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dramatic pieces (The Lying Valet, Lethe, The Guardian, | pathy, and at one time he seriously thought of entering the West Miss in her Teens, Irish Widow, &c.), and his alterations Point Academy and fitting himself for a soldier's career. His and adaptation of old plays, which together fill four volumes, the publication of a new paper, the Free Press, in his native place. apprenticeship ended with his minority in 1826, when he began evinced his knowledge of stage effect and his appreciation This paper was full of spirit and intellectual force, but Newburyof lively dialogue and action; but he cannot be said to port was a sleepy place and did not appreciate a periodical so fresli Mr Garrison then went to have added one new or original character to the drama. He and free; and so the enterprise failed. was joint author with Colman of The Clandestine Marriage, he became the editor of the National Philanthropist, the first Boston, where, after working for a time as a journeyman printer, in which he is said to have written his famous part of journal established in America to promote the cause of total abstinLord Ogleby. The excellent farce, High Life below Stairs, ence from intoxicating liquors. His work in this paper was highly appears to have been wrongly attributed to Garrick, and to appreciated by the friends of temperance, but a change in the probe by Townley, a clergyman. As a matter of course he 1828 he was induced to establish the Journal of the Times at Benprietorship led to his withdrawal before the end of a year. wrote many prologues and epilogues. nington, Vermont, to support the re-election to the presidency of the United States of John Quincy Adams. The new paper, though attractive in many ways, and full of force and fire, was too far ahead of public sentiment on moral questions to win a large support. Whether or not it would have lived if he had continued to be its editor, it is impossible to say; but the time had come at last when he was to enter upon the work with which his name will be for ever associated. In Boston he had met Benjamin Lundy, a Quaker philanthropist, who had been for years engaged in an effort to convince the people of the United States that they ought to do something to promote the abolition of slavery. Mr Garrison had been deeply moved by Mr Lundy's appeals, and after going to Vermont he showed the deepest interest in the slavery question. Mr Lundy was then publishing in Baltimore a small monthly paper, entitled Genius of Universal Emancipation, and he resolved to go to Bennington and invite Mr Garrison to join him in the editorship. With this object in view he walked from Boston to Bennington, through the frost and snow of a New England winter, a distance of 125 miles. His mission was successful. Mr Garrison he resolved to join him and devote himself thereafter to the work was deeply impressed by the good Quaker's zeal and devotion, and of abolishing slavery.

Garrick's correspondence (published, with a short memoir by Boaden, in 2 vols. 4to), and the notices of him in the memoirs of Hannah More and Madame D'Arblay, and above all in Boswell's Life of Johnson, bear testimony to his general worth, and to his many fascinating qualities as a friend and companion. The earlier biographies of Garrick are by Arthur Murphy (2 vols. 1801) and by the bookseller Tom Davies (2 vols., 4th ed., 1805), the latter a work of some merit, but occasionally inaccurate and confused as to dates. Mr Percy Fitzgerald's Life (2 vols. 1868) is full and spirited. A charming essay on Garrick appeared in the Quarterly Review, July 1868. (R. CA.-A. W. W.)




Copyright, 1879, by Charles Scribner's Sons. ILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON, the founder and leader of the movement for the abolition of slavery in the United States of America, was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, December 10, 1805. His parents were from the British province of New Brunswick. The father, a seacaptain, went away from home when William was a child, and it is not known whether he died at sea or on the land. The mother is said to have been a woman of high character, charming in person, and eminent for piety. For her William had the deepest reverence, and he is supposed to have inherited from her the moral qualities that specially fitted him for his career. She was entirely dependent for the support of herself and children upon her labours as a nurse. She was able to give William but a meagre chance for an education, but he had a taste for books, and made the most of his limited opportunities. She first set him to learn the trade of a shoemaker, and, when she found this did not suit him, let him try his hand at cabinetmaking. But the latter pleased him no better than the former. In October 1818, however, when he was in his fourteenth year, he was made more than content by being indentured to Ephraim W. Allen, proprietor of the Newburyport Herald, to learn the trade of a printer. He found in this occupation a happy stimulus to his literary taste and ambition, as well as some available opportunities for mental culture. He soon became an expert compositor, and after a time began to write anonymously for the Herald. His communications won the commendation of the editor, who had not at first the slightest suspicion that he was the author. He also wrote for other papers with equal success. A series of political essays, written by him for the Salem Gazette, was copied by a preminent Philadelphia journal, the editor of which attributed them to the Hon. Timothy Pickering, a distinguished statesman of Massachusetts. His skill as a printer won for him the position of foreman, while his ability as a writer was so marked that the editor of the Herald, when temporarily called away from his post, left the paper in his charge.

