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PARKES, WILLIAM DUNSTER, Brenchles, wheelwright. Ct. Tunbridge Wells. Pet.

April 5. Order, April 5. PRICE, JOHN WILLIAMS, Tonypandy, tailor. Ct. Pontypridd. Pet. April 5. Order,

April 5. REDFEARN, ARTHCR, Winton, licensed victualler. Ct. Poole. Pet. April 6. Order,

April 6.
RIGBY, WILLIAM HALSALL, Birmingham, late bookseller. Ct. Birmingham. Pet.

April 7. Order, April 7.
REYNOLDS, DAVID, Waunarllwyd, farmer. Ct. Swansea. Pet. April 6.

Order.
April 6.
SMITH, FREDERICK, Wilmslow, beerhouse-keeper. Ct. Manchester. Pet. April 6.

Order, April 6. THOMAS. REES, Brynhyfryd, shoemaker. Ct. Swansea. Pet. April 5. Order,

April 5. WELLS. ROBERT HEWITT (trading as Wells and Co ), Liverpool, wine merchant. Ct.

Liverpool. Pet. April 3. Order, April 5. WHITCHER, PETER, Ringwood, baker. Ct. Salisbury. Pet. April 5. Order, April 5. WALSH, WILLIAM WATMOUGH, Boston, milliner. Ot. Boston. Pet. March 30. Order,

March 30. WILHELMS. Walter, late Burgess Hill, occupation unknown. Ct. Brighton. Pet.

March 5 Order, April 7. Young, CHRISTOPHER YATES (trading at Young and Co.), Huddersfield, electrical

engineer. Ct. Huddersfield. Pet. April 3. Order, April 3. YOUNG, JOSEPH HENRY, Sheffield, dealer in horses. Ct. Sheffield. Pet. April 5.

Order, April 5. The following amended notice is substituted for that published in the Gazette of April 2. MILES, JOSEPH (frading as the Star Foundry Company), Deptford, ironfounder. Ct. Greenwich. Pet. March 12. Order, March 30.

GAZETTE, APRIL 13. To surrender at the High Court of Justice, in Bankruptcy. DARTON, JOHN PRINN, Tichborne-row, Edgware-rd, journeyman coachbuilder. Pet.

April 9. Order, April 9. ELLIS, GEORGE (trading as George Ellis and Sons). Hackney.rd, boot manufacturer.

Pet. April 9. Order, April 9. FRANCIS, SPENCER JEPSON (trading as Madame Francis), Orchard-st, Portman-sq,

court dressmaker. Pet. April 8. Order, April 8. GRIFFITHS, WILLIAM, Llanilar, farmer. Ot. Aberystwith. Pet. April 8. Order,

April 8. PELLING, DANIEL WILLIAM, late Lamb-yd, Metropolitan Catile Market, Islington,

livery-stable keeper. Pet. April 9. Order, April 9. SHRIMPTON. ALFRED ERNEST ORLANDO, late Cleveland-st, grocer. Pet. March 24.

Order, April 8.
WILLIAMS, W. H., Copthall-av, financial agent. Pet. Feb. 10. Order, April 8.

To surrender at their respective District Courts.
ARMITAGE, RAMSDEN, Ravensthorpe, shuttle maker. Ct. Dewsbury. Pet. April 9.

Order, April 9. ASHWORTH, ABRAHAM, Rochdale, shuttlemaker. Ct. Rochdale. Pet. April 7. Order,

April 7. BLACKBURN, WILLIAM HENRY, Bradford, Yorks, draper. Ct. Bradford. Pet. April 8.

Order, April 8. BOLTON, JOE, Scissett, joiner. Ct. Huddersfield. Pet. April 8. Order, April 8. BROCKLESBY, JOHN, Lincoln, coal dealer. Ct. Lincoln. Þet. April 8. Order, April 8. BALCHIN, EEWARD SAMUEL, Gosport, chemist. Ct. Portsmouth. Pet. April 9. Order,

April 9. CAREY, WILLIAM LEOPOLD, Nottingham, warebouseman. Ct. Nottingham. Pet.

April 8. Order, April 8. ELLIOTT, ARTHUR GEORGE, Luton, late warehouseman. Ct. Luton. Pet. April 10.

Order, April 10. Evans, RICHARD E., Liverpool, house agent. Ct. Liverpool. Pet. March 26. Order,

April 9.
FREEMAN, HENRY, York, innkeeper. Ct. York. Pet. April 5. Order, April 5.
HARTLEY, JOHN ALLEN, Westhoughton, teacher of music. Ct. Bolton. Pet. April 8.

Order, April 8.
HOLMES, JOHN ARTHUR (trading as Holmes Bros.), Bradford, Yorks, stereotyper. Ct.

Bradford. Pet. April 9. Order, April 9.
HAINES, STAFFORD ALFRED, Rowlstone, clerk in holy orders. Ot. Hereford. Pet.

April 8. Order, April 8. HALLIWELL, ALEXANDER BOLD, Huddersfield, dentist. Ct. Huddersfield. Pet.

March 23. Order, April 9. HENDER, THOMAS PETRE, Okehampton, coal merchant. Ct. Plymouth and East

Stonehouse. Pet. April 9. Order, April 9. JACKSON, ELIZABETH JANE (trading as the Crescent Confectionery Company), Salford,

confectioner. Ct. Salford. Pet. April 1. Order, April 8. KERKIN. GEORGE PEARCE, Gorran, farmer. Ct. Truro. Pet. April 10. Order,

April 10. LOCKWOOD, LEONARD SHAW, Bradford, Yorks, late clothier. Ct. Bradford. Pet.

April 10. Order, April 10. LACEBY, JOHN, Great Grimsby, farmer. Ct. Great Grimsby. Pet. April 5. Order,

April 5. MORGAN, NOAH, Cardiff, hay merchant. Ct. Cardiff. Pet. April 8. Order, April 8. OLDFIELD, MACARTNEY HUME, Tunbridge Wells, retired army captain. Ct. Tunbridge

Wells. Pet. Feb. 24. Order, April 7. PINK, FRANCIS, Gosport, mariner. Ct. Portsmouth. Pet. April 9. Order, April 9. POOLE, ALBERT, Calverley Bridge, publican. Ct. Bradford, Yorks. Pet. April 7.

Order, April 7. RHODES. JOHN, jun., late Bradford, Yorks, dyer. Ct. Bradford. Pet. April 8. Order,

April 8. ROSSE, EDWARD, Brighton, musician. Ct. Brighton. Pet. March 12. Order, April 6 STENNING, GEORGE, East Dean, grocer. Ct. Brighton. Pet. April 8. Order, April 8. STEVENSON, WILLIAM (trading as William Stevenson and Son, Bristol, tailor. Ct.

Bristol. Pet. April 9. Order, April 9. SHEPPARD, VINCENT RICHARD, Canterbury, hosier. Ct. Canterbury. Pet. April 8.

