Page images

The above description of the Olympian games will serve generally for the other great festivals of Greece. Without entering on any detailed account of these, it will be sufficient here to glance at the most prominent characteristics of each.

The Pythian games, second only to the Olympian in importance, were founded after the first Sacred War out of the spoils of Cirrha, 595 B.C. Originally a local festival held every eighth year in honour of the Delphic god, with no other contests but in the harp and the pean-in fact a sort of Greek Eisteddfod-they developed into a common ayor for all Greece (so Demosthenes calls them), with all the games and races of Olympia, from which they were distinguished only by their musical and poetical competitions. They were held under the superintendence of the Amphictyones in the autumn or first half of every third Olympian year. The prizes were a wreath of laurel and a palm.

The Nemean games, originally a warlike gathering and review, were held in honour of Nemean Zeus at the grove of Nemea, between Cleona and Phlius, in the second and fourth year of each Olympiad. They date from about 570 B.C. The prize was a chaplet of parsley.

The Isthmian games, founded a little earlier than the Nemean, partook at first of the nature of mysteries. They were held on the narrowest part of the Isthmus of Corinth in honour of Poseidon in the first and third year of each Olympiad. Their prize was a wreath of pine leaves. The importance of the Isthmian games in later times is shown by the fact that Flamininus chose the occasion for proclaiming the liberation of Greece, 196 B.C. That at a later anniversary (67 A.D.) Nero repeated the proclamation of Flamininus, and coupled with it the announcement of his own infamous victory at Olympia, shows alike the hollowness of the first gift and the degradation which had befallen the Greek games, the last faint relic of Greek worth and independence.

Roman The Ludi Publici of the Romans included feasts and games. theatrical exhibitions as well as the public games with which alone we are concerned. As in Greece, they were intimately connected with religion. At the beginning of each civil year it was the duty of the consuls to vow to the gods games for the safety of the commonwealth, and the expenses were defrayed by the treasury. Thus, at no cost to themselves, the Roman public were enabled to indulge at the same time their religious feelings and their love of amusement. Their taste for games naturally grew till it became a passion, and under the empire games were looked upon by the mob as one of the two necessaries of life. The ædiles who succeeded to this duty of the consuls were expected to supplement the state allowance from their private

Political adventurers were not slow to discover so
ready a road to popularity, and what at first had been ex-
clusively a state charge devolved upon men of wealth and
ambition. A victory over some barbarian horde or the
death of a relation served as the pretext for a magnificent
display. But the worst extravagance of private citizens
was eclipsed by the reckless prodigality of the Cæsars, who
squandered the revenues of whole provinces in catering for
the mob of idle sight-seers on whose favour their throne
depended. But though public games played as important
a part in Roman as in Greek history, and must be studied
by the Roman historian as an integral factor in social and
political life, yet, regarded solely as exhibitions, they are
comparatively devoid of interest, and we sympathize with
Pliny, who asks his friend how any man of sense can go
day after day to view the same dreary round of fights and

[blocks in formation]

best were actors, the Romans from first to last were spectators. It is true that even in Greek games the professional element played a large and ever-increasing part. As early as the 6th century B.C. Xenophanes complains that the wrestler's strength is preferred to the wis lom of the philosopher, and Euripides, in a well-known fragment, holds up to scorn the brawny swaggering athlete. But what in Greece was a perversion and acknowledged to be such, the Romans not only practised but held up as their ideal. No Greek, however high in birth, was ashamed to compete in person for the Olympic crown. The Roman, though little inferior in gymnastic exercises, kept strictly to the privacy of the palæstra; and for a patrician to appear in public as a charioteer is stigmatized by the satirist as a mark of shameless effrontery.

Roman games are generally classified as fixed, extraordinary, and votive; but for our present purpose they may be more conveniently grouped under two heads according to the place where they were held, viz., the circus or the amphitheatre.

For the Roman world the circus was at once a political club, a fashionable lounge, a rendezvous of gallantry, a betting ring, and a playground for the million. Juvenal, speaking loosely, says that in his day it held the whole of Rome; and there is no reason to doubt the precise statement of P. Victor, that in the Circus Maximus there were seats for 350,000 spectators. Of the various Ludi Circences it may be enough here to give a short account of the most important, the Ludi Magni or Maximi.

