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phecy, for the contemplation of the prefent age. The testimony of this unbiassed writer is too valuable to be easily abandoned ; and I am much deceived, if the Reader will not fee ample confirmation of the fyftem, respecting the three great forms of Antichrist, which the Introductory Chapter offered to his consideration, in the following sketch of the nature and effects of the Mahometan scourge of the East; more especially if he will compare the description of this power, with that which has tyrannized over the West, for the same purposes of trial and punishment, and with the animated picture of Jacobinism in this Author's address to the Ema peror of Russia, which I shall beg leave to subjoin in a note, though it more properly belongs to the subject of the following Chapter

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• " You are called on, , Sire, to crush with the irrefistible weight of your armies the enemies of religion, morality, and social order. Peace with them will be more dangerous than war. Their doctrines will have freer course; and their doctrines have done more than their armies. They have subverted the order, and confounded even the names of things. Virtues have the appellations of vices, and vices the appellations of virtues. Can Russia, in all its extended provinces, when

“ No despotism was ever more profoundly politic than that, which wielding

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every foreign contact will be poison: when every breath, except from the frozen ocean, will be full of miasma, escape the contagion ? None will escape but the elder brethren of Jacobinism, the Turks, whose equally monstrous, though less dangerous tyranny, has for fo many centuries insulted mankind, trodden under foot the laws of nations, and blafphemed Christianity; who, unprovoked, attacked, conquered, and slaughtered nations without number, murdered their sovereigns, and spilt every drop of royal blood, massacred their priests at the altar, extirpated nobility, plundered the opulent, and bound the wretched remains of the people in fetters of perpetual and hereditary slavery. They alone, till the reign of Jacobinism had made property a crime, the violation of property a legal resource of government, and the lives and poffeffions of men the right of tyranny; they alone had hitherto confounded the hereditary ranks among mankind; had depressed genius, learning, and the Christian religion, and governed their barbarous empire by slaves and assassins. Like the Jacobins, they taught Christian children to fight against their fathers, and their fathers' God; they too hold it lawful to murder prisoners in cold blood ; they too pofsess a claim to every country in the universe, and a facred right to subject all people to their laws; they too hold all other sovereigns as usurpers, and dethroning them as the highest merit. But still the Turks have a religion: and though it permits them 'numberless enormities to their own feet, and all enormities to others, they acknowledge a God, and many moral duties. 'Not

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at once the temporal and spiritual sword, converted fanaticism itself into an instrument of sovereignty, and united in one person the voice and the arm of the Divinity. In Turkey the judicial and facerdotal characters are the same. The chief engine of this hierarchy is the fetva of the Mufti, a fort of manifesto, which, like the bulls of the Roman Pontiff, originating in ecclesiastical power,

has been applied to the most important political purposes. In other countries particular reigns, or epochas, have been marked with actions disgraceful to the human species ; but here is a System of wickedness and abomination, transferred from the origin of the nation to its posterity to this very day, confirmed by their religion, and approved by those who call themselves the Priests of God P.”

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“ It is scarcely credible, how far the littleness of pride is carried by the Porte, in all their transactions with the Christian Princes. To support their faith, and to extend their empire, are the only law of nations which they acknowledge. Their treaties amount only to a temporary remission of that implacable enmity, with which their religion inspires them against every thing not Mahometan. They consider the most solemn treaties in the light of a truce, which they are at liberty to break, whenever they can more effectually serve the cause of Mahomet. In this they are much assisted by the nature of the Arabic language, which they mix with the Turkish in their public acts, and which, by the various application of its terms, literal and metaphorical, enables them to give whatever interpretation they please to the contract. When they have conquered, they put to death all ages, rank, and sex, except such as they make llaves, who are annually obliged to ransom their lives. It has frequently been debated at the Porte, to cut off all the Christians in the empire, who will not embrace Mahometanism; but avarice has in this instance triumphed over cruelty. Every species of misery and humiliation attends the Christians, who re

the contagion of their doctrines was to be feared, but their cruel sword, which once threatened the conquest of the universe, and the extinction of all virtue, dig nity, and science in the world: yet was not this first monster so tremendous, in the insolence of his power, as an enemy, as is this second monster, in the insolence of his fucceffes, as a brother.” Eton, p. 457. D Eton, p. 20, 21.

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VOL. II.

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main firm to their religion, and every honour and advantage is held out to those who abandon ito."

“ The effects produced by this monstrous government in the provinces are shocking to behold. We feek in vain for a population sufficient to compose those numerous kingdoms and states, which flourifhed when the Turks usurped their dominion: we find the country literally a desert; we find vast villages uninhabited, and of many hundreds no traces remain. The empire in its flourishing state was a vast camp.

“ The Fleet goes annually to collect the tribute from Greece and the islands in the Archipelago. It is then that the miserable Greeks' most feel the weight of the iron

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4 Eton, p. 106.

Mr. Eton affirms that the character of the Greeks is much superior to what it is usually represented by French writers, in knowledge, ability, spirit, and manly courage. They bear the Turkish yoke with great impatience, and have long been anxious for assistance to enable them to strike it off. See his account of their negotiations with the late Empress of Russia, chap. ix. The manifesto of the Greek Patriarch, after the French invaded the Morea, is in fome degree a confirmation of this opinion. 3

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