Order, April 8. STRIDE, WALTER GARNET, Gillingham, bootmaker. Ct. Rochester. Pet. April 9.

Order, April 9. STEPHENS, FREDERICK, Ebbw Vale, painter. Ct. Tredegar. Pet. April 9. Order,

April 9. STEVENS, JOSEPH, late Croydon, pastrycook. Ct. Croydon. Pet. April 7. Order,

April 7. WILLIAMS, JOHN WILLIAM, Manchester, metal merchant. Ct. Manchester. Pet.

April 9. Order, April 9. WILLIAMS, THOMAS, late Castlefield, worsted spinner. Ct. Bradford, Yorks. Pet.

April 10. Order, April 10. WILLIAMS, SOLOMON, Chester, fitter. Ct. Chester. Pet. April 10. Order, April 10.

The following amended notice is substituted for that published in the Gazette of March. 30.
MORRIS, GEORGE HENRY, and MORRIS, BERTRAM JAMES (late trading as Morris

Brothers), Whyteleale, fly proprietors. Ct. Croydon. Pet. March 25. Order,
March 25.
FIRST MEETINGS AND PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS.

GAZETTE, APRIL 9.
ALLANSON, JOHN BATH, Carnarvon, solicitor. Ct. Bangor. Meeting, April 21,

at 12.45, at Prince of Wales hotel, Carnarvon. Exam. May 6, at 12.15, at

Magistrates'-room, Bangor.
BECKETT, ALFRED, late Harman-st, Kingsland-rd, shirt manufacturer.

Ct. High Court. Meeting, April 23, at 11, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. Exam. May 12, at noon,

at Bankruptcy-bldgs. Brown, CECIL REYNER WILLIAM, the Hydrographic Department, Admiralty. Ct.

High Court. Meeting, April 23, at 1, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. Exam. May 12, at noon, at Bankruptcy-bldgs.

BARNETT, H. F.. Ramsgate, solicitor. Ct. Canterbury. Meeting, April 29, at noon,

at office of off. Rec. Canterbury. Exam. April 29, at 10, at Guildhall, Canterbury. BUTLER, JOHN, late Widnes, grocer. Ot. Liverpool. Meeting. April 21, at 2, at office

of Off. Rec. Liverpool. Ex im. April 22, at 11.30, at Court-house, Liverpool. BLOODWORTH, CHARLES (trading as C. Bloodworth and Co.), Nottingham, lace manu

facturer. Ct. Nottingham. Meeting, April 23, at noon. at office of Off. Rec.

Nottingham. Exam. May 7, at 10, at County Court-house, Nottingham. Dixon, JOHN LAURENCE, Sheffield, grocer. Ct. Sheffield. Meeting. April 21, at noon,

at office of Off. Rec. Sheffield. Exam. April 22, at 3, at County Court-hall,

Shefheld. ELVIN, ALFRED ARTHUR, Thetford, engineer's fitter. Ct. Norwich. Meeting,

April 17, at 1, at office of Off. Rec. Norwich. Exam. May 19, at 11, at Shireball,

Norwich. HARDING, ELIZABETH, Warrington, draper, widow. Ct. Warrington. Meeting,

May 7, at 10.45, at Court-house, Warrington. Exam. May 7, at 11, at Court

house, Warrington. JACKSON, JOHN (trading as J. Jackson and Co)., Hatton-grdn, Holborn, clock dealer.

Ct. High Court. Meeting, April 23, at noon, at Bankruptcy bldgs. Exam.

May 20, at 11, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. JOHNSON, WILLIAM SAMUEL, Mansfield, draper. Ct. Nottingham. Meeting, April 28,

at 11, at office of Off. Rec. Nottingham. Exam. May 19, at 11.30, at County

Court-house, Nottingham. MITCALFE, STEPHEN WRIGHT, Shaftesbury-rd. Hammersmith, commission agent.

Ct. Bigh Court. Meeting, April 23, at 11, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. Exam. May 21,

at 11.30, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. MAKEPEACE, SAMUEL, Leicester, framework knitter. Ct. Leicester. Meeting,

April 21, at 12.30, at office of orr. Rec. Leicester. Exam. April 22, at 10, at the

Castle, Leicester. MAXWELL, MATTHEW DAVIES, Abergavenny, tailor. Ct. Tredegar. Meeting,

April 22. at 3, at 65, High-st, Merthyr Tydfil. Exam. May 21, at 10.30, at County

Court, Tredegar. NASSIF, PAUL, Copthall-bldgs Ct. High Court. Meeting, April 22, at noon, at

Bankruptcy-bldgs. Exam. May 21, at 11.30, at Bankruptcy-bidgs. SMITH, FREDERICK, Wilmslow. beerhouse-keeper. Ct. Manchester. Meeting,

April 23, at 2 30, at office of Off. Rec. Manchester. Exam. April 26, at 11, at

Court-house, Manchester. SANDES. ALFRED FLEMING, Cowcross-st, paper_agent. Ct. High Court. Meeting,

April 23, at 11, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. Exam. May 11, at noon, at Bank

ruptcy-bldgs. TAVERNER, JOHN PONSFORD, late South Audley-st, florist. Ct. High Court. Meeting,

April 23, at noon, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. Exam. May 11, at 11.30, at Bank

ruptcy-bldgs. TUCKETT, JOHN. Exeter, bellhanger. Ct. Exeter. Meeting, April 22, at 10.30, at office

of Off. Rec. Exeter. Exam. April 29, at 11.30, at the Castle, Exeter. TROMPSON, WILLIAM, Nottingham, tailor. Ct. Nottingham. Meeting, April 22, at 11,

at office of Off. Rec. Nottingham. Exam. May at 10, at County Court-house,

Nottingham. THOMAS, JOHN (trading as Thomas and Son), Argoed, butcher. Ct. Tredegar.

Meeting, April 22, at noon, at 65, High-st, Merthyr Tydil. Exam. May 21, at 10.30, at County Court, Tredegar.

GAZETTE, APRIL 13. ANDERSON, HENRY, Kingston-upon-Hull, builder. Ct. Kingston-upon-Hull. Meeting,

April 22, at 11.30, at office of Off. Rec. Hull. Exam. May at 2, at Cou 180,

Hull. BLACKBURN, WILLIAM HENRY, Bradford, Yorks, draper. Ct. Bradford. Meeting,

April 23, at noon, at office of Off. Rec. Bradford. Exam. April 30, at 10, at

County Court, Bradford. BUCKTON, SAM, jun., and BUCKTON, RICHARD (trading as Buckton and Co.), Pudsey,

tanners. Ct. Bradford, Yorks. Meeting. April 22, at noon, at office of Off. Rec.