The printing-office was for him, what it has been for many another poor boy, no mean substitute for the academy and the college. He was full of enthusiasm for liberty; the struggle of the Greeks to throw off the Turkish yoke enlisted his warmest sym

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In pursuance of this plan he went to Baltimore in the autumn of 1829, and thenceforth the Genius was published weekly, under the joint editorship of the two men. It was understood, however, that Mr Garrison would do most of the editorial work, while Mr Lundy would spend most of his time in lecturing and procuring subscribers. On one point the two editors differed radically, Lundy being the advocate of gradual, and Garrison the champion of im that the negroes, on being emancipated, must be colonized somemediate emancipation. The former was possessed with the idea where beyond the limits of the United States; the latter held that they should be emancipated on the soil of the country, with all the rights of freemen. In view of this difference it was agreed that appending his initial to each of his articles for the information of each should speak on his own individual responsibility in the paper, the reader. It deserves mention here that Mr Garrison was then in utter ignorance of the change previously wrought in the opinions of English abolitionists by Elizabeth Heyrick's pamphlet in favour of immediate, in distinction from gradual emancipation. The sinfulness of slavery being admitted, the duty of immediate emancipation to his clear ethical instinct was perfectly manifest. He saw that it would be idle to expose and denounce the evils of slavery, while responsibility for the system was placed upon former generations, and the duty of abolishing it transferred to an indefinite future. His demand for immediate emancipation fell like a tocsin upon the ears of slaveholders. For general talk about the evils of slavery they cared little, but this assertion that every slave was entitled to instant freedom filled them with alarm and roused them to anger, for they saw that, if the conscience of the nation were to respond to the that it had become a vehicle for this dangerous doctrine, was a paper The Genius, now proposition, the system must inevitably fall. to be feared and intensely hated. Baltimore was then one of the centres of the domestic slave trade, and upon this traffic Mr Garrison heaped the strongest denunciations. A vessel owned in Newburyhe characterized the transaction as an act of "domestic piracy," and port having taken a cargo of slaves from Baltimore to New Orleans, avowed his purpose to "cover with thick infamy" those engaged therein. He was thereupon prosecuted for libel by the owner of the vessel, fined in the sum of fifty dollars, mulcted in costs of court, and, in default of payment, committed to jail. His imprisonment created much excitement, and in some quarters, in spite of the proslavery spirit of the time, was a subject of indignant comment in public as well as private. The excitement was fed by the publication of two or three striking sonnets, instinct with the spirit of liberty, which Mr Garrison inscribed on the walls of his cell. One of these, Freedom of Mind, is remarkable for freshness of thought and terseness of expression, and will probably hold a permanent place in American literature.

John G. Whittier, the Quaker poet, interceded with Henry Clay to pay Mr Garrison's fine and thus release him from prison. To the credit of the slaveholding statesman it must be said that he responded favourably, but before he had time for the requisite pre

liminaries, Mr Arthur Tappan, a philanthropic merchant of New York, contributed the necessary sum and set the prisoner free after an incarceration of seven weeks. The partnership between Mr Garrison and Mr Lundy was then dissolved by mutual consent, and the former resolved to establish a paper of his own, in which, upon his sole responsibility, he could advocate the doctrine of immediate emancipation and oppose the scheme of African colonization. He was sure, after his experiences at Baltimore, that a movement against slavery resting upon any less radical foundation than this would be inefficacious. He first proposed to establish his paper at Washington, in the midst of slavery, but on returning to New England and observing the state of public opinion there, he came to the conclusion that little could be done at the South while the nonslaveholding North was lending her influence, through political, commercial, religious, and social channels, for the sustenance of slavery. He determined, therefore, to publish his paper in Boston, and, having issued his prospectus, set himself to the task of awakening an interest in the subject by means of lectures in some of the principal cities and towns of the North. It was an up-hill work. Contempt for the negro and indifference to his wrongs were almost universal. In Boston, then a great cotton mart, he tried in vain to procure a church or vestry for the delivery of his lectures, and thereupon announced in one of the daily journals that if some suitable place was not promptly offered he would speak on the common. A body of infidels proffered him the use of their small hall; and, no other place being accessible, he accepted it gratefully, and delivered therein three lectures, in which he unfolded his principles and plans. He visited privately many of the leading citizens of the city, statesmen, divines, and merchants, and besought them to take the lead in a national movement against slavery; but they all with one consent made excuse, some of them listening to his plea with manifest impatience. He was disappointed, but not disheartened. His conviction of the righteousness of his cause, of the evils and dangers of slavery, and of the absolute necessity of the contemplated movement, was intensified by opposition, and he resolved to go forward, trusting in God for success.


