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1. He had just completed his work


(time). 2. It was not

(place) until (time). 3. We are often so beset by temptation (effect). 4. The righteous shall flourish (likeness). 5. Government has offered a reward for the rebel (concession). 6. He will succeed succeeded


(condition). 7. He would have (condition). 8. He will have succeeded before next (condition). 9. He will not succeed (condition, nega

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tively and affirmatively). 10. He would not have succeeded


dition, negatively and affirmatively). 11. The evils of war are greater (degree). 12. The evils of war are greater

son). 13. The king fitted out an expedition
(purpose). 14. We are often liberal rather
(reason). 15. Honour thy father and mother
born to trouble
18. I shall remain


(concession) (reason) than 16. Man is

17. I would not grant his request
19. He failed to attract notice

31. Substitution is the process of writing in the place of one word or phrase, another of the same, or similar, meaning, e. g. :

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1. The favourers of the ancient religion maintained that the pretence of making the people see with their own eyes was a mere cheat, and was itself a very gross artifice, &c. 2. The adherents of the old faith held that the pretext of making the people see for themselves was a mere subterfuge, and was itself a very vulgar trick, &c.

Exercise 9.

Substitute for the words printed in italics in the following passages others equivalent to them in meaning :—

1. The friends of the Reformation asserted that nothing could be more absurd than to conceal, in an unknown tongue, the word of God itself, and thus to counteract the will of heaven, which, for the purpose of universal salvation, had published that salutary doctrine to all nations; that if this practice were not very absurd, the artifice at least was very gross, and proved a consciousness that the glosses and traditions of the clergy stood in direct opposition to the original text dictated by supreme intelligence; that it was now necessary for the people, so long abused by interested pretensions, to see with their own eyes, and to examine whether

* This exercise is intended merely to illustrate the process of substitution, which is subsequently more fully treated; and to test the extent of the pupil's vocabulary, rather than its accuracy, which will be considered in Part I. chap. VI., on the Selection of Words. The teacher may extend the exercise at pleasure, either by passages chosen from subsequent exercises, or from a historical or other text-book.

the claims of the ecclesiastics were founded on that charter which was on all hands acknowledged to be derived from heaven.

2. As they proceeded, the indications of approaching land seemed to be more certain, and excited hope in proportion. The birds began to appear in flocks, making towards the south-west. Columbus, in imitation of the Portuguese navigators, who had been guided in several of their discoveries by the motion of birds, altered his course from due west towards that quarter whither they pointed their flight. But, after holding on for several days in this new direction, without any better success than formerly, having seen no object during thirty days but the sea and the sky, the hopes of his companions subsided faster than they had risen; their fears revived with additional force; impatience, rage, and despair appeared in every countenance. All sense of subordination was lost. The officers who had hitherto concurred with Columbus in opinion, and supported his authority, now took part with the private men; they assembled tumultuously on the deck, expostulated with their commander, mingled threats with their ex. postulations, and required him instantly to tack about and return to Europe.

32. Transposition is the process of changing the order in which the parts of a sentence are arranged, without changing the sense; and allows such alterations on the construction (e. g., from the active to the passive voice, or v. v.) as the new arrangement requires-e. g.

1. The greatness of mind which shews itself in dangers, if it wants justice, is blameable.

2. (Transposed) If the greatness of mind which is shewn in danger wants justice, it is blameable.

Exercise 10.

A. Transpose the phrases and clauses in the following sentences, without altering the sense :—

1. That morning he had laid his books, as usual, on the table in his study. 2. I shall never consent to such proposals while I live. 3. Many changes are now taking place in the vegetable world under our immediate notice, though we are not observant of them. 4. By those accustomed to the civilisation and the warm sun of Italy, it must have been felt as a calamity to be compelled to live, not only in a cold, uncultivated country, but also among a barbarous people. 5. Let us not conclude, while dangers are at a distance, and do not immediately approach us,

*As it is the purpose of these preliminary exercises to explain processes afterwards made use of, the pupil should be required to give as great a variety of arrangement of each sentence as possible.

that we are secure, unless we use the necessary precautions to prevent them. 6. You may set my fields on fire, and give my children to the sword; you may drive myself forth a houseless, childless beggar, or load me with the fetters of slavery; but you never can conquer the hatred I feel to your oppression. 7. Meanwhile Gloucester, taking advantage of the king's indolent disposition, resumed his plots and cabals. 8. In all speculations upon men and human affairs, it is of no small moment to distinguish things of accident from permanent causes. 9. At Bath, the remains of two temples, and of a number of statues, have been dug up, in laying the foundations of new streets and squares.

