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I. Substantive,

(1. Fact-that, what, whether.

2. Person-who.

3. Place-where.

stating-4. Time-when.

5. Manner-how.

(1. Person-who, that.
2. Thing-which, that.

II. Attributive to, 3. Place-where (= in which). 4. Time-when (= at which). Reason-why (= for which).





1. Rest-where.

2. Motion-whither(to), whence(from). 1. Point-when, before, after. 2. Duration-while, since, until. (3. Repetition-whenever, as often as. 1. Likeness-as, as if.

verbial of III. MANNER. 2. Degree-as much as, than.


(3. Effect-(so) that.

1. Reason-because, since.

2. Purpose (in order) that, lest (neg.). 3. Condition-if, unless (neg.).

4. Concession-though.

21. A Simple sentence has only one subject and predicate ;

as, A.

22. A Complex sentence has only one principal predicate, with one or more subordinate clauses; as, A, a1, 1a2, 2a2, &c.

23. A Compound sentence has more than one principal clause, each of which may have any number of subordinate clauses; as A a1, a2 ; B b1; C, c1, c2, c3, c4.

24. In a compound sentence, a principal clause, with its own subordinates, forms a complex clause; as, C, c1, c2, c3, c1, in the last example.

25. Co-ordinate clauses are those which are independent of each other, or have a common dependence on a superior clause. 26. Co-ordination is of four kinds :

1. Copulative, expressed by and, signified by +

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27. Fundamental law :-Every sentence must contain at least one independent Predicate.

A form of words may contain several subjects and predicates, and yet not be a sentence; as, "That he had frequently visited the city in which he was born,"-which, though containing two distinct predicates, is not a sentence. The connective "that" implies the dependence of the clause it introduces upon some other clause, as He said," "I have heard," "It is true." Hence the essential predicate must be independent.

Exercise 1.

Complete such of the following expressions as are not sentences :—

1. A design which has never been completed. 2. The honour of having been the first to welcome His Royal Highness. 3. The author having suddenly died, and left his work unfinished. 4. No sooner was William seated on the throne, than seeming to have lost all his former popularity. 5. He is taller, stronger, wiser. 6. That the king was ignorant of the real circumstances; that he had not examined the warrant which he had signed, and was therefore not responsible for the proceeding. 7. The Prince, when he saw the hopelessness of his cause, turned and fled. 8. The artist being of opinion that a national recognition, through intelligible symbols, of the great principles by which the patriot was actuated from first to last, is the only fitting way to do honour to his memory. 9. For which reasons I shall endeavour to enliven morality with wit, and to temper wit with morality. 10. The most illustrious benefactors of the race being men who, having risen to great truths, have held them as a sacred trust for their kind, and have borne witness to them amidst general darkness. 11. Seeing that the varnish of power brings forth at once the defects and the beauties of the human portrait. 12. How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust.

28. Expansion. An element of a sentence is said to be expanded when it is changed from a word to a phrase, or from a phrase to a clause, without introducing any new idea; as, 1. A prudent man is respected. 1st degree, WORD.

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2. A man of prudence
3. A man who is prudent do.



The expansion of an element often necessitates a change in its attribute; as, A very prudent man = A man of great prudence.

Exercise 2.

Expand the words printed in italics in the following sentences into phrases :*

1. The girl sang sweetly. 2. Lying is one of the meanest of vices. 3. The grateful mind loves to consider the bounties of Providence. 4. Walking is conducive to health. 5. Very brave soldiers fell at Bannockburn. 6. The husbandman's treasures are renewed yearly. 7. Cromwell acted sternly and decidedly when it was necessary to do so. 8. Error is human; forgiveness, divine. 9. Idleness prevents our true happiness. 10. Delay is always dangerous. 11. His indolence was the cause of his ruin. 12. Leonidas fell gloriously at Thermopylae.

Exercise 3.

Expand the words printed in italics in the following sentences into clauses:†—

1. Quarrelsome persons are despised. 2. We manure the fields to make them fruitful. 3. The contented man is always happy. 4. The manner of his escape is a profound mystery. 5. Some persons believe the planets to be inhabited. 6. The appearance of a prince possessing so much virtue and personal grace, was the signal for universal rejoicing. 7. Truly wise philosophers are even rarer than very learned scholars. 8. He answered contemptuously, believing himself to have been insulted. 9. No one doubts the roundness of the earth. 10. His guilt or innocence is still uncertain. 11. The sea, having spent its fury, became calm. 12. The people, seeing so many of their townspeople fall, were exasperated beyond all sense of danger. 13. The battle having been concluded, the general began to estimate his loss. 14. The barricade being forced, the crowd immediately rushed out.