foremost nations of the world, the South would speedily gives way and proclaim freedom to her bondmen. He was a man of peace, hating war not less than he did slavery; but he warned. his countrymen that if they refused to abolish slavery_by moral power a retributive war must sooner or later ensue. conflict was irrepressible. Slavery must be overthrown, if not by peaceful means, then in blood. The first society organized under Mr Garrison's auspices, and in accordance with his principles, was the "New England Anti-Slavery Society," which adopted its constitution in January 1832. In the spring of this year Mr Garrison issued his work entitled Thoughts on African Colonization, in which he showed by ample citations from official documents that the American Colonization Society was organized in the interest of slavery, and that in offering itself to the people of the North as a practical remedy for that system it was guilty of deception. His book smote the society with a paralysis from which it has never recovered. Agents of the American Colonization Society in England having succeeded in deceiving leading abolitionists there as to the character and tendency of that Society, Mr Garrison was deputed by the New England Anti-Slavery Society to visit that country for the purpose of counteracting their influence. He went in the spring of 1833, when he was but twenty-seven years of age, and was received with great cordiality by British abolitionists, some of whom had heard of his bold assaults upon American slavery, and seen a few numbers of the Liberator. The struggle for emancipation in the West Indies was then at the point of culmination; the leaders of the cause, from all parts of the kingdom, were assembled in London, and Mr Garrison was at once admitted to their councils and treated with distinguished consideration. He formed the acquaintance of Wilberforce, Clarkson, Buxton, O'Connell, George Thompson, and many others, and was greatly cheered by what he saw and heard. He was thoroughly successful in his efforts to undeceive the people of England in respect to the character and designs of the American Colonization Society, and took home with him a "Protest" against it, signed by Wilberforce, Zachary Macaulay, Samuel Gurney, On the 1st of January 1831, without a dollar of capital save in William Evans, S. Lushington, T. Fowell Buxton, James Cropper, hand and brain, and without a single subscriber, he and his partner Daniel O'Connell, and others, in which they declared their delibeissued the first number of the Liberator, avowing their "determi-rate judgment that "its precepts were delusive," and "its real nation to print it as long as they could subsist on bread and water, effects of the most dangerous nature." He also received assurances or their hands obtain employment." Its motto was, "Our country of the cordial sympathy of British abolitionists with him in is the world-our countrymen are mankind;" and the editor, in his his efforts to abolish American slavery. He gained a hearing address to the public, uttered the words which have become memor- before a large popular assembly in London, and won the confidence able as embodying the whole purpose and spirit of his life :-"I am of those whom he addressed by his evident earnestness, sincerity, in earnest I will not equivocate-I will not excuse I will not and ability. retreat a single inch-and I will be heard." Help came but slowly. For many months Mr Garrison and his brave partner, Mr Isaac Knapp, who died long before the end of the conflict, made their bed on the floor of the room, "dark, unfurnitured, and mean," in which they printed their paper, and where the mayor of Boston, in compliance with the request of a distinguished magistrate of the South, "ferreted them out," in "an obscure hole," "their only visible auxiliary a negro boy." But the paper founded under such inauspicious circumstances exerted a mighty influence, and lived to record not only President Lincoln's proclamation of emancipation, but the adoption of an amendment to the constitution of the United States for ever prohibiting slavery. It was the beginning and the nucleus of an agitation that eventually pervaded and filled every part of the country, and that baffled alike the wiles of politicians and parties and the devices of those pulpits and ecclesiastical bodies which forgot that Jesus came to preach deliverance to the captives and the opening of the prison to them that are bound. Other newspapers were afterwards established upon the same principles; anti-slavery societies, founded upon the doctrine of immediate emancipation, sprang up on every hand; the agitation was carried into political parties, into the press, and into legislative and ecclesiastical assem. blies; until in 1860 the Southern States, taking alarm from the election of a president known to be at heart opposed to slavery though pledged to enforce all the constitutional safeguards of the system, seceded from the Union and set up a separate government. In the struggle that ensued slavery was abolished by an exercise of the powers of war, as a necessary means of restoring the Union.