Initiated according to legend by Tarquinius Priscus, the Ludi Magni were originally a votive feast to Capitoline Jupiter, promised by the general when he took the field, and performed on his return from the annual campaign. They thus presented the appearance of a military spectacle, or rather a review of the whole burgess force, which marched in solemn procession from the Capitol to the forum and thence to the circus, which lay between the Palatine and Aventine. First came the sons of patricians mounted on horseback, next the rest of the burghers ranged according to their military classes, after them the athletes, naked save for the girdle round players, next the priestly colleges bearing censers and other sacred their loins, then the company of dancers with the harp and flute instruments, and lastly the simulacra of the gods, carried aloft on their shoulders or drawn in cars. The games themselves were fourfold: (1) the chariot race; (2) the ludus Troia; (3) the military review; and (4) gymnastic contests. Of these only the first two call for any comment. (1.) The chariot employed in the circus was the two-wheeled war car, at first drawn by two, afterwards by four, and more rarely by three horses. Originally only two chariots started for the prize, but under Caligula we read of as many as twenty-four heats run in the day, each of four chariots. The distance traversed was fourteen times the length of the circus or nearly five miles. The charioteers were apparently from the first professionals, though the stigma under which the gladiator lay never attached to their calling. Indeed a successful driver may compare in popularity and panies distinguished by the colours of their tunics, whence arose fortune with a modern jockey. The drivers were divided into comthe faction of the circus which assumed such importance under the later emperors. In republican times there were two factions, the white and the red; two more, the green and the blue, were added under the empire, and for a short time in Domitian's reign there were also the gold and the purple. Even in Juvenal's day party spirit ran so high that a defeat of the green was looked upon as a second Canna. After the seat of empire had been transferred to Constantinople these factions of the circus were made the basis of political cabals, and frequently resulted in sanguinary tumults, such as the famous Nika revolt (532 A.D.), in which 30,000 citizens lost their lives. (2.) The Ludus Troia was a sham fight on horseback in which the actors were patrician youths. A spirited description of it will be found in the 5th Eneid. See also CIRCUS.

The two exhibitions we shall next notice, though occasionally given in the circus, belong more properly to the amphitheatre. Venatio was the baiting of wild animals who were pitted either with one another or with men-captives, criminals, or trained hunters The first certain instance on record of this amusecalled bestiarii. ment is in 186 B. C., when M. Fulvius exhibited lions and tigers in the arena. The taste for these brutalizing spectacles grew apace, and the most distant provinces were ransacked by generals and proconsuls to supply the arena with rare animals-giraffes, tigers,


and crocodiles. Sulla provided for a single show 100 lions, and Pompey 600 lions, besides elephants, which were matched with Gætulian hunters. Julius Caesar enjoys the doubtful honour of inventing the bull-fight. At the inauguration of the Colosseum 5000 wild and 4000 tame beasts were killed, and to commemorate Trajan's Dacian victories there was a butchery of 11,000 beasts. The naumachia was a sea fight, either in the arena, which was flooded for the occasion by a system of pipes and sluices, or on an artificial lake. The rival fleets were manned by prisoners of war or criminals, who often fought till one side was exterminated. In the sea fight on Lake Fucinus, arranged by the emperor Claudius, 100 ships and 19,000 men were engaged.

But the special exhibition of the amphitheatre was the munus gladiatorium, which dates from the funeral games of Marcus and Decimus Brutus, given in honour of their father, 264 B.C. It was probably borrowed from Etruria, and a refinement on the common savage custom of slaughtering slaves or captives on the grave of a warrior or chieftain. Nothing so clearly brings before us the vein of coarseness and inhumanity which runs through the otherwise noble character of the Roman, as his passion for gladiatorial shows. We can fancy how Pericles, or even Álcibiades, would have loathed a spectacle that Augustus tolerated and Trajan patronized. Only after the conquest of Greece we hear of their introduction into Athens, and they were then admitted rather out of compliment to the conquerors than from any love of the sport. In spite of numerous prohibitions from Constantine downwards, they continued to flourish even as late as St Augustine. To a Christian martyr, if we may credit the story told by Theodoret and Cassiodorus, belongs the honour of their final abolition. In the year 404 Telemachus, a monk who had travelled from the East on this sacred mission, rushed into the arena and endeavoured to separate the combatants. He was instantly despatched by the prætor's orders; but Honorius, on hearing the report, issued an edict abolishing the games, which were never afterwards revived. See GLADIATORS. (F. S.)