Bradford. Exam. April 30, at 10, at County Court, Bradford. BRAY, FREDERICK ROBERT THOMPSON, Parkgate, hairdresser. Ct. Sheffield. Meeting,

April 23, at 3, at office of Off. Rec. Sheffield. Exam. April 29, at 3, at County

Court-hall, Sheffield. COLLINS, WILLIAM, Plymouth, horse dealer. Ct. Plymouth and East Stonehouse.

Meeting, April 21, at 11, at 10, Athenæum-ter, Plymouth. Exam. April 27, at 11,

at Townhall, East Stonehouse. CLEAVER, FREDERICK, Poole, hairdresser. Ct. Poole. Meeting, April 21, at 12.30,

at office of Off. Rec. Salisbury. Exam. May 12, at noon, at Townhall, Poole. COATES, RICHARD, Kidderminster, builder. Ct. Kidderminster. Meeting, April 23,

at 12.30, at office of Messrs. Ivens and Morton, Kidderminster. Exam. April 23,

at 3, at Townhall, Kidderminster. CALLAGHAN, Huga CALVERT (trading as the Anglo-Caspian Oil Company), Cardiff,

oil merchant. Ct. Cardiff. Meeting, April 26, at 11, at office of Off. Rec. Cardiff.

Exam. May 14, at 10, at Townhall, Cardiff. CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM THOMAS, Cardiff, grocer. Ct. Cardiff. Meeting, April 27,

at 11, at office of Off. Rec. Cardiff. Exam. May 14, at 10, at Townhall, Cardiff. Dyson, GABRIEL, jun. (trading as Dyson Brothers), Colne, plumber, Ct. Burnley.

Meeting, April 30, at 1.30, at Exchange-hotel, Burnley. Exam. April 30, at 11, åt

Court-house, Burnley. DAVIES, EBENEZER (trading as Davies Brothers), Llanelly, builder. Ct. Carmarthen.

Meeting, April 21, at 11.30, at office of Off. Rec. Carmarthen. Exam. May 12,

at 11, at Guildhall, Carmarthen. FREEMAN, HENRY, York, innkeeper. Ct. York. Meeting, April 21, at 12.15, at office

of Off. Rec. York. Exam. April 30, at 11, at Courts of Justice, York. GARLICK, WILLIAM LIDDINGTON, late Biddiesdon, farmer. Ct. Banbury. Meeting,

Ap 21, at noon, at Bankru) -office, Oxford. Exam. April 28, at 10, at

Townhall, Banbury. GUNTHORPE, GEORGE THOMAS, Rock, haulier. Ct. Kidderminster. Meeting, April 23, *

at 12.50, at office of Mr. John Nichols, Kidderminster. Exam. April 23, at 3,

at Townhall, Kidderminster. GIBBS, FRANCIS WILLIAM, Northampton, shoe manufacturer. Ct. Northampton.

Meeting, April 21, at 12.30, at County Court-bldgs, Northampton. Exam. May 4,

at noon, at County-hall, Northampton. HARTLEY, JOHN ALLEN, Westhoughton, teacher of music. Ct. Bolton, Meeting,

April 21, at 10.30, at 16, Wood-st, Bolton. Exam. April 26, at 11.15, at Court

house, Bolton. JARRATT, THOMAS, Thornton, farmer. Ct Bradford, Yorks. Meeting, April 22,

at 11, at office of Off. Rec. Bradford. Exam, April 30, at 10, at County Court,

Bradford. JACKSON, ELIZABETH JANE (trading as the Crescent Confectionery Company), Salford,

confectioner. Ct. Salford. Meeting, April 22, at 3, at omice of Off. Rec.

Manchester Exam. May 4, at 2.30, at Court-house, Salford. KILFORD, ROBERT (trading as Robert Kilford and Co.), Stourbridge, grocer. Ct.

Stourbridge. April 22, at 2.10, at office of C. H. Collis, Stourbridge. Exam.

April 22, at 2.30, at Court-house, Stourbridge. PRICE, EDWARD MATTHEW, late Hollyport, schoolmaster. Ct. High Court. Meeting,

April 29, at 2.30, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. Exam. May 14, at noon, at Bank

ruptcy-bldgs. POOLE, ALBERT, Calverley Bridge, publican. Ct. Bradford, Yorks. Meeting, April 23,

at 11, at office of Off, Rec. Bradford, Exam, April 30, at 10, at County Court,

Bradford. PICTON, WILLIAM, Cadoxton-juxta-Barry, builder. Ct. Cardiff. Meeting, April 26,

at 11.30, at office of Off. Rec. Cardiff. Exam. May 14, at 10, at Townhall, Cardiff. REDFEARN, ARTHUR, Winton, licensed victualler. Ct. Poole. Meeting, April 22,

at 12.30, at office of Off, Rec. Salisbury. Exam. May 12, at noon, at Townhall,

Poole. RILEY, WILLIAM HENRY, Burman-st, London-rd, Southwark, brassfounder. Ct.

High Court. Meeting, April 29, at noon, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. Exam. May 14,

at noon, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. ROSKIN, CHARLES (trading as Č, H. Roskin and Co.), Broad-st House, New Broad-st,

investment broker. Ct. High Court. Meeting. April 28, at 11, at Bankruptcybldg. Exam. May 18, at 11.30, at Bankruptcy-bldgs.

ROBINSON, JOSEPH, Oswaldtwistle, late coal dealer. Ct. Blackburn. Meeting, May 12,

at 1, at County Court-house, Blackburn. Exam. May 12, at 11, at County Court

house, Blackburn. REYNOLDS, DAVID, Swansea, farmer. Ct. Swansea. Meeting, April 22, at noon, at

office of Off. Rec. Swansea. Exam. April 30, at 11.30, at Townhall, Swansea. SARGENT, GEORGE, London-wall. Ct. High Court. Meeting, April 30, at noon, at

Bankruptcy-bldgs. Exam. May 18, at 11.30, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. SMITH, FRANCIS HENRY PERCY (described in Receiving Order as Frank Smith),

Bramfield-rd. Wandsworth Common, commission agent. Ct. High Court. Meeting, April 28, at noon, at Bankruptcy-bldgs. Exam. May 18, at 11.30, at

Bankruptcy-bldgs. TEASDALE, JOSEPH SULLITO, Kingston-upon-Holl. cornfactor. Ct. Kingston-upon

Hull. Meeting, April 22, at 11, at office of Off. Rec. Hull. Exam. May 10, at 2,

at Court-house, Hull. THOMAS, DAVID MORGAN, Swansea. commission agent. Ot. Swansea. Meating,

April 21, at noon, at office of Off. Rec. Swansea. Exam. April 30, at 11.80, at

Townhall. Swansea. WHITCHER, PETER, Southampton, baker. Ct. Salisbury. Meeting, April 21, at 1,

at office of Off. Rec. Salisbury. Exam. May 13, at 2, at Council-house, Salisbury. WILSON, GEORGE, Stannington. late hatter. Ct. Sheffield. Meeting, April 23, at 2.30,

at office of Off. Rec. Sheffield. Exam. April 29, at 3, at County Court-hall,

Sheffield WILLIAMS, THOMAS FREDERICK, Wellington, commercial traveller. Ct. Taunton.