Mr Garrison sought the abolition of slavery by moral means alone. He knew that the national Government had no power over the system in any State, though it could abolish it at the national capital, and prohibit it in the inchoate States, called Territories. He thought it should, by the exercise of such limited powers as it possessed, bring its moral influence to bear in favour of abolition; but neither he nor his associates ever asked Congress to exercise any unconstitutional power. His idea was to combine the moral influence of the North, and pour it through every open channel upon the South. To this end he made his appeal to the Northern churches and pulpits, beseeching them to bring the power of Christianity to bear against the slave system, and to advocate the right of the slaves to immediate and unconditional freedom. He thought that, under the moral pressure thus created, and which would be re-enforced by the civilization and Christianity of the


Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, before he had an opportunity of meeting him, invited him to breakfast at his house. Mr Garrison presented himself at the appointed time; but Mr Buxton, instead of coming forward promptly to take his hand, scrutinized him from head to foot, and then inquired, somewhat dubiously, "Have I the pleasure of addressing Mr Garrison, of Boston, in the United States?" Being answered in the affirmative, he lifted up his hands and exclaimed, "Why, my dear sir, I thought you were a black man, and I have consequently invited this company of ladies and gentlemen to be present to welcome Mr Garrison, the black advocate of emancipation, from the United States of America." Mr Garrison often said that, of all the compliments he ever received, this was the only one that he cared to remember or repeat; for Mr Buxton had somehow or other supposed that no white American could plead for those in bondage as he had done, and that therefore he must be black. Mr Garrison's visit to England enraged the pro-slavery people and press of the United States at the outset, and when he returned home in September with the "Protest" against the Colonization Society, and announced that he had engaged the services of George Thompson as a lecturer against American slavery, there were fresh outbursts of rage on every hand. The American Anti-Slavery Society was organized in December of that year, putting forth a masterly declaration of its principles and purposes from the pen of Mr Garrison. This added fresh fuel to the public excitement, and when Mr Thompson came over in the next spring, the hostility to the cause began to manifest itself in mobs organized to suppress the discussion of the slavery question. Now began what Harriet Martineau called "the martyr age in America." Mr Thompson gained a favourable hearing in a few places, but his appearance in any town or city became at length the signal of a mob, and in the fall of 1835 he was compelled, in order to save his life, to embark secretly for England. Just before his departure, the announcement that he would address the Woman's AntiSlavery Society of Boston created "a mob of gentlemen of property and standing," from which, if he had been present, he could hardly have escaped with his life. The whole city was in an uproar. Mr Garrison, almost denuded of his clothing, was dragged through the streets by infuriated men with a rope around his body, by which they doubtless intended to hang him. He was rescued with great difficulty, and consigned to the jail for safety, until he could be secretly removed from the city. For two or three years. these attempts to suppress the anti-slavery movement by violence