GAMES, GAMING. Looking here at these in their legal aspects, it will be seen that from very early times the law of England has attempted to exercise some control over the sports and pastimes of the people-particularly those involving an element of gambling. Certain games were either prohibited altogether, or reserved for people of some position in society. The Act 33 Henry VIII. c. 9, increasing the severity of still older enactments, deals with the whole subject in great detail, and it is interesting to notice that the reason assigned for prohibiting unlawful games was that they interfered with other exercises more useful to the state. The Act is entitled a "Bill for the maintaining artillery and the debarring unlawful games;" and it recites that, since the last statutes, "crafty persons have invented many and sundry new and crafty games and plays, as loggetting in the fields, slide-thrift, otherwise called shove-groat, as well within the city of London as elsewhere in many other and divers parts of this realm, keeping houses, plays, and alleys for the maintenance thereof, by reason whereof archery is sore decayed, and daily is like to be more and more minished, and divers bowyers and fletchers, for lack of work, gone and inhabit themselves in Scotland and other places out of this realm, there working and teaching their science, to the pursuance of the same, to the great comfort of estrangers and detriment of this realm." Accordingly penalties are declared against all persons keeping houses for unlawful games, and all persons resorting thereto. It is further provided that "no manner of artificer or craftsman of any handicraft or occupation, husbandman, apprentice labourer, servant at husbandry, journeyman or servant of artificer, mariners, fishermen, watermen, or any serving man, shall play at the tables, tennis, dice, cards, bowls, clash, coyting, loggetting, or any other unlawful game out of Christmas under the pain of xxs. to be forfeit for every time; and in Christmas to play at any of the said games in their masters' houses or in their masters' presence; and also that no manner of person shall at any time play at any bowl or bowls in open places out of his garden or orchard" (§ 16). The social evils of gambling (impoverishment, crime, neglect of divine service) are incidentally alluded to in the preamble, but only in connexion with the main purpose of the statute the maintenance of archery.


Blackstone, commenting on this and subsequent statutes, declares that "the principal ground of modern complaint is the gambling in high life" (vol. iv. c. 13), and he cites the various statutes which, up to his time, had been passed against this pernicious vice. Some of these went so far as to make the mere winning or losing of money at play a criminal offence. By the Act 18 Geo. II. c. 34 (repealed by 8 and 9 Vict. c. 109), if any man be convicted upon information or indictment of winning or. losing at play or by betting at any one time £10 or £20 within 24 hours, he shall be fined five times the sum for the benefit of the poor of the parish. And the evil of gambling, .e., betting or wagering, is the ostensible object against which the later statutes on gaming are directed. A bet or wager was, however, at common law as valid as any other kind of contract, and the distinction between bets depending on gaming and bets depending on other contingencies was long retained, and has, in fact, not yet entirely disappeared. Besides the Act last mentioned, the Acts 9 Anne c. 14, 2 Geo. II. c. 28, and 13 Geo. II. c. 34 prohibited particular games.

The modern statutes are the following-8 and 9 Vict. c. 109, 16 and 17 Vict. c. 119, and 17 and 18 Vict. c. 38.

The 8 and 9 Vict. c. 109 (Act to amend the law relating to games and wagers) repeals, inter alia, so much of the old law of Henry VIII. as makes it unlawful to play at any mere games of skill. And it provides that, to prove any house to be a common gaming-house, it "shall be sufficient unlawful game, and that a bank is kept there by one or to show that it is kept or used for playing therein at any chances of any game played therein are not alike favourable more of the players exclusively of the others, or that the to all the players, including among the players the banker or other person by whom the game is managed, or against whom the other players stake, play, or bet." Gambling, it will be noticed, is still in this definition connected with (for the suppression of betting-houses), enacts that any some kind of game; the later Act, 16 and 17 Vict c. 119 house used for the purpose of "betting with persons resorting thereto" shall be deemed to be a common gaming