Meeting. April 21, at 11, at office of Off. Rec. Taunton. Exam. May 19, at 2.30, at

Guildhall, Taurton. YOUNG, CARISTOPHER YATES (trading as Young and Co.). Huddersfield, electrical

engineer. Ct. Huddersfield, Meeting, April 22, at 11, at office of Ofr. Rec.

Huddersfield. Exam. May 3. at 2, at County Court, Huddersfield. YEO, THOMAS, late Cardiff, builder. Ct. Swansea. Meeting, April 21, at 2 15, at

office of Off. Rec. Swansea. Exam, April 30, at 11.30, at Townhall, Swansea.

LOCKWOOD, LEONARD SHAW, Bradford, Yorks, late clothier. Ct. Bradford. Order,

April 10. LACEBY, JOHN, Healing, farmer. Ct. Great Grimsby. Order, April 5. MORTLOCK, ERNEST, Upper Richmond-rd, Putney, gentleman. Ct. Wandsworth,

Order, April 8. MORRIS. GEORGE HENRY, and MORRIS, BERTRAM JAMES, Whytelease, fly proprietors.

Ct. Croydon. Order, April 1. NICHOLS, JOHN, Wappenham, farmer, Ct. Northampton. Order, April 10. PAVEY, FRANK, Uxbridge-rd, grocer. Ct. High Court. Order, April 8. PELLING, DANIEL WILLIAM, late Lamb-yd, Metropolitan Cattle Market, Islington,

livery-stable keeper. Ct. Bigh Court. Order. April 9. POOLE, ALBERT, Calverley Bridge, publican. Ct Bradford, Yorks. Order, April 7. PINK, FRANCIS, Gosport, mariner. Ct. Portsmouth. Order, April 9. RHODES, JOHN. jop., Calverley, dyer. Ct. Rradford, Yorks. Order. April 8. ROWBOTTOM, FRANCIS, New Mills, cotton waste spinner. Ct. Stockport. Order,

April 10. STEPHENS, FREDERICK, Ebbw Vale, painter. Ct. Tredegar. Order, April 9. SNEAD, HARRY SEYMOUR (trading as Henry Snead), Great Titchfield-st, Oxford-st,

bootmaker. Ct. High Court, Order, April 9. STENNING, GEORGE, East Dean. grocer. Ct. Brighton. Order, April 8. SAEPPARD, VINCENT RICHARD, Canterbury, hosier. Ct, Canterbury. Order, April 8. SNELLING, CHARLES ARTHUR, Oxted, butcher. Ct. Croydon. Order, April 2. STEVENS, JOSEPH, late Croydon, pastrycook. Ct. Croydon. Order, April 7, STRIDE, WALTER GARNKT, Gillingham, bootmaker. Ot Rochester. Order April 9. Tovey, ELEANOZ JANE. late Axbridge, widow. Ct. Wells. Order. April 8 WILLIAM, THOMAS, Bradford, Yorks, worsted spinner. Ct. Bradford. "Order, April 10. WILLIAMS, SOLOMON, Saltney, fltter. Ct. Chester. Order, April 10.

The following amended notice is substituted for that published in the Gazette of March 26. JACKSON, HENRY, Walsall Wood, chainmaker. Ct. Walsall. Order, March 20.

ADJUDICATION ANNULLED.

GAZETTE, APRIL 9. Paxon, HENRY JAMES (trading as Weaklin, Flint, and Paxon), High Holborn,

stationer. Ct. High Court. Adjudication, July 12, 1895. Annulment, April 6, 1897.

GAZETTE, APRIL 18. FRORDICK, JAMES, Consett, billposter. Ct. Newcastle-on-Tyne. Adjudication,

Jan. 27, 1883. Annulment, April 9, 1897.

Winding-up of Companies.
THE COMPANIES ACTS 1862 TO 1890.
NOTICES OF INTENDED DIVIDENDS.

GAZETTE, APRIL 13.
PATENT NATIONAL CARTRIDGE COMPANY LIMITED, Bristol. Ct. Bristol. Last day for

proofs. April 30. Liquidator, Edward Gustavus Clarke, Bank-chmbrs, Corn-st,

Bristol. WATSON AND Hiscox LIMITED, Woolwich. Ct. High Court. Last day for proofs,

April 30. Liquidator, Samuel Wheeler, 33, Carey-st.

NOTICE OF DIVIDEND.

GAZETTE, APRIL 9. EAST BOLDON FREEHOLD LAND SOCIETY, Sunderland. Ct. Sunderland. Amount per

pound, 6s. 8d. Second. Payable, April 17, at office of Off. Rec. Sunderland.

1

NOTICE OF APPOINTMENT OF LIQUIDATOR.

GAZETTE, APRIL 9.
MANCHESTER TUBE SYNDICATE LIMITED, Openshaw. Ct. Manchester. Liquidator,

George Edward Haworth, Duchy.chmbrs, Clarence-st, Manchester. Appointment,
March 29,
NOTICES OF RELEASE OF LIQUIDATORS.

GAZETTE, APRIL 9.
ARCHITECTURAL POTTERY COMPANY LIMITED, Pancras-la. Ct. High Court. Joint

liquidators, George Stapylton Barnes, 33, Carey-st; Charles Walter Grimwade,

38, Coleman-st. Release, March 15. PATENT WOOLLEN CLOTH COMPANY LIMITRD, Love-la, Aldermanbury. Ct. High

Court. Liquidator, William Martello Gray, District Bank-chmbrs, Bradford.
Release, March 25.

GAZETTE, APRIL 13.
CROUCH END CENTRAL MCTUAL BUILDING SOCIETY, Park-rd, Crouch End.

Ct. Clerkenwell County Court of Middlesex. Liquidator, George Stapylton Barnes, 33, Carey-st. Release, April 9.

ADJUDICATIONS.

GAZETTE, APRIL 9. ANDERSON, HENRY, Kingston-upon-Hull, builder. Ct. Kingston-upon-Hull. Order,

April 5. BUCKTON, SAM, jun., and BUCKTON, RICHARD (trading as Buckton and Co.), Pudsey,

tanners. Ct. Bradford. Order, April 6. BUTLER, EDWARD, Malpas, hotel proprietor. Ct. Nantwich and Crewe. Order,

April 6.
BUTLER, RICHARD, Christchurch, farmer. Ct. Poole. Order, April 5.
BRAY, FREDERICK ROBERT THOMPSON, Parkgate, hairdresser. Ct. Sheffield.