were persisted in, but it was like attempting to extinguish a fire by pouring oil upon the flames, or like an effort to stop the roar of Niagara by increasing the volume of its waters. Anti-slavery societies were greatly multiplied throughout the North, and many men of influence, both in the church and in the state, were won to the cause. Mr Garrison, true to his original purpose, never faltered or turned back. Other friends of the cause were sometimes discouraged-he, never. The abolitionists of the United States were a united body until 1839-40, when divisions sprang up among them. Mr Garrison countenanced the activity of women in the cause, even to the extent of allowing them to vote and speak in the anti-slavery societies, and appointing them as lecturing agents. To this a strong party was opposed upon social and religious grounds. Then there were some who thought Mr Garrison dealt too severely with the churches and pulpits for their complicity with slavery, and who accused him of a want of religious orthodoxy. He was, moreover, a non-resistant, and this to many was distasteful. The dissentients from his opinions determined to form an anti-slavery political party, while he believed in working by moral rather than political party instrumentalities. These differences led to the organization of a new National Anti-Slavery Society in 1840, and to the formation of the "Liberty Party" in politics. The two societies sent their delegates to the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840, and Mr Garrison refused to take his seat in that body, because the women delegates from the United States were excluded. The discussions of the next few years served to make clearer than before the practical workings of the constitution of the United States as a shield and support of slavery; and Mr Garrison, after long and painful reflexion, came to the conclusion that its pro-slavery clauses were immoral, and that it was therefore wrong to take an oath for its support. The Southern States had a greatly enlarged representation in Congress on account of their slaves, and the national Government was constitutionally bound to assist in the capture of fugitive slaves, and to suppress every attempt on their part to gain their freedom by force. In view of these provisions, Mr Garrison, adopting a bold scriptural figure of speech, denounced the Union as a covenant with death and an agreement with hell," and adopted as his motto the legend, "No union with slaveholders." His argument on this question, in the light of ethical principles generally admitted to be sound, could not easily be answered, and many men, who shrank from the conclusion that followed therefrom, were held by it as in a vice. His exposures of the character and practical working of the pro-slavery clauses of the constitution, in spite of the impatience with which they were regarded in some quarters, made a deep impression upon the national conscience, and served to abate that undiscriminating and idolatrous reverence for the Union, upon which the slaveholders had so long relied for the protection of their One class of abolitionists sought to evade the difficulty by strained interpretations of the clauses referred to, while others, admitting that they were immoral, felt themselves obliged, notwithstanding, to support the constitution in order to avoid what they thought would be still greater evils. The American AntiSlavery Society, of which Mr Garrison was the president from 1843 to the day of emancipation, was during all this period the nucleus of an intense and powerful moral agitation, which was greatly valued by the soundest and most faithful workers in the field of politics, who greatly respected him for his fidelity to his convictions. On the other hand, Mr Garrison always had the highest respect for every earnest and faithful opponent of slavery, however far he might be from adopting his special views. He was intolerant of nothing but conscious treachery to the cause. When in 1861 the Southern States seceded from the Union and took up arms against it, he saw clearly that slavery would perish in the struggle, that the constitution would be purged of its pro-slavery clauses,


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and that the Union thenceforth, instead of being "a covenant with death and an agreement with hell," would rest upon the sure. foundations of liberty, justice, and equality to all men. He therefore ceased from that hour to advocate disunion, and devoted himself to the task of preparing the way for and hastening on the inevitable event. His services at this period were recognized and honoured by President Lincoln and others in authority, and the whole country knew that the agitation which made the abolition of slavery feasible and necessary was due to his uncompromising spirit and indomitable courage. He lived to witness the redemption of his country from the curse of human bondage, not indeed by the means which he preferred, and which he hoped would prove sufficiently potent, but by the bloody arbitrament of None the less, however, did he see in the great event the hand of that Divine Providence on which he had always relied for support in the great struggle to which his life was devoted. In 1865, at the close of the war, he declared that, slavery being abolished, his career as an abolitionist was ended. He counselled a dissolution of the American Anti-Slavery Society, insisting that it had become functus officiis, and that whatever needed to be done for the protection of the freedmen could best be accomplished by new associations formed for that purpose. The Liberator was discontinued at the end of the same year, after an existence of thirty-five years. He visited England for the second time in 1846, and again in 1867, when he was received with distinguished honours, public as well as private. In 1877, when he was there for the last time, he declined every form of public recognition. He died in New York, May 24, 1879, in the seventy-fourth year of his age, and was buried in Boston, after a most impressive funeral service, May 28. In 1843 a small volume of his Sonnets and other Poems was published, and in 1852 appeared a volume of Selections from his Writings and Speeches. His wife, Helen Eliza Benson, died in 1876. Four sons and one daughter survive them.


GARTH, SIR SAMUEL (1670-1719), a physician and poet of the age of Anne, was born of a good Yorkshire family, in 1670, it is said, but more probably at an earlier date. He was a student of Peterhouse, Cambridge, where he resided until he was received into the College of Physicians in 1691. In 1696 he became a prominent supporter of the new scheme of providing dispensaries for the relief of the sick poor, as a protection against the greed of the apothecaries. This labour having exposed him to the animosity named body, he published in 1699 a mock-heroic poem, The of many of his own profession, and especially of the lastDispensary, in six cantos, which had an instant success, passing through three editions within the year. Garth became the leading physician of the Whigs, as Radcliffe was of the Tories. In 1714 he was knighted by George I., and he died on the 18th of January 1718-19. Garth was a wealthy man, leaving estates in Warwickshire, Oxfordshire, and Buckinghamshire. He wrote little besides his best-known work The Dispensary, and Claremont, a moral In 1717 he edited a translation of epistle in verse. Ovid's Metamorphoses, himself supplying the fourteenth and part of the fifteenth book. The subject of his mockheroic epic is treated in a cumbrous style; and even in his own day Garth was accused of flatness and poverty of thought.



