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N.B.—Romans are indexed under the name by which they are best
known, e.g. C. Julius Ccesar under Cccsar, but On. Pompeius Magnus
under Pompey.

Abgaeus, his treacherous advice to

Crassus, 197
Achillas, murders Pompey, 287
Aedui, allied to Caesar, 316
jEmilianus, P. Cornelius, put to

death by Pompey, 242
Afranius, L., defeated by Caesar in

Spain, 327
Africa, province of, annexed, 5;

colonial scheme of C. Gracchus

in, 61, 75; of Saturninus in, 99;

conquered by Pompey, 240 ; con-
quered by Caesar, 230, 331
Ager Publicus, the, its history, 25-

26; see Agrarian Laws
Agrarian Laws, of Ti. Gracchus, 27-

31; renewed by C. Gracchus, 60;

of Saturninus, 100; of Drusus,

105; of Rullus, 180 181; of

Caesar, 335
Agriculture, decline of Italian, 15-

20, 90-91 ; see Agrarian Laws
Ahenobarbus, L. Domitius stands

for the consulship, 222; captured

by Caesar at Corfinium, 282
Alesia, siege of, by Caesar, 322
Alexandria, Caesar at, 331
Antistius, C, praetor, saves the life

of Pompey, 238.; murdered, 240
Antonius, M., orator, slain by

Marius, 128
Antonius, C. (Hybrida), prosecuted

by Caesar, 295
Antonius, M. Creticus, foiled by

the Pirates, 249

Antonius, M. (the Triumvir), assists

Caesar, 326, 329
Autullius, Q., murdered by the

Democrats, 79-80
Aquae Sextiae, battle of, 97
Aquilius, M', Governor of Asia, 64
Arausio, victory of the Cimbri at


Archelaus, defeated by Sulla, 131

Ariovistus, defeated by Caesar, 314
Armenia, Pompey subdues, 257
Asia, province of, 6; annexed by
Rome, 37; the tithe-farming
sj'stem introduced in, 67 ; revolts
to Mithradates, 68 ; reorganised
by Sulla, 136; his arrangements
in, 155 ; the tithe-system restored
by Pompey and Crasaus, 175
Ateius, P., his opposition to Cras-
sus, 195

Athens, captured by Sulla, 130-

Attalus III., bequeaths his king-
dom to Rome, 37

Augustus (C. Julius Caesar Octavi-
anus), designated as his heir by
Caesar, 331; his administrative
system, 336

Avaricum, massacre at, 319

Aventine, Mt., battle on the, 83-

Belos, Caesar's campaign against
the, 318, 322

Bestia, L. Calpurnius, his mis-
conduct in Africa, 93

Bibulus, M. Oalpurnius, colleague
of Caesar in the consulship, op-
pressed by him, 217, 310; heads
Pompey.'s fleet, 227-228

Blossius, C, the tutor of Ti.
Gracchus, 24, 45

Bocchus, king of Numidia, sur-
renders Jugurtha to Sulla, 120-

Bruudiaium, Sulla at, 140; besieged
by Caesar, 282

Brutus, L.Junius Damasippus, mas-
"sacres the Optima tea, 142; de-
feated and slain by Sulla, 144

Brutus, M. Junius, defeated and
executed by Pompey, 242

Byzantium, Cato at, 218-219

Cjslius, M. Rufus, slain for oppos-
ing Caesar, 333

Caepio, Q. Servilius, defeated at
Arausio, 96

Caesar, C. Julius, his early life,
292-295; his political ddbut,
295; seized by Pirates, 296 ; aids
in passing the Gabinian Law,
250; his connection with Cati-
line, 299; aids Metellus Nepos,
212; his governorship in Spain,
306-307; forms the First Trium-
virate, 309; his first consulship,
310-311; his Gallic campaigns,
315-322; at the Conference of
Lucca, 273; his breach with
Pompey, 278-279; commences the
Civil War, 280; his Italian cam-
paign, 281-282; his first Spanish
campaign, 327; his Epirot cam-
paign, 284; his Egyptian cam-
paign, 331; his African cam-
paign, 331; his settlement of the
empire, 335-337 i personal char-
acteristics of, 288-291

