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V. The subject and predicate may be separated by an adverb

of time or manner; but not by one of place or cause. VI. The usual order in which adverbs are introduced, is :

1st, manner; 2d, cause ; 3d, place ; 4th, time. VII. An absolute phrase should stand as near to the begin

ning of the sentence as possible; or at the very end. 44. Rules of punctuation in simple sentences :

In the following formulae, the elements of the simple sentence (A) are represented by the numbers 1 (subject), 2 (predicate), 3 (object), 4 (adverb). I. When the elements stand in their natural order, the only punctuation required is a period at the close :

A 1234. II. When an adverbial phrase is placed at the beginning of a sentence, it is followed by a comma :

A 4,1234. III. When a connective is used after the subject or other

element at the beginning of a sentence, it is preceded and followed by a comma,- He, however, replied."

A = 1, con., 234. IV. Attributive phrases following their nouns are separated from them by commas :

A = 1, att., 23, att., 4. V. Similar phrases are separated from each other by



A 1, 1, 2 3 4, 4, 4. 45. The process of synthesis (as well as these rules for ar. rangement and punctuation), is exemplified in the following :

Elements -

a. Cæsar invaded Britain.
b. The invading force consisted of two legions.
c. The invasion took place in the year B.C. 55.
d. Cæsar took advantage of an interval in his Gallic wars for the


Simple sentence
Cæsar, taking advantage of an interval in his Gallic wars, invaded

Britain with two legions in the year B.C. 55.



Exercise 13. In each of the following examples, combine the facts and relative circumstances into a Simple Sentence,* supplying the proper punctuation : 1. a. I saw the Queen of France.

6. It is now sixteen or seventeen years since I saw her.
C. She was then the Dauphiness.

d. She was at Versailles when I saw her. 2. a. Rome ruled over the nations.

6. She had done so before (adverbial phruse).
c. The nations were prostrate.

d. She ruled now by the power of superstition. 8. a. Cromwell called a Council.

b. The Council comprised his chief officers.
c. It was called secretly.
d. Ireton had suggested the calling of it.
e. Windsor was the meeting-place.
f. Its first object was to deliberate concerning the settlement of

the nation.
g. Its second object was to determine the future disposal of the

king's person.
4. a. William had quelled certain disturbances.

6. These disturbances were in the west of England.
c. They had been excited by Githa.
d. Githa was king Harold's mother.
e. William had also built a fortress.
f. This fortress was intended to overawe the city of Exeter.

g. After all this, he returned to Winchester. 5. a. Malcolm was king of Scotland.

6. He was constrained to retire.

c. He had come too late to support his confederates. 6. a. The Earl of Lancaster was thrown into prison.

6. This was done at the instigation of Mortimer.
c. Mortimer pretended that Lancaster had assented to a con-

d. The object of this conspiracy was said to be the restoration of

Edward II.
Co Shortly before this happened, the Earl of Kent had been exe-


• The subject and predicate are printed in italics.

7. a. Edgar Atheling sought a retreat in Scotland.

b. He was the Saxon heir to the throne. c. The insurrection on his behalf had failed. d. He was accompanied by his followers. e. He had taken refuge in Scotland on a previous occasion (an

f. He fled from the pursuit of his enemies.
8. a. The king gained a victory.

b. The king ruled over England.
c. The victory was a decisive one.
d. It was gained over the Scots.
e. The battle was fought near Dunbar.
f. Dunbar is on the east coast of Scotland.

g. This took place in 1294. 9. a. There was a conspiracy.

b. It consisted of two parts (an adjective).
c. Its object was to subvert the government.
d. The conspiracy was discovered.

e. This took place shortly after the accession of James I. 10. a. The one plot was called the Main. 6. It was said to have been chiefly conducted by Sir Walter

Raleigh and Lord Cobham, c. It consisted of a plan to place Arabella Stuart on the throne. d. She was the king's cousin. e. This was to be accomplished with the assistance of the Spanish

11. a. The other plot was called the BYE.

b. It is also known as the SURPRISE, or the SURPRISE TREASON.
c. This plot was led by Broke and Sir Griffin Markham,
d. Broke was brother of Lord Cobham.
e. This was a design to surprise and imprison the king.

f. It was also intended to remodel the government. 12. a. Broke was engaged in the first plot.

