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1. Incomplete Sentences,
2. Expansion into Phrases,
3. Expansion into Clauses,
4. Contraction into Complex and Simple Sentences,

into Simple Sentences, 6.

of Compound Sentences, 7. Enlargement, by Words and Phrases, 8.

by Clauses, 9. Substitution, 10. Transposition of Phrases and Clauses, 10. B.

of Verse into Prose, 11.

of Direct into Indirect Speeches, 12.

of Indirect into Direct Speeches, 13. Synthesis of Simple Sentences, 14.

of Complex Sentences, 15.

of Compound Sentences, 16. Perspicuity of Language, 17. 18.

Synonymes, 19.

Equivocals, 20.


Ellipsis, 22.

English and Classical Words, 23. Energy of Language,-Circumlocution, 24.

Tautology. . 25.

Simile and Metaphor,

Simile, 27.

Simile into Metaphor, 28.

Metaphor, 29.

Personification, Apostrophe, 30.

Metonymy and Synecdoche, 31.

Metonymy, 32.

Synecdoche, 33. Grace of Language, 34. Paraphrasing,



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59. Rhyme, Perfect, 60.

Allowable and Bad, 61. Regular Measure, 62. Irregular Measure, 63. Scansion, 64. Narrative in Verse, Historical, &c., 65.

Scriptural, 66.

with Reflection, 67.

Fables, 68. Translation in Verse,

125 125 135 142 143 153 156 157 159 161



69. Correction of the Press,




1. The Art of Composition is regulated by the laws of Rhetoric, which, in its widest sense, is the science of the Expression · of Thought. It will readily be understood that Rhetoric cannot supply us with thoughts: these the mind must originate itself, or gather from the various sources within its reach,as observation, reading, reflection. When, however, any one is possessed of information, or convinced of truths, which he wishes to communicate to others, the science of Rhetoric points out to him the best methods of arranging, dressing, and giving out his material.

2. The most general division of the subject gives us two forms of Composition

I. Composition in Prose,

II. Composition in Verse. 3. A complete prose composition is in the following treatise called a THEME. The parts of a Theme, each of which is devoted to a special part of the subject, are called PARAGRAPHS. And every Paragraph is made up of SENTENCES. Hence there are three distinct steps in the art, requiring separate treatment:

1. How to construct single Sentences, so as to give the best

expression to every single thought. 2. How to combine sentences into Paragraphs, so as to

give the best expression to a connected series of thoughts. 3. How to combine paragraphs into a Theme, so as to give

the best exposition of a whole subject.



4. Accordingly, the following lessons are thus arranged :Book I. Composition in PROSE.

Part I. Structure of Sentences.
Part II. Structure of Paragraphs.

Part III. Structure of Themes.
Book II. Composition in VERSE.


Chapter 1.-Preliminary Definitions and Processes.

5. A sentence is a complete thought expressed in words.

6. The essential elements of a sentence,—that is, the parts without which no complete thought can be expressed, are the Subject and the Predicate.

7. The Predicate is that part of the sentence which makes a statement (verb) about something.

8. The Subject names (noun) the thing about which the statement is made.

9. The essential elements of a sentence may be thus enlarged :SUBJECT.

PREDICATE. Attribute. | Noun.

1 Verb. | Object. ' Adverb. 10. The object expresses that to which the action of a Transitive verb passes.

11. Some verbs (chiefly those of giving, accusing, &c.), require a secondary object to complete their meaning, besides the primary object. This secondary object may be an Infinitive, a Genitive (of), or a Dative (to or for).

12. These elements are of three degrees; each of them may be, 1st, a Word ; 2d, a Phrase; 3d, a Clause.

13. A Phrase, or element of the second degree, is a form of words containing no subject or predicate ; as, Spring returning.

14. Phrases are of three kinds, named according to the functions they perform in sentences, viz. :

1st. Substantive Phrase

= a noun.

2d. Attributive Phrase = an adjective.

3d. Adverbial Phrase = an adverb. 15. The different kinds of phrases are introduced by the folloying Prepositions respectively :I. Substantive, To (with Infin.).

1. Possession-of, with. II. Attributive of, 2. Privation--without.

3. Inclination for.

1. Rest—in, on, over, under, at. I. PLACE.

2. Motion—to, from, over, under. II. TIME. Till, at.

(1. Agent—by. III. Ad- III. MANNER. 2. Instrument—with (neg. without). verbial,

(3. Connection—(along) with, against.

1. Reason—from. IV. CAUSE.

2. Purpose—for, to (with Infin.). 3. Condition—with (neg. without).

4. Material-of (neg. without). 16. A Clause, or element of the third degree, is a member of a sentence which contains a subject and predicate within itself; as, When spring returns.

17. A principal clause contains a leading and independent statement; that is, expresses by itself a complete thought. In tabular analysis, principal clauses are represented by capital letters, A, B, C, D, &c.

18. A subordinate clause explains some part of a principal clause. It is represented by a small letter corresponding with that of its principal clause, a, b, c, d, &c. The different degrees of subordination are expressed by algebraic indices a', a, a', &c. ; their order within the same degree by co-efficients, la?, 2a, 3a?, &c.

19. Subordinate clauses, like phrases, are of three kinds, named according to the functions they perform in sentences, viz. :

1st. Substantive Clause
2d. Attributive Clause = an adjective.

3d. Adverbial Clause = an adverb. 20. Subordinate clauses are joined to principal clauses by such connectives as the following:


= a noun.


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