Order,
April 5.
COLE, RICHARD THOMAS, Calne, ironmonger. Ct. Swindon. Order, April 6.
CALL, Sir WILLIAM, Bolton-grdns, South Kensington, baronet. Ct. High Court.

Order, April 6. Dawson, TOM, Sandal, butcher. Ct. Wakefield. Order, April 7. ELLIS, JOHN, Brithdir, farmer. Ct. Aberystwith. Order, April 5. EVANS, WILLIAM, Wistanstow, wheelwright. Ct Leominster. Order, April 6. FRANK, HOMMEL HIRSH HENRY, Dover, general dealer. Ct. Canterbury. Order,

April 6. FEATHER, EDWIN, Morley, general dealer. Ct. Dewsbury. Order, April 6. GARLICK, WILLIAM LIDDINGTON, late Biddlesdon, farmer. Ct. Banbury. Order,

April 6. GEEGORY, John, Banbury, grocer. Ct. Banbury. Order, April 6. HARFORD, WILLIAM HENRY, Mountain Ash, grocer. Ct. Aberdare. Order, April 7. HOLDSWORTH, JOHNSOX, Bradford, Yorks, stuff manufacturer. Ct. Bradford. Order,

April 5. HALL, JOHN, Bristol. flshmonger. Ct. Bristol. Order, April 7. HAYMES, WILLIAM, Kingston-upon-Hull, provision dealer. Ct. Kingston-upon-Hull.

Order, April 7. INSTON, SAMUEL, and INSTON, ARTHUR JAMES (trading as Samuel Inston and Son),

Bradford, Yorks. commission agents. Ct. Bradford. Order, april 6. JARRATT, THOMAS, Thornton, farmer. Ct. Bradford, Yorks. Order, April 3. KAYE, FREDERICK, Glasgow, late railway clerk. Ct. Newcastle-on-Tyne. Order,

April 7. MITCALFE, STEPHEN WRIGHT, Shaftesbury-rd, Hammersmith, commission agent.

Ct. High Court. Order, April 6. MONTAGUE, ALGERNON SYDNEY, late Weymouth, a captain in the nary. Ct. Dorchester.

Order, April 6. MILES, JOSEPH, (trading as the Star Foundry Company), Deptford, ironfounder. Ct.

Greenwich. Order. April 6.
MARSHALL, HANNAH MARY, Goole, boot dealer. Ct. Wakefield. Order, April 7.
PEARSE, JOHN B., Pillaton, farmer. Plymouth and East Stonehouse, Order. April 5.
PARKES, WILLIAM DUNSTER, Brenchley, wheelwright. Ct. Tunbridge Wells. Order,

April 5.
REYNOLDS, DAVID, Waunarllwyd, farmer. Ct. Swansea. Order. April 6.
SANDES, ALFRED FLEMING, Cowcross-st, paper agent. Ct. High Court.

Order,
April 5.
SMITH, FREDERICK. Wilmslow, beerhouse-keeper. Ct. Manchester. Order April 6.
THOMAS, DAVID MORGAN, Swansea, commission agent. Ct. Swansea. Order,

April 6. THOMAS, REES, Brynhyfryd, shoemaker._Ct. Swansea. Order, April 5. VICARY. WILLIAM HENRY, Dawes-rd, Fulham, builder. Ct. High Court. Order,

April 5. WALSH, WILLIAM WATMOUGH, Boston, milliner. Ct. Boston. Order, March 30. WHITCHER, PETER, Ringwood, baker. Ct. Salisbury. Order. April 5. YOUNG, JOSEPH HENRY. Sheffield, dealer in horses. Ct. Sheffield. Order April 5. YOUNG, CHRISTOPHER YATES, Huddersfield, electrical engineer. Ct. Huddersfield, Order, April 3.

GAZETTE, APRIL 13. ARMITAGE, RAMSDEN, Ravensthorpe, shuttlemaker. Ct. Dewsbury. Order. April 9. ASHWORTH, ABRAHAM, Rochdale, shuttlemaker. Ct. Rochdale. Order April 7. BLACKBURN, WILLIAM HENRY, Bradford, Yorks, draper. Ct. Bradford.

Order, April 8. BOLTON, JOE, Scissett, joiner. Ct. Huddersfield. Order, April 9. BROCKLESBY, JOHN, Burton, coal dealer. Ct. Lincoln. Order, April 8. CLARKE, FREDERICK WILLIAM, late Valentia-rd, Brixton. Ct. High Court. Or.ler,

April 10. CAPPS, E., Felixstowe, builder. Ct. Ipswich. Order, April 9. CAREY, WILLIAM LEOPOLD, Carrington, warehouseman. Ct. Nottingham. Order,

April 8. DARTON, JOHN PRINN, Tichborne-row, Edgware-rd, journeyman coachbuilder. Ct, High Court.

Order, April 9. DUTFIELD, ARTHUR. Pinchin-st, St. George's-in-the-East, wheelwright. Ct. High

Court. Order, April 10. ELLIOTT, ARTHU'R GEORGE, Luton, late warehouseman. Ct. Luton. Order, April 10. FREEMAN, HENRY, York, innkeeper. Ct. York. Order, April 5. FRANCIS, SPENCER JEPSON (trading as Madame Francis), Orchard-st, Portman-sq,

court dressmaker, Ot. High Court. Order, April 8. FRY, HENRY MANFRED, Gloucester, builder. Ct. Gloucester. Order, April 10. GRINDLAY, WALTER, Essex-ct, Temple, barrister-at-law. Ct. High Court. Order,

April 9. HOLMES, JOHN ARTHUR (trading as Holmes Bros,), Bradford, Yorks, stereotyper.

Ct. Bradford. Order, April 9. HENDER, THOMAS PETRE, Okehampton, coal merchant. Ct. Plymouth and Stonehouse.

Order. April 9 JACOBS, JACOB (described in Receiving Order as John Jackson, and trading as J.

Jackson and Co.), Hatton-grdn, Holborn, clock dealer. Ct. High Court. Order,

April 8.
KILFORD, ROBERT (trading as Robert Kilford and Co.), Stourbridge, grocer. Ct.

Stourbridge. Order, April 9.
KERKIN, GEORGE PEARCE, Uorran, farmer. Ct. Truro. Order, April 10.

BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS.

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BIRTHS. ATKIN.-On the sth inst., at 18, Honiton-st, Kensington, W., the wife of J. R. Atkin,

Barrister-at-law, of a son. HEARN.-On the 4th inst., at Muizenberg, Strood Hill, Rochester, the wife of Alfred

Booth Hearn, Solicitor, of a daughter. HORE.-On the 1st inst., at Sandy Bay, Hobart, Tasmania, the wife of Leslie F. S. Hore, Barrister, of a son

MARRIAGES. BLOOD-FETHERSTONHAUGH.--On the 3rd inst., at St. Geroge's Parish Church, Dublin,

Alexander F. Blood, of 7. Gardiner's-row, Dublin, Barrister-at-law, to Mary Isabel Emily, widow of Alfred Fetherstonbaugh, late of Idrone, Templeogue, co. Dublin, only daughter of the late Stephen Hewitt O'Bryen, of Queenstown, co. Cork. Her Majesty's Collector of Revenues at Gibraltar, and grandniece of the Right Hon.

the Earl of Cranbrook. DODSON-SOLLY.-On the 24th Feb., at the Cathedral, Hobart, Tasmania, the Rer.