LL artificial light is obtained as a result either of com- | Wood and coal also, when distilled, give off combustible

ALL artificial light is obtained as a result either of mor

accurate to classify illuminating agents as those which emit light as a result of chemical action, and those which glow, from the presence of a large amount of heat, without thereby giving rise to any chemical change. The materials whence artificial light of the nature of flame has been derived are principally bodies rich in carbon and hydrogen. Wax, fats, and oils, on exposure to a certain amount of heat, undergo destructive distillation, evolving inflammable gases; and it is really such gases that are consumed in the burning of lamps and candles, the wicks bringing small proportions of the substances into a sufficient heat.

gases; and ordinary gas-lighting only differs from illumination by candles and lamps in the gas being stored up and consumed at a distance from the point where it is generated.

Inflammable gas is formed in great abundance within the earth in connexion with carbonaceous deposits, such as coal and petroleum; and similar accumulations not unfrequently occur in connexion with deposits of rock-salt; the gases from any of these sources, escaping by means of fissures or seams to the open air, may be collected and burned in suitable arrangements. Thus the "eternal fires" of Baku, on the shores of the Caspian Sea, which have been known as burning from remote ages, are due to gaseous

hydrocarbons issuing from and through petroleum deposits. In the province of Szechuen in China, gas is obtained from beds of rock-salt at a depth of 1500 or 1600 feet: being brought to the surface, it is conveyed in bamboo tubes and used for lighting as well as for evaporating brine; and it is asserted that the Chinese used this naturally evolved gas as an illuminant long before gas-lighting was introduced among European nations. At a salt mine in the comitat of Marmaro in Hungary, gas is obtained at a depth of about 120 feet, and is used for illuminating the works of the mine. Again at Fredonia (New York State) a natural emission of gas was discovered in a bituminous limestone, over the orifice of which a gasholder has been erected, and thus about 1000 cubic feet of a gas composed of marsh gas and hydride of ethyl has been made available for illumination. In the city of Erie (Pa.) there are 13 gas-wells, each yielding from 10,000 to 30,000 feet per day, the gas escaping from one of them at a pressure of 200 b per square inch. Bloomfield, Ontario co., New York, there is a spring which yields daily no less than 800,000 feet of gas of an illuminating power equal to 14 candles. The city of East Liverpool (Ohio) is entirely illuminated, and to a large extent heated, by gas-wells which exist in and around the town. The light is of extraordinary brilliancy, and is so abundant and free that the street lamps are never extinguished, and much of the manufacturing steam-power of the town, which embraces 22 potteries, giving employment to 2000 hands, is derived from the gas. The first "well," 450 feet deep, was opened in 1859, and up to the present year (1879) neither it nor any of those tapped at later dates show any sign of failing. In many other parts of America similar gas-wells exist; and several such natural jets of gas have been observed in England.

By general consent the merit of the discovery and application of artificial gas belongs to Great Britain, and the name most honourably connected with the beginning and early stages of gas-lighting is that of a Scotchman-Robert Murdoch. But previous to Murdoch's time there occur numerous suggestive observations and experiments as to inflammable air and its sources. In the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society for 1667 the existence of a "burning spring" in the coal district of Wigan is noticed by Thomas Shirley, who traced its origin to the underlying coal. In the same Transactions for 1739 is printed a letter addressed to the Hon. Robert Boyle, who died in 1691, in which the Rev. John Clayton details a series of experiments he made in distilling coal in a retort, showing, not only that he had observed the inflammable gases evolved, but that he collected and stored them for some time in bladders. In Dr Stephen Hales's work on Vegetable Staticks, published in 1726, more precise statements are made as to the distillation of coal, he having obtained from 158 grains of Newcastle coal 180 inches of inflammable air. In 1787 Lord Dundonald, in working a patented process for obtaining coal-tar, experimented with the gas evolved in the process, and occasionally used it for lighting up the hall of Culross Abbey. None of these observations, however, led to distinct practical results; and it was not till the year 1792 that William Murdoch, then residing at Redruth in Cornwall, began the investigations into the properties of gases given off by various substances which eventuated in the establishment of coal-gas as an illuminating agent. In 1797 he publicly showed the system he had matured, and in 1798, being then employed in the famous Soho (Birmingham) workshop of Boulton & Watt, he fitted up an apparatus for the manufacture of gas in that establishment, with which it was partly lighted. Thereafter the apparatus was extended, and the gas manufactured by it was introduced to other neighbouring workshops and factories. Among others who helped most materially to

develop the infant art in England were Dr Henry of Manchester, and Mr Clegg, who, succeeding Mr Murdoch at Boulton & Watt's, introduced many improvements in gas manufacture, and ultimately became the most skilful and famous gas engineer in the United Kingdom.