Caesar, L. Julius, enfranchises the
Italians, m; murdered by the
Democrats, 128

Campus Martius, Lepidus defeated
in, 164

Caninius L. Gallus, aids Pompey,

Capua, projected colony of C.
Gracchus at, 61 ; of Drasus at,

Carbo, C. Papirius, democratic
leader, 52

Carbo, Gn. Papirius, aids Cinna,
140; resists Sulla, 142; his
massacres, 142; driven out of
Italy, 145 ; executed by Pompey,

Carrhae, Crassus defeated at, 197-

Carrinas, C, defeated by Pompey,
239; defeated and slain by Sulla,

Carthage, colony at, founded by C.
Gracchus, 61

Catilina, L. Sergius, his connection
with Crassus, 181-183; and with
Caesar, 299

Cato, M. Porcius, his character and
position, 203-205; anecdotes of
his youth, 206-207; his military
services, 208; reforms the
treasury, 209; aids Cicero, 210;
opposes Metellus Nepos, 2II-
212; aids Bibulus against Caesar,
217; sent to Cyprus by Clodius,
218; heads the extreme Optim-
ates, 221; his proposal to im-
peach Caesar, 223; encourages
Pompey to resist Caesar, 226;
his part in the campaign in
Epirus, 227; retires to Africa,
229; his suicide at Utica, 231-

Catulus, Q. Lutatius, defeats the
Cimbri, 121; massacred by
Marius, 128

Catulus, Q. Lutatius, junior, a
prominent Optimate, 162; de-
feats Lepidus, 164

Censorship, the, Sulla's dealings
with, 153; restored by Crassus
and Pompey, 176

Chaeronea, Sulla's victory at, 131-

Cicero, M. Tullius, supports the
Manilian Law, 255; opposes
Catiline, 183; his attitude to-
ward Crassus, 185; his futile
attempts to conciliate Pompey

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188; quarrels with Cato, 215;
banished by Clodius, 192; his
return, 193; his adventure at
Coreyra, 228-229

Cilieia, the Pirates of, 8; Sulla's
rule in, 121-122; Pompey's con-
quests in, 253, 258

Cimbri, their victories over the
Romans, 95-96; campaign of
Marius against, 97-98

Cinna, L. Cornelius, heads the
Democratic party, 127; his
massacres, 128; his futile legisla-
tion, 138; murdered by his
soldiers, 140

Claudius, Appius, father-in-law of
Ti. Gracchus, 14; a member of
the Land Commission, 36

Claudius, P. Pulcher, see Clodius

Cleopatra, Cassar's relations with,

Clodius, P. Pulcher, supported by
Crassus, 192; drives Cicero into
exile, 193; sends Cato to Cyprus,
218; assails and thwarts Pompey,
268, 272; his murder, 277

Colline Gate, battle of the, 143-144

Coreyra, Cato at, 228

Corn-dole, the, instituted by C.
Gracchus, 59; increased by
Saturninus, 99; and by Drusus,
106; abolished by Sulla, 155;
restored in B.C. 70, 176

Corfinium, capture of, by Caesar,

Cornelia (mother of the Gracchi),
14, 58

Cotta, C. Aurelius, uncle of Caesar,
175, 297

Crassus, L. Licinius, orator, mur-
dered by the Marians, 128

Crassus, M. Licinius, the Triumvir,
escapes from the massacres of
Marius, 166; joins Sulla, 167;
his military exploits, 144; ostra-
cized by Sulla for corruption, 168;
his methods of money-making,
169-170; commands against Spar-
tacus, 172; allies himself with
Pompey to obtain the consulship,
173; laws carried by them, 175-
176; intrigues of during Pompey's

absence, 179-182; his relations
with Catiline, 182; estranges
Cicero from Pompey, 188; forms
the First Triumvirate, 190; perse-
cutes Cicero, 193; endeavours to
induce Caesar to desert Pompey,
273; obtains a second consulship,
194; goes to the East, 195;
defeated and slain by the Par-
thians at Carrhae, 199-201