To return to the former Act, it provides that proof that the gaming was for money shall not be required, and gaming shall be prima facie evidence that the house was that the presence of cards, dice, and other instruments of used as a common gaming-house. for the game of billiards is to be authorized under licence The keeping of houses sessions, and the conditions are in general the same as to from the justices to be granted at the general licensing time of opening, &c., as those of the victuallers' licences. Any persons winning money by cheating at any game or wager shall be deemed guilty of obtaining money by false pretences. The 16 and 17 Vict. c. 119, besides bringing betting-houses within the statutory definition of gaminghouses, makes it a specific offence to publish advertisements, handbills, placards, &c., showing that any house is kept or opened for the purpose of betting. With reference to the definition of betting-house in this statute, "a place opened, kept, or used for the purpose of the owner, occupier, &c., thereof, betting with persons resorting thereto," it may mentioned that it was avowedly framed for the purpose of hitting houses open to all and sundry, as distinguished from large but legally private betting-clubs like Tattersall's. The frequented mainly by a poorer class of persons, who cannot reason for this distinction, of course, is that the former are afford the luxury of gambling, and will be tempted by their Vict. gives additional facilities for enforcing the preceding losses to defraud their employers. The Act of 17 and 18 Acts, and increases the severity of the penalties. The keeper of a gaming-house may be fined up to £50 and costs, and on default of payment may be sent to gaol for twelve


months. Finally, the Vagrant Act, 1873 (36 and 37 Vict. c. 38), contains the following clause: "Every person playing or betting by way of wagering or gaming on any street, road, highway, or other open and public place, or in any open place to which the public have, or are permitted to have, access, at or with any table or instrument of gaming, or any coin, card, token, or other article used as an instrument or means of gaming, at any game or pretended game of chance, shall be deemed a rogue and vagabond.' The original Act of 1868, of which this is an amendment, was passed to repress the practice of playing pitch and toss in the streets, which, it seems, had grown to the dimensions of a nuisance in the colliery districts.

[ocr errors]

The general result of all these enactments may be briefly stated thus. Apart from statute, no games are unlawful in themselves. Games were originally made unlawful in the interest of the more useful military exercises which they threatened to supplant. The prohibition has been retained and extended on account of the vice of gambling, and severe penalties have been enacted against houses at which persons can play unlawful games. Betting-houses in general were brought within the definition of gaming-houses, and finally betting or gaming was prohibited in any public place. It must be admitted that these distinctions are based on a most invidious principle. Practically gambling is forbidden to the poor and connived at in the rich.

It may be asked, What games, as such, are lawful under these various statutes, and what are unlawful? The author of an excellent and amusing little work on Gaming and Gamesters' Law,1 gives the following as the result of a careful examination of all the Acts. The following are lawful games:-backgammon, bagatelle, billiards, boat-races, bowls, chess, cricket, croquet, curling, dominoes, draughts, fives, football, foot-races, golf, knurr and spell, putting the stone, quoits, rackets, rowing, skittles, tennis, whist, wrestling. The following are doubtful-boxing, cudgel-playing, and single-stick. The following are absolutely unlawfulace of hearts, basset, dice (except backgammon), hazard, lotteries (except art-union lotteries), Pharaoh (or faro), boulet (or roly poly). An Act of Geo. II., which prohibited horse-racing for prizes under £50 value, has since been repealed.

To turn now to the civil aspects of the case. Gambling apart from gaming, i.e., simple wagering or betting, was notat common law illegal, and the Act of Anne did not affect wagers other than gaming wagers. In fact, the courts were constantly being called upon to enforce contracts by way of wagers, and were as constantly exercising their ingenuity to discover excuses for refusing. A writer on the law of contracts? discovers here the origin of that principle of "public policy" which plays so important a part in English law. Wagering contracts were rejected because the contingencies on which they depended tended to create interests hostile to the common weal. A bet on the life of the emperor Napoleon was declared void because it gave one of the parties an interest in keeping the king's enemy alive, and also because it gave the other an interest in compassing his death by unlawful means. A bet as to the amount of the hop-duty was against public policy, because it tended to expose the condition of the king's revenue to all the world. A bet between two hackney coachmen, as to which of them should be selected by a gentleman for a particular journey, was void, because it tended to expose the customer to their importunities. When no such subtlety could be invented, the law, however reluctantly, was compelled to enforce the fulfilment of a wager. Now, however, by the Act 8 and 9 Vict. c. 109, cited supra, all agreements by way of wager

1 By F. Brandt, London, 1872.

F. Pollock, Principles of the Law of Contract.

are void, and money lost on them cannot be recovered by action at law. There still remains, as hinted above, a distinction between gaming and other wagers. The 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 41 treats securities (e.g., promissory notes) given for money lost at gaming as being given for an illegal consideration; under the 8 and 9 Vict. c. 109, securities given for betting are held to be given for a void, or for no consideration. Thus a third person, coming into possession of a note given for a bet, would have to prove that he gave value for it if the bet was a gaming bet under the statute of Anne; if it was not a gaming bet, he would be presumed to have given consideration for it until it was actually proved that he had not.