Walter J. Dodson, B.A., Oxon., Rector of Macquarie Plains, only son of the late W. L. Dodson, LL.D., formerly of Doctors' Commons, London, and Lustleigh. S. Devon, to Kathleen M., youngest daughter of B.T. Solly, of Hobart, late Under

Colonial Secretary, PINNOCK-FOLKARD.--On the 7th inst., at St Andrew's, West Kensington, Perciral

Pinnock, of Wheatley, eldest son of the late Carey Pinnock, of. Standlake, Oxon., to Florence Maud, younger daughter of Henry C. Folkard, of Lincoln's-inn and

the Western Circuit, Barrister-at-law. Ross-LINCOLN.--On the 2nd ult., at Christ Church, Lucknow, Hercules de Lautour

Ross, District Superintendent of Police N.W.P. and Oudh, son of Horatio S. I. Ross, of Southsea, to Alice Hilda Gwyneth Docker, youngest daughter of F. Lincoln,

District Judge (retired), Lucknow. SPRIGGE-TAYLOR. --On the Sth inst., at Crowland Abbey, Lincolnshire, Oliver James

Overall, eldest son of the late Oliver Sprigge, M.R.C.S., L. S.A., of Peterborough, to Ellen Marie, eldest daughter of ihe late John Taylor, Solicitor, of Peterborough,

DEATHS. ALDRIDGE.-On the 9th inst., at his residence, 58, Canfield-grdns, in his 80th year,

Walter William Aldridge, of 31, Bedford-row, late (and for thirty years) Official

Solicitor to the Court of Bankruptcy. CROSSE.-On the 9th inst., at South Molton, North Deron, Lucy Stawell Crosse, widow

of Robert Jennings Crosse, Solicitor, aged 73. Dunn.--On the 6th inst., at Mortimer House, Cheltenham. Emma, widow of Nicholas

John Dunn, late of Clifton, Bristol, and Tenby, J.P. and D.L. Pembrokeshire, aged 63 years.

1

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A CORRESPONDENT mentions a rumour, current in Dublin, that the next three vacancies upon the Irish Bench will not be filled up. This is probably true.

Our judicial system has been a beneficent mother to the family of POLLOCK. On the Bench, in the Masters' offices, and now among the Official Referees, the race abounds—and remains. We heartily congratulate the latest creation.

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A PRACTISING junior of experience wishes us to name courts and judges-appellate and Queen's Bench-which rose days before the statutory close of the Hilary Sittings. We weary of this invidious task. The occurrence is too common for comment. Our correspondent recalls old Westminster Hall days. There was discipline by chiefs then, and we fancy a stronger sense of duty to the public.

Price 28. 6d., post free.
A HANDBOOK OF PROCEDURE

OF THE
HOUSE OF COMMONS.

WITH SUGGESTIONS AND PRECEDENTS FOR THE
USE OF PARLIAMENTARY DEBATING SOCIETIES.

BY
GEO. G. GRAY, Esq., LL.D. (Lond.), J.P.,

Barrister-at-Law.
"A very large sale might have been predicted of this book

a clever epitome, well compiled. It is reliable, not verbose, and omits little of importance; at times it throws light on dificult questions. It will, in short, fill a hitherto open spot in legal and political literature." --Law Journal.

We strongly object to the sort of apology offered by the Times to a certain class of politicians for the appointment of Mr. RIDLEY to a judgeship in the form of a reminder that a Tory Chancellor provided for two Radical lawyers neglected by their own party. If a selection cannot escape being denounced as a job, no political charity can save it. It is really lamentable that judgeships of any kind should be filled under such conditions.

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UNPUNCTUALITY in sitting is fast becoming one of the most serious failings of the County Courts. We say unpunctuality advisedly, for whether the court sits at ten or twelve does not matter, so long as the business is carried through. But that a suitor should be summoned at ten or 10.30, and have to wait for the judge for an hour or an hour and a half in the none too savoury purlieus of a County Court, seems to be little short of a scandal. We shall presently name courts in fault in this respect.

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SUPREME COURT OF JUDICATURE. TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS... 571 COURT OF APPEAL.

LEADING ARTICLES. — Topics of the SIMPSON v. HUGHES AND ARMSTRONG.

Week Ridleyism; or the New -Vendor and purchaser-Sale of Judge - Codification : Code Civil land-Specific performance-Con- Portugais—Expensive Proceduretract contained in letters-Reference The Husband's Liability for the in acceptance to date of completion, 237 Wife's Debts .........

571 Re THE WESTERN COUNTIES STEAM COMMENTS ON CASES ....

575 BAKERIES AND MILLING COMPANY

OCCASIONAL NOTES..

575 LIMITED; E. parte PARSONS AND ROBJENT. - Company-Winding-up

NOTES OF RECENT DECISIONS NOT -Misfeasance-Auditors

239
YET REPORTED

577 BROOMFIELD . WILLIAMS.--Easement OUR LITERARY COLUMN. Stories Light Obstruction --- Building from the Law Reports

580 land-Derogation from grant 243 LAW LIBRARY

581 FLOYD 0, J. LYONS AND CO. LIMITED.

CRIMINAL LAW AND TRE JURISDIC--Landlord and tenant-Covenant

TION OF MAGISTRATES, The by lessor to pay all water rate im

Criminal Appeal Bill-Evidence in posed or assessed upon the premises 251 Criminal Cases Bill.

581 HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE.

COUNTY COURT8. - Sittings of the
CHANCERY DIVISION.

Courts—The Jubilee of the County
Courts

583 BELL v. BALLS.-Specific performance

GENERAL INTELLIGENCE. – The Pre-Sale by auction-Sale of landsAuthority of auctioneer to bind the

sent State of the Law-Trial by purchaser Authority

Jury of Roman Origin-Heirs-atauc

Law and Next of Kin -- Appointtioneer's clerk

254

ments under the Joint Stock QUEEN'S BENCH DIVISION.

Winding-up Acts-Creditors under FINLAY », THE MEXICAN INVESTMENT

Estates in Chancery Creditors CORPORATION.-Insurance of securi

under 22 & 23 Vict. c. 35-Quarter ties-Debenture

257
Sessions

584 REG. v. THE CLERK OF ASSIZE OF THE

PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS 589 OXFORD CIRCUIT.-Criminal law- LAW SOCIETIES.-Incorporated Law Coroners-Inqnisition --- Inquisition

Society: Special General Meetingsetting out special facts - Suffi

Incorporated Law Society: Victoria 260 Pension Fund

589 ciency of

LEGAL OBITUARY Mr. GOLDSTEIN (app.) v. VAUGHAN (resp.).

