« EelmineJätka »
Supt. S. T. Dutton read his report of the discussion of Commissioner
Supt. R. H. Pratt, of the Indian Schools, at Carlisle, Pa., was introduced. He spoke briefly in reference to the schools under his charge and of the education of Indian youth generally.
General Anderson, of Hampton, Virginia, was also introduced by the President. He spoke briefly upon the education of the negro.
The Committee on School Statistics, appointed one year ago, reported as follows:
TO THE DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE, NATIONAL
GENTLEMEN:-Your Committee, appointed at the last annual meeting, for the purpose of considering and reporting on the subject of School Statistics, beg leave to offer the following preliminary report, setting forth the results of their studies on the subject, and postponing for another meeting, or for the work of another committee, if it be your pleasure, the completion of the details of a scheme of statistics which will afford the data required for a comparative study of domestic and foreign educational systems.
Your Committee would first call attention to the object and purpose of collection of statistics, which they conceive to be the following :
Statistics reveal the nature and efficiency of the powers and forces involved in a process. Forces and powers are revealed in their results. Their results are of little moment, if dead results, except as they indicate what the living power has been and still is. In matters of education we inquire into the aims and purposes of the educative process and learn this by a quantitative study of the means employed and the results attained. It is evident, therefore, at the outset, that the quantities given by our statistical tables can have no significance except in connection with the quantitative elements involved. We pass over at once from the how many to the what kind. We seek, again, new quantitative data that may indicate the quality, but we never reach quantitative data that are significant in and for themselves.
Your Committee would suggest as the four principal heads under which school statistics may be grouped :
First. Attendance of Pupils.
Statistics of attendance should answer questions like the following-
That is to say (1) How many pupils in the aggregate ? (2) How many relatively to the entire population ? (3) How many relatively to the population of the school age, say 5 to 21, 6 to 14, or some other period agreed upon ? Then this item should be further de. fined in five items : (1) How many enrolled during the annual session of school? (2) How many as average belonging ? (8) How many in actual average daily attendance ? (4) How many were dropped and afterwards readmitted ? (5) The number of cases of tardiness.
Under the second item of attendance (How long) we wish the number of daily school sessions for the year and the hours of a school session, the length and hour of recesses and intermissions.
Under the third item' of Who we include such items as-
Under the second of our four chief heads we should ask for statistics regarding the course of study, and thus determine by this grade of schools as follows
We should ask very carefully as to the relations of these items to the first class of items, especially age, sex, and average attendance.
The Primary and Grammar Schools are to be distinguished from the Secondary Schools by the following test : The introduction of Algebra, or of an ancient or modern language, marks the beginning of the secondary course of study. The higher course of study should be marked by analytic mathematics, or by logical and philosophical studies, or by advanced language studies.
The third general head, “The Teaching Forces and Appliances,” includes-
(a) Receipts from State and local taxation.
(C) Receipts, if any, from tuition. (2) EXPENDITURES.
(a) For teachers' salaries, including supervision.
Your Committee would call attention to the importance of a detailed discussion of the use to be made of these several items in studying the effective forces of educational systems and in comparing one with another. Such discussion is not here attempted, but is suggested as a proper subject of a supplementary report. Moreover, your Committee have observed the prime necessity for such a definition of the several items as to prevent misunderstanding. A description of the best methods of keeping and tabulating the several items would also be a very useful addition to such a report.
In dealing with reports, not merely reports from a foreign country, but with reports from different sections of the United States, your Committee has been impressed with the necessity of a glossary of terms used in tabulating statistics. There should be a careful collation of all terms and designations used here and abroad, and so minute a description given of the processes of ascertaining the data under the several heads, as to leave no doubt in the mind as to the exact meaning of each. Without this accurate information there can be no satisfactory comparative study of school systems. All of which is respectfully submitted.
W. T. HARRIS.
The above report was received, approved, and again referred to the Committee for further elaboration and report at the next meeting, one
Mr. W. E. Sheldon presented a verbal report of the Committee on Publication, appointed at the New York meeting in 1890. He stated that arrangements were made at the St. Paul' meeting of the National Association by which the proceedings, addresses, etc., of this Department are hereafter to appear in the regular volume issued by the Association.
Dr. N. A. Calkins, of the Executive Committee of the National Educational Association, to whom the matter of the immediate publication of the proceedings, papers, and discussions of the present meeting was referred, submitted the following report :
The matter submitted to the Executive Committee of the National Educational Association, * relating to the publication of the proceedings of the present meeting of the Department of Superintendence, prior to the publication in the volume of the General Proceedings of the National Educational Association for 1891, has been considered by this Committee. While there does not appear to be any special provision of authority for final action in this matter, the Committee, believing that an early publication of the proceedings of this meeting is important, and should be provided for, therefore submit the following proposition:
That the Executive Committee will provide for an early publication, in pamphlet form, of the proceedings of the Department of Superintendence, held in Philadelphia in February, 1891, provided that the members of this Department will pledge themselves to sustain such action and to advocate its approval by the Board of Directors of the National Educational Association at the meeting to be held at Toronto next July. For the Committee,
N. A. CALKINS, Chairman Board of Trustees.
The report was unanimously approved.