Crassus, P. Licinius, reconciles his
father to Cicero, 193; slain at
Carrhae, 199

Curio, C. Scribonius, partisan of
Caesar, 326; slain in Africa, 327

Cyprus, annexed by Rome, 218;
doings of Cato in, 219

Dardancs, treaty of, between
Sulla and Mithradates, 136

Delos, sacked by the fleet of Mithra-
dates, 129

Delphi, plundered by Sulla, 130

Drusus, M. Livius, opposes and
outbids C. Gracchus, 73-74

Drusus, M. Livius, junior, his
schemes of reform, 104-105 ; in-
troduces and carries laws, 107;
is thwarted by the Senate, 107;
murdered, 108

Dyrrhachium, campaign of Cjesar
and Pompey round, 227, 284, 329

Egypt, the Democrats endeavour
to annex it, 180; Pompey offers
to go to, 269-270; murder of
Pompey in, 287; campaign of
Caesar in, 331

Equester Ordo, the, its early history,
63-64; privileges bestowed on it
by C. Gracchus, 65; its misuse
of them, 67, 91; attacked by
Drusus, 104; Sulla legislates
against it, 154-155 ; its privileges
restored by Pompey and Crassus,

Etruria, depopulation of, 15; cam-
paigns of Sulla in, 143 ; of Lepidus
in, 164

Fannius, C, consul, opposes 0.
Gracchus, 72

Favonius, M., friend of Cato, 225
Fimbria, 0. Flavins, murders L.

Flacous, 133; invades Asia, 135;

slain by his troops, 136
Flaocus, M. Fulvius, endeavours to

enfranchise the Italians, 53; his

campaign in Gaul, 53 ; aids C.

Gracchus, 70; takes arms, 81;

slain by the Optimates, 84
Flaccus, L. Valerius, opposes Sulla,

133; his debt-laws, 138; mur-
dered by Fimbria, 133
Fonteius, P., adopts Clodius, 312
Freedmen, measures of Sulpicius in

favour of, 113; dealings of Sulla

with, 149
Fregellae, revolt and destruction

of, 53

Gabinics, A., his law to send
Pompey against the Pirates, 251-

Gallaeci, campaign of Caesar against

Gaul, conquests of M. Flaccus in,
53; campaign of Marina in,
97; character of its population,
315—317; conquered by Caesar,

Glaucia, C. Servilius, demagogue,
his career and death, 99-103

Gracchus, Caius Sempronius, his
early career, 53-54; obtains the
tribunate, 55 ; his attack on Popi-
lius and Octavius, 57-58; insti-
tutes the Corn-dole, 59; his legis-
lature concerning the Equcster
Ordo, 63-65; the Asiatic tithe-
farming, 67; concerning roads, 62;
his colonial schemes, 69; his desire
to enfranchise the Italians, 70-
71; opposed by Drusus, 72-73;
his schemes frustrated, 74-75;
takes arms against the Senate,
81; slain, 85

Gracchus, Tiberius Sempronius, his
character and early career, 11-13;
his doings in Spain, 14-15; his
views on the Agrarian question,
16-19; introduces his Agrarian
Law, 27; opposed by Octavius,
31-33; deposes him, 35: carries

his law, 36; its results, 37-38,
49; his popularity decays, 40;
he fails to be re-elected tribune,
43; the Optimates take arms
against him, 47; his murder,

Granius, Q., put to death by Sulla,
. 161

Greece, campaigns of Sulla in, 130-

Helvetii, campaign of Caesar

against, 313
Hortensius, Q., his strange

marriage, 221

Ileeda, Caesar's victory at, 327
Isauria, subdued by Pompey, 253;

his colonies in, 237
Italian franchise question, the, 69—
71; raised by Ti. Gracchus, 41;
pressed by Fulvius Flaccus, 53;
by 0. Gracchus, 71; by Livius
Drusus, 107-108; causes the
Social War, 109-110; partly
settled by the Julian Law, in;
completely settled by the Plautio-
Papirian Law, 111; dealings of
Sulpicius with the, 113