In 1801 M. Lebon introduced gas distilled from wood into his own house in Paris, and the success of his experiment attracted so much notice and comment as to give rise to an impression that he is entitled to the credit of the invention. Lebon's experiment came under the notice of Mr F. A. Winsor, who took up the subject with a zeal and unwearying patience which led to a recognition of the advantages of the system, and the breaking down of the powerful prejudice which existed in England against the innovation. In 1803, through Winsor's efforts, the Lyceum Theatre was lighted with gas; but it was not till 1810 that he succeeded in forming a public company for manufacturing gas, and in obtaining an Act of Parliament for the Gas-Light and Coke Company. In 1813 Westminster Bridge was first lighted with gas, and in the following year the streets of Westminster were thus illuminated, and in 1816 gas became common in London. So rapid was the progress of this new mode of illumination that in the course of a few years after its introduction it was adopted by all the principal towns in the kingdom, for lighting streets as well as shops and public edifices. In private houses it found its way more slowly, partly from an apprehension of danger attending its use, and partly from the annoyance which was experienced in many cases through the careless and imperfect manner in which the service-pipes were at first fitted up.


Artificial gas is now distilled from a variety of substances, among which are coal, shale, lignite, petroleum, turf, wood, resins, oils, and fats; and it is also prepared by carburetting or impregnating with volatile hydrocarbons other nonluminiferous gases. Of the very numerous systems of gasmaking which have been proposed since the early part of the century, none can compete for general purposes with the ordinary coal-gas process, when a supply of the raw material can be obtained at a moderate expense.

Coal-Gas.-Coals, varying greatly as they do in chemical constitution, differ also, as might be expected, as widely in their value and applicability for the manufacture of gas. Taking the leading varieties of coal to be included under anthracite, bituminous coal, and lignite or brown coal, we find that it is the class bituminous coal alone that yields varieties really serviceable for gas-making. Anthracite may be regarded as a natural coke from which the volatile constituents have been already driven off, and the more anthracitic any coal is, the less is it capable of yielding gas. Lignite also is rarely used for distillation, owing to the large proportion of oxygen and the amount of water in its composition. Of the bituminous coals again, it is only the caking or pitch coals, and the cannel or parrot coals, that are in practice used in gas-works. These also vary within very wide limits in their gas-making value, not only from the great difference among them in yield of gas, but also in the illuminating value of the gas they evolve. As a rule the coals which yield the largest percentage produce also the most highly illuminating qualities of gas. The cannel coals, which are specially recognized as "gas-coal," are most abundantly developed in Scotland and in Lancashire, and the fact of the unequalled qualities of Scotch. cannel and of the allied substance, bituminous shale, for gasmaking, has had the effect of rendering illumination by gas much more general and satisfactory in Scotland than in any other country. It is only a very imperfect valuation of any

III. Ammoniacal Liquor.
Ammonium carbonate, 2NH,.CO3.

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sulphydrate, NH4.HS.

Ammonium sulphocyanate, NH4.NCS.

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cyanide, NH4.NC.
chloride, NH4.C1.

IV. Coke and Ash in Retort.

The proportions in which coal yields these products may be indicated by thecase of a cannel giving off 11,000 feet per ton of gas of a density of 0.600. From



Ammonia water .............................................. 9.50

gas-coal that can be made from chemical analysis, the really
satisfactory test being actual experiment. According to H.
Fleck, the coal most available for gas-making should contain
to every 100 parts of carbon 6 parts of hydrogen, of which
4 parts are available for forming hydrocarbon compounds. 100 parts of such a coal there would be yielded
It is desirable that coal used for distillation in gas retorts
should be as far as possible free from sulphur, that in the
case of coking coal the amount of ash should be small, and
the proportion of oxygen should also be low, since that ele-
ment abstracts hydrogen to form injurious watery vapour.
The amount of ash present, however, in the best forms of
Scotch cannel is large; and consequently the resulting coke,
if the residue can be so called, is of comparatively little value.
Unless coal can be stored in sheds which protect it from the
weather, it ought to be used as soon as possible after being
raised, rain and sunshine being detrimental to its gas-mak-
ing qualities. The following table exhibits the chemical
analysis and gas-yielding properties of a few of the principal
and typical examples of coal for gas-making :—
Composition of Coals used in Gas-Making.