* The Execntive Committee for the ensuing year shall consist of the President, the Secretary, the Treasurer, the First Vice-President, and the President of Board of Trustees, with full power to act in all matters connected with the meeting for 1891. (Proceedings of St. Paul meeting, page 33.)
Washington meeting in 1889, and given further time at the New York meeting, submitted the following report :
Your Committee, to whom was referred the question of the qualifications for teachers' licenses in cities, respectfully report :
That it is the sense of the Department of Superintendence of the National Educational Association that the following qualifications should be required of all local candidates for positions as teachers :
1. In scholarship, the minimum requirement should be graduation from the local High School, or some institution of similar or higher rank, with such further examination as conditions may warrant or require.
2. In professional training, a course of at least one year in the principles and methods of education in a local training class or school, or in some similar institution officially recognized by the State Department of Public Instruction.
3. In experience, at least one year's satisfactory trial on provisional certificate before a permanent certificate is granted.
For candidates from without the city your Committee do not feel authorized, in the present unsettled and various standards of certification, to advise the employment of teachers below the rank of Principal, except upon examination by the City Superintendent.
No person should be licensed to teach who is not possessed of sound scholarship, and either has had professional training, or proved his fitness for his work by practical experience.
WM. H. MAXWELL.
Brooklyn, N. Y., was selected as the place of the next meeting of the Department.
The President declared a recess until 8 o'clock.
The Department convened at 8 o'clock, President Draper in the chair.
Chancellor George William Curtis, of the University of New York, delivered an address on Civil Service and the Public School.
President Draper, speaking for 'the members, conveyed to Mr. Curtis their thanks for the excellent address. This
was further emphasized by a rising vote of the Department.
General Thos. J. Morgan, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, was introduced by the President. He spoke briefly in relation to the education of the Indian and the management of Indian affairs.
Adjourned, to meet at 10 o'clock on Thursday.
THIRD DAY.-MORNING SESSION.
THURSDAY, February 26. The Department was called to order by the President at 10 o'clock.
Superintendent Bouton presented his report of the discussion on Mr. MacAlister's and Mr. Aborn's papers. Report approved.
President MacAlister, on behalf of the University of Pennsylvania, extended an invitation to the Department to visit the psychological laboratory of that institution. Invitation accepted.
Commissioner Harris presented the following letter from the Swiss Legation, and urged the importance of definite action on the part of the Department.
LEGATION DE SUISSE AUX ETATS-UNIS.
WASHINGTON, D. C., February 23, 1891. SIR :—The Board of Managers of the International Geography Congress, which is to convene in the city of Berne on the 10th of August next, has decided to organize for that occasion an exposition, of which the first section will comprise objects relating to the instruction of geography in schools, such as text-books and other appliances, methods, and programmes, the work of pupils, etc.
The Exposition will be opened on the 1st of August, and continue until the 15th of. that month, and is open alike to individuals of all nations as to authorities.
Realizing the importance of securing as complete an exhibit as possible, the managers have requested the Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland, through its diplomatic and consular representatives abroad, to extend a cordial invitation to all parties likely to be interested in such an Exposition to participate in the display on that occasion.
This legation, inclosing herewith a number of copies of the official invitation for distribution, would therefore solicit your honor, as chief of the National Bureau of Education of the United States, kindly to bring this subject to the attention of the Superintendents of Education at their meeting in Philadelphia, to-morrow, the 24th inst., and in behalf of this legation express the hope that, wherever practicable, their several schools will participate in said Exhibition.
Thanking your honor for the interest you will be pleased to take in this matter, I have the honor to remain, Sir, with highest consideration,
THE SWISS MINISTER. In his absence, (Signed) K. Kloss, Counsellor Swiss Legation.
On motion of Mr. Harris, a committee of five was appointed to take charge of the whole matter in the most effective way. The committee consists of A. G. Lane, of Chicago, Ill.; C. W. Bardeen, of Syracuse, N. Y.; John Hancock, of Columbus, Ohio; John T. Prince, of Newtonville, Mass., and D. J. Waller, Jr., of Harrisburg, Pa.
Commissioner Harris, referring to the report on the Henry Barnard fund at the St. Paul meeting in July last, urged the members of the Department to make vigorous efforts in their respective localities to secure the necessary subscriptions at the earliest practicable time.