29. Contraction. This process is the reverse of expansion, and may be performed—

1. By converting a principal into a subordinate clause, or a subordinate clause into a phrase, or into a single word;

2. By omitting, in a compound sentence, elements common to different clauses.

Exercise 4.

Contract the following sentences, by converting one or more of the principal clauses into subordinate clauses, or into phrases :—

* For the proper connectives, see ? 15.
For the proper connectives, see ? 20.

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1. He descended from his throne, ascended the scaffold, and said, Live, incomparable pair." 2. I took them into the garden one summer morning, and shewed them two young apple-trees, and said, " My children, I give you these trees." 3. The light infantry joined the main body, and the enemy retired precipitately into Lexington. 4. Just give me liberty to speak (condition), and I will come to an explanation with you. 5. He was a worthless man (cause), and therefore could not be respected by his subjects. 6. He arrived at that very moment (nega. tive condition), or I should have inevitably perished. 7. Egypt is a fertile country, and is watered by the river Nile, and is annually inundated by it; and it thus receives the fertilising mud which is brought by the stream in its course, and derives a richness from the deposit which common culture could not produce. 8. Thomas à Becket completed his education abroad, and returned to England; he entered the church, and rapidly rose to the grade of Archdeacon.

Exercise 5.

Contract the following complex into simple sentences :

1. As he walked towards the bridge, he met his old friend the captain. 2. When he had spoken for two hours, the member resumed his seat. 3. The ground is never frozen in Palestine, as the cold is not severe. 4. The choice of a spot which united all that could contribute either to health or to luxury, did not require the partiality of a native. 5. There are many injuries which almost every man feels, though he does not complain. 6. Socrates proved that virtue is its own reward. 7. Cromwell followed little events before he ventured to govern great ones. 8. When darkness broke away, and morning began to dawn, the town wore a strange aspect indeed. 9. After he had suppressed this conspiracy, he led his troops into Italy. 10. The ostrich is unable to fly, because it has not wings in proportion to its body.

Exercise 6

Contract the following sentences, by omitting elements common to different clauses :—

1. Plato was a great philosopher, and Aristotle also was a great philosopher. 2. Death does not spare the rich, and as little does death forget the poor. 3. In his family he was equally dignified and gentle, in his office he was equally dignified and gentle, in public life, also, he was equally dignified and gentle. 4. The hyena is a fierce animal, the hyena is a solitary animal, and the hyena is found chiefly in the desolate parts of the torrid zone. 5. Baptism is a sacrament of the Christian Church, and the Lord's Supper is a sacrament of the Christian Church. 6. The sun shines on the good, and the sun shines equally on the bad. 7. Of all vices, none is more criminal than lying; of all vices, none is

more mean than lying; and of all vices, none is more ridiculous than lying. 8. Alfred was wise, and Alfred was good; Alfred was a great scholar (not only), and Alfred was one of the greatest kings whom the world has ever seen.

30. Enlargement. An element of a sentence is said to be enlarged when there is added to it a new word, phrase, or clause, expressing an additional idea, e. g. :—

1. (Simple) A prudent man is respected.

2. (Enlarged) A prudent man is most respected by his fellows when he is also generous.

Exercise 7.

Enlarge the following sentences by the addition of attributive words to the nouns, of modifying words or phrases to the verbs, or of secondary objects when required by the sense:*

1. Alexander

have passed away

in 1329


was the son of Philip
(phrase of time). 3. Robert Bruce

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4. Have you ever considered the wonderful structure

-? 5. The general resolved to give battle
(time). 6. The master accused his clerk

and the judge sentenced him


8. The earth



(dative object), (genitive object),

(infinitive object). 7. He resides (place) (time).

(time), and goes moves round the sun

9. The ship set

(time, when). 11.

(absolute phrase). 10. Bonaparte was imprisoned
(time, how long), where he died

Cotton is imported
(absolute phrase). 13. The swallows disappear
versation was interrupted
16. The maniac shot himself
sent difficulties

12. The enemy began their attack

19. The captain set sail 21. Many men succeed, the stupid may triumph. and they are built

14. The con

15. The spire was struck
17. He will overcome his pre-

(condition). 18. The eye was made
20. The fort was abandoned
(manner); but

(condition) even (purpose);

22. Churches are erected
(material) that they may last

The children heard the thunder roll taken prisoner

Exercise 8.


24. The ensign was

Enlarge the predicate in the following sentences by the addition of adverbial CLAUSES,† expressive of the relations indicated :

For the proper connectives, see ? 15. † For the proper connectives, see ? 20.

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