The 8 and 9 Vict. c. 109 exempts all subscriptions, or contributions, or agreements to subscribe or contribute towards any plate, prize, or sum of money to be awarded to the winner of any lawful game. (E. R.)

GANDERSHEIM (in Eberhard's Chronicle, Gandersem), a town of Germany at the head of a circle in the duchy of Brunswick, situated on the Gande, a sub-tributary of the Weser, about 48 miles S.W. of Brunswick. It is a small place numbering, according to the census of 1875, only 2454 inhabitants; but it carries on the manufacture of linen, cigars, beet-root sugar, and beer, and possesses not only an old palace built by the dukes of Brunswick in the 16th century, but an abbey which ranks among the most famous in Germany.

The abbey of Gandersheim was founded in 856, according to Eberhard's Chronicle, by the duke Ludolf of Saxony and his wife Oda, who removed to the new domicile the nuns whom they had shortly before established at Brunshausen. Their own daughter Hathumoda was the first abbess, who was succeeded on her death by her sister Gerberga. Under Gerberga's government King Louis III. granted a privilege, by which the office of abbess found competent and willing to accept the same. was to continue in the ducal family as long as any member was Otto III. gave the abbey a market, a right of toll, and a mint; and after the bishop of Hildesheim and the archbishop of Mainz had long contested with each other about its supervision, Pope Innocent ultimately recognized as holding directly of the empire, and the III. declared it altogether independent of both. The abbey was abbess had a vote in the diet as a member of the Rhenish bench of bishops. The conventual estates were of great extent, and among

the feudatories who could be summoned to the court of the abbess were the elector of Hanover and the king of Prussia. Protestantism was introduced in 1568, and Magdalena, the last Roman Catholic abbess, died in 1589; but Protestant abbesses were appointed to the foundation, and continued to enjoy their imperial privileges till 1802, when Gandersheim was incorporated with Brunswick. The last abbess was a princess of the ducal house, and kept her rank till her death. The memory of Gandersheim will long be preserved by its literary memorials. Hroswitha, the author of the famous ecclesiastical dramas, was a member of the sisterhood in the 9th. century; and the rhyming Chronicle of Eberhard of Gandersheim ranks as in all probability the earliest historical work composed in Low German. The Chronicle, which contains an account of the first period of the monastery, is edited by Wieland, in Monumenta Germ. historica (Vernacular section, vol. ii., 1877), and has been the object of a special study by Paul Hasse, Göttingen, 1872. See in J. G. von Eckhart's Veterum monumentorum quaternio, Leipsic, also "Agii vita Hathumoda abbatissæ Gandershemensis primæ," 1720; and Hase, Mittelalterliche Baudenkmäler Niedersachsens, 1870.

GANDIA, an ancient wall-encircled city of Spain, in the province and archbishopric of Valencia, is beautifully situated in the fertile huerta or garden of Gandia, about 3 miles from the mouth of the river Alcoy. Its most prominent buildings are a large collegiate church, a college of the Escuelas Pias, and a palace of the dukes of Gandia. There is some trade in the produce of the district, especially in fruit; and linen and silk are manufactured to a limited extent. St Francis de Borgia or Borja, third general of the Jesuit order, was duke of Gaudia, and spent some years of his life there. Population about 7000.

GANDO, a kingdom of north-western Africa in the Sudan, comprising that part of the territory watered by the Quorra or Niger which extends from the Birni and Say in the N.

to Idda in the S. It was established by the Fulah or Fulatah on the dissolution of the Houssa kingdom of Katchena by the death in 1817 of Sheik Othman dan Foddie. The political unity of the various parts of the kingdom is with difficulty maintained, and the process of disintegration has begun. Among the separate districts or provinces are Libtako in the north, Yaga, Saberma, Gurma, Dendima, a great part of Yoruba with the town of Ilori, Yauri, part of Nupe or Nyffe, and part of Borgu. The chief town is Gando, situated on the Sokoto, the first considerable affluent of the Niger from the east, not far from the town of Sokoto, which is the capital of the powerful kingdom of that name. Rabba, Egga, Busah, Igbegbo, and Bida are among the more important towns. The whole Gando territory is estimated at 81,500 square miles, and its population at 5,800,000. See Barth's Travels in Central Africa, and Baikie, "Journey from Bida to Kano," in Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc., 1867.