Jerusalem, taken by Pompey, 259;
its temple plundered by Crassus,

Juba, king of Numidia, opposes

Caesar, 331
Judicia, see Jury-Courts.
Jugurtha, his war with Rome, 92—

95; his capture by Sulla, 121
Julia, wife of Marius, her funeral, 303
Julia, daughter of C. J. Caesar,

married to Pompey, 266; her

death, 278
Junonia (Carthage), colony of, 61
Jury-courts, taken from the Senators

and given to the Knights, 64-65;

abuses of the, 91; dealings of

Drusus with, 105-106; multiplied

and restored to the Senators by

Sulla, 155 ; legislation of Pompey

and Crassus on, 175

Knights, see Equester Ordo.

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L.elius, C, his views on the

Agrarian question, 26
Latins, receives the citizenship, 111
Lentulus, P. Cornelius, friend of

Catiline, 176; executed, 210
Lepidus, M. ^milius, made consul
by Pompey's aid, 241; his re-
bellion and death, 164-165
Lucca, the conference at, 271-273
Luceria, Pompey at, 281-282
Lucullus, L. Licinius, his campaigns
against Mithradates, 165; his final
failure, 249; opposes the demands
of Pompey, 214, 263
Lusitania, Caesar's campaign in,

Macedonia, annexed by the

Romans, 5
Mallius, Gn. Maximus, defeated at

Arausio, 96
Mamilius, C. Limetanus, impeaches

Optimate leaders, 93
Mancinus, C. Hostilius, defeated by

the Numantines, 14-15
Manilius, C, carries the law giving

Pompey the Eastern command,


Marius, C, obtains the recall of
Metellus, 94; his demagogic
arts, 93-94; conquers Numidia,
95; defeats the Cimbri, 97;
his intrigues with Saturninus,
98-99; his failure in politics,
103; commands in the Social
War, no; allies himself with
Sulpicius, 114; expelled by Sulla,
125; reconquers Rome, 127; his
massacres, 128; his death, 128

Marius C, junior, defeated at
Sacriportus, 142; death of at
Praeneste, 144

Memmius, C, murdered by Satur-
ninus, 101

Merula, L. Cornelius, murdered
by the Democrats, 294

Mesopotamia, invaded by Crassus,

Messius, C, his law in favour of

Pompey, 269
Metellus, Q. Caecilius, his campaign

in Numidia, 93-94

Metellus, Q. Caecilius Nepos, his

strife with Cato, 211-213
Metellus, Q. Caecilius Pius, aids

Sulla, 126, 141 ; his campaigns in

Spain, 243, 245
Milo, T. Annius, murders Clodius,

277; slain, 333
Minucius L. Thermus, assists Cato,


Mithradates, king of Pontus, con-
quers Asia from the Romans,
112, 123; conquers Greece, 129;
his armies defeated by Sulla, 130-
134; makes peace with Sulla,
136; his later wars, 165; his
struggle with Lucullus, 249;
beaten by Pompey, 257; his
death, 259

Mithradates of Pergamus, aids
Caesar, 331

Mummius, Q., aids Ti. Gracchus,
36, 44

Munda, Caesar's victory at, 331
Muraena, L. Licinius, defended by

Cicero, 210; protects Cato, 213
Mytilene, siege of, 295

Nasica, P. Cornelius Scipio, slays
Ti. Gracchus, 48-49

Nola, siege of, by Sulla, 115, 123

Nonius, Q., murdered by Satur-
ninus, 101

Norbanus, C, defeated by Sulla,

Numantia, Ti. Gracchus at, 14-15
Numidia, wars of Metellus and

Marius in, 93-94; wars of Cfesur

in, 33'

Ootavianus, C. Julius Cffisar, de-
signated heir by Caesar, 339

Octavius, Cn,, opposes the Demo-
crats, 127; murdered by the
Democrats, 128

Octavius, M., opposes Ti. Gracchus,
31; deposed by him, 34; attacked
by C. Gracchus, 58

Octavius, M., admiral of Pompey,

Ofella, Q. Lucretius, put to death

by Sulla, 156
Opimius, L., takes Fregellae, 53;


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