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concurred in making this Union, that they all exactly discriminated the natures, and fairly adjusted the rights of BOTH SOCIETIES, on the principles here laid down; though an ESTABLISHMENT resulting from this discrimination and adjustment, be the only one I would be supposed to recommend. On the contrary, I know this union hath been generally made on mistaken principles; or, if not so, hath degenerated by length of time. And, as it was sufficient for that writer's purpose, that those Societies, good or bad, proved the sense, all men had of the benefits resulting from civil policy in general, though they were oft mistaken in the application ; so it is sufficient for ours, that this universal concurrence in the Two SOCIETIES TO UNITE, shews the sense of mankind concerning the utility of such union. And lastly, as that writer's principles are not the less true on account of the general deviation from them in forming civil Societies; so may not ours, though so few states have suffered themselves to be directed by them in practice, nor any man, before, delivered them in speculation.

Such then is the Theory here offered to the world ; of which, whoever would see a full account, and the several parts cleared from objections, may consult the treatise mentioned before, intitled, The Alliance between Church and State : in which we pretend to have discovered a plain and simple truth, of the highest concernment to civil Society, long lost and hid under the learned obscurity arising from the collision of contrary false principles.

But it is now time to proceed with our main subject. We have here given a short account of the true nature of the Alliance between Church and State; both to

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justify the conduct of the ancient Lawgivers in establishing religion; and to shew the infinite service of this institution to civil Society. Another use of it may be the gaining an exacter knowledge of the nature of the established religions in the pagan world: for, having the true theory of an Establishment, it serves as a straight line to discover all the obliquities to which it is applied.

I shall therefore consider the causes, which facilitated the establishment of religion in the ancient world : and likewise those causes which prevented the establishment from receiving its due form.

1. Ancient pagan religion consisted in the worship of local tutelary Deities; which, generally speaking, were supposed to be the authors of their civil Institutes. The consequence of this was, that the State, as well as particulars, was the su BJECT of religion. So that this religion could not but be national and established; that is, protected and encouraged by the civil Power. For how could that religion, which had the national God for its object; and the State, as an artificial man, for its subject, be other than national and established ?

II. But then these very things, which so much promoted an established religion, prevented the union's being made upon a just and equitable footing. 1. By giving a wrong idea of civil Society. 2. By not giving a right form to the religious.

1. It is nothing strange, that the ancients should have a wrong idea of civil Society; and should suppose it ordained for the cognizance of religious, as well as of civil matters, while they believed in a local tutelary Deițy, by whose direction they were formed into

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Community; and while they held, that Society, as such, was the subject of religion, contrary to what has been shewn above, that the civil Society's offer of a voluntary alliance with the religious, proceeded from its having no power in itself to inforce the influence of religion to the service of the State.

2. If their religion constituted a proper Society, it was yet a Society dependent on the State, and therefore not sovereign. Now it appears that no voluntary alliance can be made, but between two independent sovereign Societies. But, in reality, Pagan religion did not constitute any Society at all.

For it is to be observed, that the unity of the object of faith, and conformity to a formula of dogmatic theology, as the terms of communion, are the great foundation and bond of a religious Society * Now these things were wanting in the several national religions of Paganism : in which there was only a conformity in public Ceremonies, The national Pagan religion therefore did not properly compose a Society; nor do we find by Antiquity, that it was ever considered under that idea; but only as part of the State; and in that view, indeed, had its particular Societies and Companies, such as the colleges of Priests and Prophets.

These were such errors and defects as destroyed much of the utility, which results from religious Establishments, placed upon a right bottom. But yet religious Establishments they were; and, notwithstanding all their imperfections, served for many good purposes; such as preserving the being of Religion :

-bestowing additional veneration on the person of the Magistrate, and on the laws of the State :-giving

See The Alliance between Church and State, Book I. Ch. 5.

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the Magistrate the right of applying the civil efficacy of religion :-and giving Religion a coactive power for the reformation of manners. And thus much for

ESTABLISHMENTS,

SECT. VI.

THE last instance to be assigned of the Magistrate's care of religion, shall be that universal practice, in the ancient world, of religious TOLERATION ; or the permitting the free exercise of all religions, how different soever from the National and Established. For though the very nature and terms of an Established religion implied the Magistrate's peculiar favour and protection; and though in fact, they had their Testlaws for its support, wherever there was diversity of worship; yet it was ancient policy to allow a large and full TOLERATION. And even in the extent of this allowance they seem generally to have had juster notions than certain of our modern Advocates for religious Liberty. They had no conception that any one should be indulged in his presumption of extending it to Religious Rites and practices hurtful to Society, or dishonourable to Humanity. There are many examples in Antiquity of this sage restriction. I shall only mention the universal. concurrence in punishing Magical Rites, by which the health and safety of particulars were supposed to be injuriously affected. And Suetonius's burning the sacred grove in Anglesea*,

in .-“ Præsidium posthac impositum victis, excisique Luci, SÆVis superstitionibus sacri. Nam cruore captivo adolere aras, et hominum fibris consulere deos fas habebant.” Tac. Ann. 1. xiv, c. 30.-Superstition aniongst the Greeks and Romans

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in which human sacrifices were offered up by the Druids, was but the beginning of what those modern Advocates, above mentioned, would call a Persecution against the Order itself, whose obstinate perseverance in this infernal practice could not be overcome but by their total extirpation.

Two principal causes induced the ancient Lawgivers to the sage and reasonable conduct of a large and full toleration :

I. They considered that Religion seldom or never makes a real impression on the minds of those wi are forced into a profession of it: and yet, that all the service Religion can do to the State, is by working that real impression *. They concluded, therefore, that the profession of Religion should be FREE.

Hence may be understood the strange blindness of those modern Politicians, who expect to benefit the State by forcing men to outward conformity; which only making hypocrites and atheists, destroys the sole means religion hath of serving the State. But here, by a common fate of Politicians, they fell from one blunder into another. For having first, in a tyrannical adherence to their own scheme of Policy, or superstitious fondness for the established System of Worship, infringed upon religious Liberty; and then beginning

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had its free course. But the sævæ superstitiones, the savage and cruel Rites, injurious and dishonourable to human nature and çivil Society, were rigorously forbidden.

* In specie autem fictæ simulationis, sicut reliquæ virtutes, ita PIETAS inesse non potest; cum qua simul et sanctitatem et religionem tolli necesse est: quibus sublatis, perturbatio vitæ sequitur et magna confusio. Atque haud scio, an PIETATE adversus deos şublata fides etiam, et societas humani generis, et una excellentis. şima virtus, justitia tollatur. Cic. De nat. deor. I. i. c. 2.

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