GANGANELLI. GANGES, a river of northern India, formed by the drainage of the southern ranges of the Himálayas. This mighty stream, which in its lower course supplies the great river system of Bengal, rises in the Garhwal state, and falls into the Bay of Bengal after a course of 1500 miles. It issues, under the name of the Bhagirathí, from an ice cave at the foot of an Himálayan snow bed near Gangotri, 10,300 feet above the level of the sea. During its earlier passage through the southern spurs of the Himalayas, it receives the Jahnavi from the north-west, and subsequently the Alaknanda, after which the united stream takes the name of the Ganges. Deo Prayág, their point of junction, is a celebrated place of pilgrimage, as is also Gangotri, the source of the parent stream. At Sukhi it pierces through the Himalayas, and turns south-west to Hardwár, also a place of great sanctity. It proceeds by a tortuous course through the districts of Dehra Dún, Saháranpur, Muzaffarnager, Bulandshahr, and Farrukhabad, in which last district it receives the Rámgangá. Thus far the Ganges has been little more than a series of broad shoals, long deep pools, and rapids, except, of course, during the melting of the snows and throughout the rainy season. At Allahabad, however, it receives the Jumna, a mighty sister stream, which takes its rise also in the Himalayas to the west of the sources of the Ganges. The combined river winds eastwards by south-east through the North-Western Provinces, receiving the Gumti and the Gográ. The point of junction of each of these streams has more or less pretension to sanctity. But the tongue of land at Allahábád, where the Jumna and the Ganges join, is the true Prayág, the place of pilgrimage, to which hundreds of thousands of devout Hindus repair to wash away their sins in the sacred river. Shortly after passing the holy city of Benares, the Ganges enters Behar, and after receiving an important tributary, the Son, from the south, passes Patná, and obtains another accession to its volume from the Gandak, which rises in Nepál. Further to the east, it receives the Kusí, and then, skirting the Rájmahal hills, turns sharply to the southward, passing near the site of the ruined city of Gaur. By this time it has approached to within 240 miles, as the crow flies, from the sea. About 20 miles further on, it begins to branch out on the level country, and this spot marks the commencement of the delta, 220 miles in a straight line, or 300 by the windings of the river, from the Bay of Bengal. The main channel takes the name of the Padma or Padda, and proceeds in a south-easterly direction, past Pábná to Goalanda, above which it is joined by the Jamuná or inain stream of the Brahmaputra. The vast confluence of waters rushes towards the sea, receiving further additions from the hill country on the east, and forming a broad estuury known under the name of the Meghná, which enters

the Bay of Bengal near Noákháli. This estuary, however, is only the largest and most easterly of a great number of mouths or channels. The most westerly is the Húgli or Hooghly which receives the waters of a number of distributary channels that start from the parent Ganges in the neighbourhood of Murshidábád. Between the Húglí on the west. and the Meghná on the east lies the delta. The upper angle of it consists of rich and fertile districts, such as Murshidábád, Nadiyá, Jessor, and the 24 Parganás. But towards its southern base, resting on the sea, the country sinks into a series of great swamps, intercepted by a network of innumerable channels. This wild waste is known as the Sundarbans, from the sundari tree, which grows in abundance in the sea-board tracts. The most important channel of the Ganges for commerce is the Húglí, on which stands Calcutta, about 90 miles from the mouth. Beyond this city, the navigation is conducted by native craft, the modern facilities for traffic by rail, and the increasing shoals in the river, having put an end to the previous steamer communication, which plied until about 1860 as high up as Allahábád. Below Calcutta important boat routes through the delta connect the Húgli with the eastern branches of the river, both for native craft and steamers. The Ganges is essentially a river of great cities Calcutta, Monghyr, Patná, Benares, and Allahábád, all lie on its course below its junction with the Jumna; and the ancient capitals, Agra and Delhi, are on the Jumna, higher up. Jumna, higher up. The catchment basin of the Ganges is bounded on the N. by a length of about 700 miles of the Himalayan range, on the S. by the Vindhyá mountains, and on the E. by the ranges which separate Bengal from Burmah. The vast river basin thus enclosed embraces 432,480 square miles. The flood discharge of the Ganges at Rájmahál, after it has received all its important tributaries, was formerly estimated at 1,350,000 cubic feet per second. According to the latest calculations, the length of main stream of Ganges is 1540 miles, or with its longest affluent, 1680; breadth at true entrance, 20 miles; breadth of channel in dry season, 1 to 2 miles; depth in dry season, 30 feet; flood discharge, 1,800,000 cubic feet per second; ordinary discharge, 207,000 cubic feet; longest duration of flood, about 40 days. The average descent of the river from Allahábád to Benares is 6 inches per mile; from Benares to Calcutta, between 4 and 5 inches; from Calcutta to the sea, 1 to 2 inches. Great changes take place from time to time in the river bed, which alter the face of the country. Extensive islands are thrown up, and attach themselves to the mainland, while the river deserts its old bed and seeks a new channel, it may be many miles off. Such changes are so rapid and on so vast a scale, and the corroding power of the current on the bank so irresis tible, that in Lower Bengal it is considered perilous to build any structure of a large or permanent character on the margin. Many decayed or ruined cities attest the changes in the river bed in ancient times; and within our own times the main channel which formerly passed Rájmahál has turned away from it, and left the town high and dry, 7 miles from the bank.