Charles -Factories - Workshop open

William Moore - Mr. W.

on Sunday-Persons of Jewish religion

Aldridge

590 -"Open for traffic on Sunday" 262 CORRESPONDENCE...

590

LAW STUDENTS' JOURNAL.-Students' PROBATE, DIVORCE,

AND
ADMI
Societies

591 RALTY DIVISION.

THE COURTS AND COURT PAPERS.
ADMIRALTY BUSINESS.

Rota of Registrars-High Court of THE ALTAIR.—Salvage-Tug and tow Justice, Queen's Bench Division: -Control of navigation-Negligence Rota of Judges, Easter Sittings, of tug-Contributory negligence of 1897

591 tow-Salvage agreement – Unfair THE GAZETTES

592 and unjust bargain.

263 | BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS ... 594 Vol. CII.-No. 2821.

The Voluntary Schools Act has now been added to the ten Elementary Education Acts upon the Statute-book, and another Government Act will shortly follow. It may be suggested that the time has arrived for consolidating these Acts. Sir John GORST has recently stated that the 97th section of the Act of 1870, "that Act being twenty-seven years old,” has become very difficult to understand, and it is surely desirable, when it is about to be amended, to repeal and re-enact it as amended in an intelligible shape. The section, it will be remembered, lays down that the conditions required to be fulfilled by an elementary school, in order to obtain the annual Parliamentary grant, shall be those contained in the minutes of the education departments in force for the time being, which conditions are required to contain two specified provisions, one of which is repealed by sect. 19 of the Elementary Education Act 1876, and both of which are subject to a long proviso in relation to the “ seven-andsixpenny limit,” which it is now proposed to amend.

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It is good news that a Government Bill to consolidate the law relating to excise duties will shortly be introduced. The Taxes Management Act 1880 and the Inland Revenue Regulation Act 1890, though both of them were consolidating Acts which effected great improvements in the form of the law, left very much to be desired. For example, by sect. 36 of

the Inland Revenue Regulation Act 1890, it is provided that

all fines imposed by this Act may be proceeded for and recovered in the same manner, and in the case of summary conviction with the like power of appeal, as any fine or penalty under any Act relating to the excise." We presume, on the authority of Reg. v. Ingham (59 L. T. Rep. 62), that this remarkably vague expression means "any Act in any way relating to the excise for the time being," but we cannot positively say that it would not include repealed Acts or exclude Acts passed after 1890. But whichever may be the precise meaning of sect. 36 of the Act of 1896, how and where are all the Acts relating to the excise to be found ? The Excise Management Acts of 1827, 1834, and 1841 are all general Acts, and not very difficult to find. On reference, however, to the schedule to the Inland Revenue Act, which contains twenty-nine Acts wholly or in part repealed, it will be found that most of the repeals are partial only: see especially the partial repeals of the consolidating 7 & 8 Geo. 4, c. 53, and 2 & 3 Will. 4, c. 16. We hope that the new Bill will be very full and comprehensive in its repeals

represents the Attorney-General, has the right, which is uniformly exercised, of reply; whereas such right in similar cases in England is restricted to the Attorney-General and the Solicitor-General. (3) In Ireland, the challenging of jurors, which is unknown practically in England, is a leading feature in a criminal trial. It was common, at Assizes after Assizes," said Lord ASHBOURNE, as Lord Chancellor of Ireland, in the House of Lords on the 4th March 1887,

and he had seen it himself, to have fifty, sixty, eighty, ninety, and one hundred persons repeatedly ordered to stand by, not in cases involving political prejudice or passion, but in ordinary cases." “ In the course of my experience,” writes Sir J. STEPHEN, “I do not remember more than two occasions on which there were any considerable number of challenges :" (History of the Criminal Law of England, vol. 1, p. 303).

that was

In the recent debate upon the Criminal Evidence Bill the ATTORNEY-GENERAL very warmly protested against the suggestion with regard to the exclusion of Ireland that “ prosecutions were conducted in Ireland in

a way not as fair to the prisoner as in England.” LORD RUSSELL OF KILLOWEN and LORD JAMES OF HEREFORD take a different view from Sir RICHARD WEBSTER on this question. On the 22nd March 1888, on a second reading discussion of a similar Criminal Evidence Bill--a Bill which was likewise proposed by the present ATTORNEY-GENERAL—the present LORD CHIEF JUSTICE, then Sir CHARLES RUSSELL, said: “In the interests of the Bill itself, which, after all, was a new departure in our judicial system, it would be better to see how it operated in England before extending it to Ireland, where, whether rightly or wrongly, under the existing system a widespread distrust of the administration of the law was unquestionably felt. He would relate a little incident to illustrate that feeling. During the trial of the dynamitards at the Old Bailey, before Judge HAWKINS, a few years ago, a friend of his, a respectable Presbyterian minister from the North of Ireland, was desirous of hearing the trial, and he (Sir CHARLES RUSSELL) obtained him a pass to the court. Subsequently the clergyman called on him at his chambers and said, 'I was never more astonished in the whole course of my life. Why a criminal trial in the Old Bailey is not what I am accustomed to in Ireland. The prosecuting judge and the counsel are most anxious that nothing unfair to the prisoner should be mentioned, while in Ireland it is a scramble on the part of those who represent the Crown to

a conviction.' LORD (Sir HENRY) JAMES OF HEREFORD, on the same occasion, said, “The judge (in England) was always careful that no prosecuting counsel should for a moment exceed the line of his duty. He hoped and believed that that was the state of things in Ireland, but he was not quite sure that in some class of cases there would not be an acuter phase of forensic rivalry than would be displayed in this country, so that the efficacious principle (of admitting the prisoner's evidence) might not be the same in Ireland as in England.”

RIDLEYISM: OR THE NEW JUDGE. UNQUESTIONABLE as are the virtues of Mr. Edward Ridley, Q.C.

- for some years the favourite Official Referee— no one will believe that he would have been appointed to the High Court Bench but for his connections.

The appointment is at variance with the immemorial Traditions of our Legal System. The Traditions are worshipped by the bulk of the Legal Profession. By their force alone continues to exist an Assize System so rotten as almost to fall to pieces of its own rottenness, a High Court common law method so faulty and slipshod as to be a menace to law as a trade or profession, and a veneration for the office of judge so unmeasured as to blind the public eye to the frequent appropriation to personal uses of judicial time fixed by statute, owed to and paid for by the State.

