it was founded may be given here.
The city had grown so fast in population during the present cen-
tury that it had become greatly overcrowded, especially in the
central portions. From the leading thoroughfares of High Street,
Saltmarket, Trongate, Gallowgate, and Argyll Street long narrow
closes and wynds penetrated into the densely-built spaces behind.
The population in these regions varied from 400 to 1000 per acre,
and the dirt, darkness, and foul air in which the poor creatures
lived, made their homes breeding-places of fevers and disease of
every kind. In some of the worst spots the death-rate was 70 per
1000 per annum. The closes and wynds, besides being dens of
disease, were the haunts of the criminal class of the population,
who were able to dispose of their plunder and escape the police with
comparative ease in these deep alleys, many of them connected with
each other by ways only known to the experienced criminal. Some
benevolent citizens made a small effort at improvement about twenty
years ago, by buying up one of the most notorious of these closes;
but it was not till the City Union Railway was projected that the
attention of the municipality was fairly called to the question, or
that any step was taken by it. The Union Railway passed through
some portions of the old town which were densely overcrowded, and
it was suggested by the late Mr Blackie, who was then chief-magis-
trate, that the corporation might work in harmony with the railway
company, and clear out old and densely-crowded properties, which
the railway only touched at certain spots. Mr Carrick, the city
architect, drew out improvement plans, and in 1866 an Act was
passed by parliament enabling the corporation to acquire old over-
crowded localities, to borrow money, and to levy rates. The
improvements contemplated involved the destruction of 10,000
houses, all of them really unfit for habitation, but which were filled
by upwards of 50,000 souls. The corporation was bound by the
Act to find accommodation for the dispossessed when the numbers
exceeded 500. In point of fact, the corporation never required to
build houses, as private enterprise more than kept pace with the
operations of the improvement scheme. By the Act the corporation
was empowered to borrow £1,250,000, and to levy a rate of 6d. per
pound on the rental for five years, and 3d. per pound for ten years,
by which time it was calculated the whole work would be completed.
No sooner was the Act passed than the trustees-all of them mem-
scheduled, a delicate and difficult task, which, however, was most
bers of the town council-proceeded to purchase the properties
economically carried out, first by Sir James Watson, and afterwards
by Mr James Morrison, the conveners. The work of demolition
also went on; the densely-built districts were cleared out, open
spaces and squares secured, streets driven through huge blocks of
building, others widened, till now there is hardly a remnant left of
the old notorious abodes of fever and crime. There is still a good
deal to do, and it may be necessary to get an extension of the time
fixed in the Act, as it expires in 1881; but up to the present time
upwards of 30,000 people have been turned out of their unhealthy
homes, and have been provided with better ones elsewhere. So far the
improvements have been very cheaply executed. The great amount
of demolition effected by the trustees and the railway companies
greatly raised the value of building ground in the central portions
of the town; and the corporation has been able to sell the properties
portions of them for streets and open spaces.
which it had acquired at considerable profit, after utilizing large
The cost to the
citizens will be the rates which have been and are to be levied; but
perhaps to this should be added an uncertain amount represented
by the rise of house rents. Up to May 1878 the sum raised by
total amount which the improvements will cost will be about
rates was £305,867; and, adding to that other three years' rates, the
£375,000, £40,000 of which was spent in buying a park for the use
of the people in the north-eastern district of the city.

The river has been the fruitful source of the city's greatness. | the kingdom, has bought up the old gas-works and supplies As the accessibility of the water-way became greater year by year, so the commerce and the industries of the city developed, and the material wealth increased. Glasgow, too, is fortunate in being the centre of an enormous coal and iron field, in the working of which she has greatly benefited. Her industries, now very numerous, are referred to in detail below. They embrace almost every species of manufacture to be found in Great Britain; and this variety is probably the reason for the all but uninterrupted prosperity of the city, for it is rare that every department of manufacture and commerce is dull at the same time. Her resources are so numerous that she is not much affected by stagnation in one or two branches. But Glasgow has undoubtedly come through one or two crises of a serious character in the course of her industrial career. In 1857 the failure of the Western Bank struck a hard blow at her trade and commerce, though it was wonderful how soon she recovered from the heavy loss and the derangement of commercial affairs which were caused by the failure. The American Civil War paralysed the cotton manufactures of Glasgow, as it did those of Lancashire; but otherwise it did little harm, and the stimulus that was given to shipbuilding by the carrying trade of the world practically falling into British hands more than compensated for other losses. The close of the American War was followed by a period of commercial and industrial activity in the city, which, however, sustained a severe check within the last two years, during which time trade has been languishing everywhere. While enterprising citizens were looking forward with some slight hope for signs of a revival, the collapse of the City of Glasgow Bank on the 2d October 1878 fell upon them like a thunderbolt. In a few days after the stoppage it was known that matters were far worse than the most sinister prophet of evil could have imagined, much less foretold. The whole of the capital and reserve of the bank, amounting to close upon a million and a half sterling, was squandered, and nearly five and a quarter millions besides. The total loss cannot be set down at much less than eight millions sterling, and the most of this enormous sum had gone to support great Indian and colonial firms, which had been hopelessly bankrupt for years. The inquiry into the affairs of the bank revealed such recklessness and misconduct on the part of some of those who were responsible for its management that the manager and the directors were tried on a charge of fabricating and uttering false balance sheets. They were all convicted, and sentenced to varied terms of imprisonment. Since this gigantic failure Glasgow has been passing through the greatest crisis of its existence. Administration. The affairs of Glasgow are managed by a corporation consisting of 48 representatives of the 16 wards into which the city is municipally divided, and by one representative from the Trades' and one from the Merchants' House. The lord provost is the head of the corporation, and is assisted in his executive functions by 10 bailies. The bailies hear and decide cases in the police courts, aided by assessors, who are local legal practitioners of good standing. There is also a stipendiary magistrate who sits every day in the central police court, and undertakes the heavier portion of the cases. The dean of guild court has a certain jurisdiction over the construction of new and the alteration of old buildings. The corporation of Glasgow, since it became popularly elected, has shown great and enlightened interest in the welfare of the city. It has during the last quarter of a century acquired three public parks for the recreation of the citizens, and laid them out in an ornamental manner. Within the same period, too, it has undertaken and carried out immense works for a supply of water unequalled in

Public Health.-The result of these improvements has been a marked decrease in the mortality. In 1866 Glasgow was one of the least healthy towns in Great Britain; in 1877 it was nearly as healthy as London. In 1866 the annual death rate was 29.6 per thousand, and continued slightly rising or falling till 1875, when there was a fall to 28.7. This was the year in which the work of the improvement trustees began to tell. In 1876 the death rate was 25.2 per thousand, in 1877 it was 24.9, and in X. 81

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