GANGI, a town of Italy, in the province of Palermo, and circondario of Cefalu, about 22 miles inland from the town of Cefalu. It occupies the slope of a hill on the southern flanks of the Nebrode or Monte Marone, and the ridge of the hill is crowned by a striking fortress with three towers, only one of which, however, is entire. The inhabitants, who in 1871 numbered 12,921, cultivate grain and manufacture cheese in sufficient quantities to maintain a moderate trade. Gangi Vetere or Old Gangi, in the vicinity, is identified, according to a conjecture of Cluverius, with the ancient Enguium or Engyum. The foundation of Enguium was ascribed by Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch to a Cretan

settlement, and Plutarch relates that relics of Meriones and Ulysses were exhibited in his time in the town. Having sided with the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War, it was saved from the vengeance of Marcellus by the entreaties of a certain Nicias. At the close of the republic it was a municipal town, with considerable celebrity on account of the temple of the Great Mother, as Cicero calls her. GANGOTRI, a celebrated place of Hindu pilgrimage, situated among the Himalaya Mountains, in the state of Garhwal, on the Ganges, which is here not above 15 or 20 yards broad, with a moderate current, and not in general above 3 feet deep. The course of the river runs N. by E.; and on the bank near Gangotri there is a small temple about 8 or 10 feet high, in which are two images representing the Ganges and Bhagirathi rivers. The bed of the river adjoining the temple is divided off by the Brahmans into three basins, where the pilgrims bathe. One of these portions is dedicated to Brahma, another to Vishnu, and the third to Siva. The pilgrimage to Gangotri is considered efficacious in washing away the sins of the devotee, and ensuring him eternal happiness in the world to come. The water taken from this sacred spot is exported by pilgrims to India, and sold at a high price. It is drawn under the inspection of a Brahman, to whom a trifling sum is paid for the privilege of taking it, and the vessels are then sealed. The elevation of the temple above the sea is 10,319 feet. Long. 78° 59' E., lat. 30° 59' N.

GANGPUR, a tributary state of Chutiá Nágpur, Bengal, situated between 21° 47' 5" and 22° 32′ 20′′ N. lat., and 85° 10′ 15′′ and 85° 34′ 35′′ E. long. It is bounded on the N. by Lohárdagá district and Jashpur state; on the E. by Singbhum district; on the S. by Bonái and Bámrá states and Sambalpur district; and on the W. by Ráipur district. Gangpur state consists of a long undulating table-land about 700 feet above the sea, sloping downwards from the higher plateau of Chutiá Nágpur to the N., and dotted with detached ranges and isolated peaks rising to a height of 2240 feet. The area is 2484 square miles. The chief products are rice, sugar-cane, oil-seeds, and tobacco, besides lac, tasar silk, resin, and catechu, yielded by the jungles. Diamonds and gold are occasionally found in the bed of the river Ib. Coal is known to exist, but is not worked. The population in 1872 numbered 73,637, viz., 37,751 males and 35,886 females. Of the total population 45,208, or 61.3 per cent., belong to various aboriginal hill tribes, such as Bhuiyás, Uráons, &c.; 9843, or 13.4 per cent., are semi-Hinduized aborigines; 18,349, or 24.9 per cent., are Hindus; and 231 are Mahometans. The state yields the rájá an estimated annual revenue of £2000, and pays an annual tribute to the British Government of £50.