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Newcastle Cannel...

Cub. feet Lbs. of Lbs. of
of Gas. Coke. Tar.

Lbs. of

9,883 1,426 98.3 60.0 Wigan Cannel 10,850 1,332 218.3 161.6 Boghead Cannel 13,334 715 733.3 nil.


ing power
of Gas in


When the bowl of an ordinary clay pipe is filled with small fragments of bituminous coal, luted over with clay and placed in a bright fire, immediately smoke is seen to issue from the stalk which projects beyond the fire. The smoke soon ceases, and if a light is then applied to the orifice of the stalk, the issuing gas burns with a bright, steady flame, while a proportion of a black, thin, tarry liquid


The proportions, however, and even the nature of these products of distillation are greatly modified by the temperature at which the distillation is effected, a low red heat yielding a small proportion of non-condensible gas but a large amount of heavy hydrocarbon oils, whence the distillation of shales and coal in the paraffin manufacture is conducted at a low red heat. By excessive heat, on the other hand, the compounds evolved become simpler in their chemical constitution, carbon is deposited, pure hydrogen is given off, and the gain in amount of gas produced is more than counterbalanced by its poverty in illuminating properties.

Of the gases and vapours which pass out of the retorts in a highly heated condition, some portion, consisting of tarry matter and ammoniacal liquor, precipitates almost immediately by simple cooling, and other injurious constituents must be removed by a system of purification to which the gaseous products are submitted. What thereafter passes on as ordinary gas for consumption still contains some percentage of incombustible matters-aqueous vapour, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonic acid. The combustible portion also is separable into two classes, viz., non-luminous supporters of combustion, and the luminiferous constituents,--the former embracing hydrogen, marsh gas (light carburetted hydrogen), and carbonic oxide, while the latter includes the hydrocarbon gases acetylene, ethylene (olefiant gas or heavy carburetted hydrogen), propylene, butylene, and vapours of the benzol and naphthalin series.

Formerly it was the habit to regard the proportion of heavy carburetted hydrogen (ethylene and its homologues) as the measure of the illuminating power of a gas. It has, however, been pointed out by Berthelot that the proportion of such compounds in some gas of good luminous qualities. is exceedingly small; and in particular he cites the case of Paris gas, which, according to his analysis, contains only a mere trace of acetylene, ethylene, and other hydrocarbons, with 3 to 3.5 per cent. of benzol vapours. Subsequent experiments of Dittmar have proved that a mixture of pure ethylene and hydrogen burnt in the proportion of 3 volumes oozes out from the stalk. After the combustion ceases there of hydrogen to 1 of ethylene yields little more light than is left in the bowl of the pipe a quantity of char or coke. ordinary marsh gas, while benzol vapour to the extent of This simple operation is, on a small scale, an exact counter-only 3 per cent. in hydrogen, gives a brilliantly luminous part of the process by which the destructive distillation of coal is accomplished in the manufacture of gas. ducts of the distillatory process classed in the gas-works as gas, tar, and ammoniacal liquor, with a solid residue of coke, are in themselves mixtures of various definite chemical compounds; and as may be evident from the following list, these substances are very numerous and complex:— Products of the Distillation of Coal at high-red heat. L. Illuminating Gases. IL. Components of Tar. Benzol, CeHe

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Thus it is highly probable that the illuminating value of coal-gas depends much more on the presence of benzol vapour than on the proportion of the heavy gaseous hydrocarbons, and the estimation of benzol in the gas is a point. which has hitherto been comparatively neglected. In view of the inference that the presence of benzol vapour is so intimately related to illuminating power, the fact observed by Dittmar that water readily and largely dissolves it out of any gas mixture is of great consequence. When benzolated hydrogen containing 6 per cent. of benzol vapour was shaken up with water, the percentage of the vapour was found on analysis to be reduced to less than 2.

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