6. He was at the head of the second.

c. He thus formed the connecting link between them. 13. a. The conspirators were discovered.

b. The matter reached the ears of Cecil.
c. Cecil was Secretary.

d. Those implicated in the plot were arrested. 14. a. Raleigh was one of the number.

b. He was reprieved.
c. Yet he remained in confinement.
d. His imprisonment lasted many years.

15. a. Edward returned.

6. He came to England.
c. He brought his army with him.
d. His army had been victorious.
e. He had subdued the Scots.
f. He brought with him a trophy.
g. This was the coronation-stone of the Scottish kings.
h. He left Earl Warenne in Scotland.

¿. Warenne had the title of Governor. 16. a. Warenne had collected an army.

b. It consisted of forty thousand men.
c. He had levied it in the north of England.
d. With this army he had entered Scotland.
e. His advance was unexpected.
f. He was defeated by Wallace.
g. The English army suffered severely.
h. The battle was fought at Cambuskenneth.

i. Cambuskenneth is near Stirling.
17. a. Sir Edward Howard was an English admiral.

6. There was a French war in 1513.
c. Howard was attempting to cut six French galleys out of a port,
d. That port was Conquet.
e. He had with him only two vessels.
f. He was slain.

g. This happened at the commencement of the war. 18. a. Henry VII. was the founder of a dynasty.

b. That dynasty was the House of Tudor
c. He died of a consumption.
d. His death took place at Richmond.
e. Richmond was his favourite palace.
f. The event happened on the 25th April 1509.
g. He had reigned twenty-three years and eight months.

h. He was then in the fifty-second year of his age. 19. a. Tournay surrendered in 1513.

6. It surrendered to Henry VIII.
c. The Bishop of Tournay was dead (abs. ph.).
d. The king bestowed the see upon Wolsey.
c. Wolsey was the king's favourite.
f. He obtained the revenues of the see as well as its administra-

20. a. The pride of Wolsey was about this time increased.

6. It had been increased before (an adverb).
c. He was invested with the legatine power.
d. He had also bestowed upon him the right of visiting all the

churches and monasteries in England.

e. He could even suspend all the laws of the Church.

f. This suspension could last for a twelvemonth, 21. a. A crime was facilitated in England. 6. The time referred to was the early part of the reign of

Edward I. c. The crime was that of clipping the coin. d. It was facilitated by the custom of cutting the silver penny, e. This custom was sanctioned by law.

f. It used to be cut into halves and quarters.
22. a. The European nations were conquered by the Romans.

6. This conquest first cemented them into a whole.
c. They had a second bond of union (adj.).
d. It was a still förmer bond.
e. They derived it from Christianity.

f. This Christianity was common to them all (adj.). 23. a. Henry met Francis in 1520.

b. Profuse magnificence was displayed on the occasion.
c. The nobility of England took part in the display.
d. The French nobility also participated in it.
e. This display has given a name to the place of interview.

f. It is known as “ The Field of the Cloth of Gold.” 24. a. The Church party was opposed by the Puritans.

b. There were religious disputes between them, c. This induced James to call a conference, d. It met at Hampton Court. e. The king wished to reconcile both parties. f. He called the conference on pretence of finding expedients

for doing so, g. He took this step in 1604. 25. a. Elizabeth was sister to Mary, 6. The latter was anxious to involve the former in some appear

ance of guilt. c. For this purpose she seized the opportunity of a rebellion. d. This rebellion had been headed by Wyatt (possessive attri

bute). e. She ordered Elizabeth to be committed to the Tower. f. When there she was to be examined. g. Her examination was to be strict. h. It was to be conducted by the Council.

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