GANGRENE. See MORTIFICATION. GANILH, CHARLES (1758-1836), a distinguished political economist, was born at Allanche in Cantal, on the 6th January 1758. He was educated for the profession of law, and practised as avocat. During the troubled period which culminated in the taking of the Bastille on 14th July 1789, he came prominently forward in public affairs, and was one of the seven members of the permanent Committee of Public Safety which sat at the Hôtel de Ville. He was imprisoned during the Reign of Terror, and was only released by the counter-revolution of the 9th Thermidor. During the first consulate he was called to the tribunate, but was excluded in 1802. In 1815 he was elected deputy for Cantal, and finally left the chamber on its dissolution in 1823. He died in 1836. Ganilh is best known as the most vigorous defender of the mercantile school in opposition to the views of Adam Smith and the English economists. His works, though interesting from the clearness and precision with which these peculiar opinions are presented, do not now possess much value for


the student of political economy. The most important are the treatises, Des Systèmes d'Economie Politique (1st ed., 1809; 2d ed., 1821, 2 vols.), in which the rival doctrines of economics are stated and compared, and Théorie l'Économie Politique, fondé sur les faits, which introduces largely the element of statistical detail. Other works are Essai politique sur le revenu public des peuples de l'antiquité et du moyen âge (2 vols., 1st ed., 1806; 2d ed., 1823); De la Législation (1817); and Dictionnaire Analytique d'Économie Politique (1st vol., 1826)-"a work, says Blanqui, "unworthy of him." A considerably higher estimate of Ganilh's merits than that given by Blanqui will be found in Kantz's laborious Geschichtliche Entwick. d. National-Ekonomik (sec. 85, pp. 598, 599).

[ocr errors]

GANJAM, a district of Madras, situated between 18° 18' and 19° 40′ 30′′ N. lat., and between 83° 51′ 30′′ and 85° 10' 30" E. long, bounded on the N. by Purí district in Orissa; on the E. by the Bay of Bengal, on the S. by Vizagapatam district, and on the W. by the estates of Kalahandi, Patná, and Jaipur. The district is exceedingly mountainous and rocky, but is interspersed with open valleys and fertile plains. Pleasant groves of trees in the plains give to the scenery a greener and less Indian appearance than is usually met with in the districts to the south. The mountainous tract known as the Máliyás, or chain of the eastern gháts, has an average height of about 2000 feet, -its principal peaks being Singháráj (4,976 feet), Mahendragiri (4923), and Deodanga (4534). The chief rivers are the Rushikuliyá (with its tributary the Mahanadi), the Vamsadári, and the Lánguliyá; besides numerous mountain streams and torrents. The sea and river fisheries afford a livelihood to a considerable section of the population. The hilly region abounds in forests consisting principally of sàl, with satin-wood, ebony, and sandal-wood in smaller quantities. The district abounds in game both large and small.

Ganjam formed part of the ancient kingdom of Kalinga. Its early history is involved in obscurity, and it was not till after the Gajapati dynasty ascended the throne of Orissa, that this tract became even nominally a part of their dominions. Owing to the nature of the country, the rising Mahometan power was long kept at bay; and it was not till nearly a century after the first invasion of Orissa that a Mahometan governor was sent to govern the Chikakol Sarkárs, which included the present district of Ganjam. In 1753 Chikakol, with the Northern Sarkárs, were made over to the French by Salabat Jang for the maintenance of his French auxiliaries. In 1759 Masulipatam was taken by an English force sent from Bengal, and the French were compelled to abandon Ganjam and their other factories in the north. In 1765 the Northern Sarkárs (including Ganjam) were granted to the English by imperial firman, and in August 1768 an English factory was founded at Ganjam, protected by a fort. The present district of Ganjam was constituted in 1802. In the earlier years of British rule considerable difficulty was experienced in administering the district. The country was continually in a state of confusion and disturbance; and on more than one occasion, the refractory large landholders had to be coerced by means of regular troops. In 1816 Ganjam was overrun by the Pindáris; and in 1836 occurred the Gúmsur campaign, when the British first came into contact with the aboriginal Kandhs, the suppression of whose practice of human sacrifice was successfully accomplished. A petty rising of a section of the Kandhs occurred in 1865, which was, however, suppressed without the aid of regular troops.

The census of 1872 gives the area at 8500 square miles, including 3359 square miles occupied by the Máliyá or mountain region, and the population at 779,112 males and 740,976 females, -total, according to religion : Hindus, 1,513,673; Mahometans, 4826; 1,520,088 (with 4562 villages, and 341,404 houses), classified thus Christians, 1043; Buddhists or Jains, 45; "others," 501.


« EelmineJätka »