B. Transpose the following passages from the metrical to the prose order, without altering the sense :—

1. Blest he, though undistinguish'd from the crowd
By wealth or dignity, who dwells secure
Where man, by nature fierce, has laid aside


His fierceness, having learnt, though slow to learn,
The manners and the arts of civil life.-Couper.

From that bleak tenement

He, many an evening, to his distant home

In solitude returning, saw the hills

Grow larger in the darkness, all alone

Beheld the stars come out above his head,

And travelled through the wood, with no one near

In whom he might confess the things he saw. Wordsworth.

3. Some feelings are to mortals given,

With less of earth in them than heaven;

And if there be a human tear

From passion's dross refined and clear,

A tear so limpid and so meek,

It would not stain an angel's cheek,
"Tis that which pious fathers shed,
Upon a duteous daughter's head!-Scott.

4. 'Tis hard to say if greater want of skill
Appear in writing or in judging ill;
But, of the two, less dangerous is the offence
To tire our patience, than mislead our sense:
Some few in that, but numbers err in this;

Ten censure wrong for one who writes amiss.-Pope.

5. The pain of death denounced

Deterred [you] not from achieving what might lead
To happier life,-knowledge of good and evil;
Of good, how just? of evil (if what is evil
Be real), why not known, since easier shunn'd?
God therefore cannot hurt ye, and be just;

Not just, not God; not fear'd then, nor obey'd:
Your fear itself of death removes the fear.-Milton.

6. To satisfy the sharp desire I had

Of tasting those fair apples, I resolv'd

Not to defer: hunger and thirst at once,

Powerful persuaders, quickened at the scent

Of that alluring fruit, urged me so keen.- Milton.

7. But, that thou shouldst my firmness therefore doubt
To God or thee, because we have a foe

May tempt it, I expected not to hear.
His violence thou fear'st not, being such
As we (not capable of death or pain)

Can either not receive, or can repel.-Milton.

8. They heard, and were abash'd, and up they sprung
Upon the wing; as when men, wont to watch

On duty sleeping found by whom they dread,
Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake.-Milton.

9. If you would consider the true cause

Why all these fires, why all these gliding ghosts;
Why birds and beasts, from quality and kind;
Why old men, fools, and children calculate;
Why all these things change from their ordinance,
Their natures, and pre-formed faculties,

To monstrous quality: why, you shall find
That heaven hath infus'd them with these spirits,
To make them instruments of fear and warning
Unto some monstrous state.-Shakespeare.

10. That you do love me I am nothing jealous;
What you would work me to I have some aim;
How I have thought of this, and of these times,
I shall recount hereafter: for this present

I would not,- -so with love I might entreat you,-
Be any further moved.-Shakespeare.

33. A DIRECT SPEECH gives the words exactly as spoken, the

speaker employing the pronouns of the first person; an INDIRECT • SPEECH gives the words as reported by another. E.g.:

Direct. I have frequently said to myself, "I shall never be happy till I have atoned for this offence."

Indirect. He had frequently said to himself that he would never be happy till he had atoned for that offence. 34. In transposing a speech from the direct to the indirect form, the following rules must be observed:

1. The first and second persons must be changed to the third. E. g.:-I assure you ;-He assured them.

2. Each present tense must be turned into its corresponding past. E. g. :

I know well.

I told you last year.

I have now explained, &c.

I shall endeavour, &c.

He knew well.

He had told them last year.

He had now explained.
He would endeavour, &c.

3. The nearer demonstrative this is changed into the more remote that.


I shall never forget this day.

He would never forget that day.

Exercise 11.

Transpose the following passages from the direct to the indirect form:

1. The Chancellor of the Exchequer : :- "There is no commodity of more universal use than paper. It is a great error to suppose, as my right honourable friend has supposed, that paper is consumed exclusively by the rich."

2. "The rich, no doubt, are the largest consumers for writing purposes; but paper is consumed to an enormous extent by the poor, who can scarcely purchase a single article of daily consumption which is not wrapped in paper that enhances its price."


Yes, I repeat, that enhances its price,-not in the same degree, I admit, as the paper consumed by the rich, who use the better sorts of writing paper, and finely printed books, that are taxed at the rate of 3, 4, and 5 per cent."

4. Mr Macaulay :-"I am so sensible, Sir, of the kindness with which the House has listened to me, that I will not detain you longer. I will only say this, that if the measure before us should pass, and should produce one-tenth part of the evil which it is calculated to produce, and which I fully expect it to produce, there will soon be a remedy, though of a very objectionable kind."

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