To fit into the rotten Assize System, the faulty and slipshod High Court method, and the venerated office of judge--not a politician sick of Parliamentary servitude and the soul disturbing efforts to secure enough influence for promotion--not the deserving lawyer who has drifted into the backwaters of life on an incompetency--not the drudging junior whose only merit may be that he has been somebody's Devil—but a hard-working official, who, whilst many a venerated judge (having sent him difficult, dreary, and complicated cases to try) has been laboriously disposing of a costermonger's £10 slander, a stockbroker's action for differences free from the complexity of the Gaming Act (a good Saturday morning's "work"), or a companymonger's libel, has been day after day in the funereal purlieus of the old Bankruptcy Court carefully and patiently trying these aforesaid difficult and complicated cases with the assistance of leading members of the Bar: this is at variance with all the traditions of our Legal System.

Such an innovation, we repeat, was only possible where the hard-working official, the bearer of so many of the heavy burdens of the High Court judges, was highly connected. This is Ridleyism. Let it be known hereafter as Ridleyism. It is a curiosity. It is a mixture of a good and an evil thing Had Mr. Ridley been raised because he was a distinguished classical scholar, a good lawyer, a strong judge, and a copscientious worker in the discharge of a duty from which almost every Queen's Bench judge draws bark as wearisome and unpleasant, it would be excellent. Such a thing as this never has been done. We suppose it never will be done. And it is not Ridleyism. All this plus the Cabinet influence, the aristocratic and Parliamentary influence—this is Ridleyism. For the new judge's sake we regret it. He deserved a better fate than to be a bone of contention or a theme for recrimination between any social or political sections.

Possibly the innovation may prove a godsend. With such an object lesson before them, the world may begin to think whether it is not better that a judge should be made from material which has been tested, instead of by selecting the political barrister, or the forensic advocate (who can rarely see two sides to any ques. tion), or the elderly junior, whose sudden elevation is calculated to paralyse his intellect. Thus it may lead to that rare gift, the judicial mind, which has missed its way and floundered into a County Court, being retrieved. Would that it might lead to the unjudicial mind, which, by the accidents of

secure

The suggested exclusion of Ireland from the purview of the contemplated legislation accentuates the difference between the systems of criminal law in England and in Ireland. The principal and most strongly marked divergencies are: (1) in England, prisoners on trial for high treason are entitled to thirty-five peremptory challenges of jurors; in Ireland, the common law right to thirty-five peremptory challenges has been limited by statute to twenty. (2) In Ireland, when no witnesses are called for the defence, the counsel for the prosecution, who almost invariably

public life, has drifted into the High Court, being gently forced to retreat into the serenity of the atmosphere of judgment summonses !

But we go too fast. The task of the immediate future is to unridley Ridleyism-to take the good and leave the evil part of it. Let merit--let tried and tested capacity-find promotion apart from the influences of party or rank.

If this prospect could be put before the “other” judges, a bit of bright sunshine would illumine the grey skies of the County Courts. But what would life be worth without backstairs, or lawyers and their personal methods in the House of Commons:

CODIFICATION-CODE CIVIL PORTUGAIS. (a). Nothing could better illustrate the difference between legal genius in England and in France than the fact that, while in England lawyers “ of light and leading” are encouraging the study of the laws of the early Edwards, the Ministry of Justice in France is issuing translations and annotations of contemporaneous foreign legislation at its own expense, and employing the ripest talent it has at its command. That which Sir Wm. Gull, at the International Medical Congress of 1881, observed of the genius of the two countries in medical studies, seems equally true in legal studies. France is distinguished by a rare synthetic faculty, England by a genius for the historical method and its obvious lessons. The uses of history are incontestable ; but, on the other hand, it seems difficult not to see a higher degree of utility in the plan the French Government have adopted of placing accurate translations of contemporaneous legislation in other countries before its citizens. The genius for the study of comparative legislation need never be despaired of in a country which has counted among its gens lumineux--amongst many others-a judge of such ripe learning and research as the late Mr. Justice Shaw Willes. It may be hoped that no invidious or party feeling will blind those in power to the excellence and utility of such action as that of the French Ministry of Justice, and that it may be repeated on this side of the Channel. It was recently suggested in the Law Times, on the appearance of the Civil Code of the German Empire, that “our national laziness” might have something to do with the fact that we have not got a Code in England. Whether that be so or not, it is certainly rather startling to observe that Civil Codes are in force, not only in all the Latin countries, but even in such comparatively feeble States as Montenegro and Argentina. Almost every country in Europe seems to have codified some at least of its municipal law. Thanks to the energy of the French Ministry of Justice, almost all these codes have been, or shortly will be, accurately rendered into French.

Nothing could be more admirable than the translation of the Code Civil Portugais, by M. G. Lanyrie, Presiding Judge of the Civil Tribunal of the Department of the Seine, and M. Joseph Dubois, Joint-Secretary of the Society of Foreign Legislation. Any work issuing under the auspices of the Ministry of Justice (or what represents it) in a country like France, England, or Germany, must necessarily have much in its favour to start with. The external accessories of this 'volume are admirable. But, besides the artistic finish of the 'translation, MM. Lanyrie and Dubois have furnished those who care to consult the Portuguese Code with a scholarly introduction of some sixty pages, giving a clear and luminous account of the origin of the Code and the nature of its contents. More than this, almost every article of the Code is compared 'with analogous or similar provisions in the various Civil Codes obtaining throughout the globe, and even with the provisions of the Civil Code of the German Empire, which the learned editors inform ns, though finally drafted, is not to come into force till 1900 A.D.

In addition to this truly laborious annotation, there is furnished the reader an excellent table of contents and index. In France, codification was, perhaps, the necessary result of the diversity of local custom. This 'diversity of custom was so great that it induced Voltaire to say that a traveller in France had to change laws almost as often as he had to change horses.

But as early as the fifteenth century, MM. Lanyrie and Dubois tells us, the necessity of harmonising the law into a code was felt in Portugal.

The present Civil Code of Portugal was promulgated in 1867, thirty years after the Italian Code and more than twenty years before the Civil Code of Spain. There is, in the Portuguese Civil Code, naturally much that is common to the Roman law, and therefore to the Code Civil. But it offers several notable departures from either; and, in the respect in which it differs from the Code Civil, the Code of Portugal is said by MM. Lanyrie and Dubois sometimes to have the advantage. The Portuguese Civil Code contains a great deal more of matters that are usually considered as coming under the head of public law than the Code Civil. In the latter there is some administrative law, but in the Portuguese Code (art. 359) there is set forth a sort of bill of rights. This the learned editors attribute to political liberty being a recent birth in Portugal. Many subjects which in France are dealt with by special laws, such as rights of venery, piscary, and common of pasture, are regulated by the Civil Code in Portugal.

On the other hand, many subjects which in England are not yet the subject of Parliamentary legislation, such as the duties of barristers, are partially regulated by the provisions of the Civil Code in Portugal. Judicial responsibility, which we have not altered since the insertion of the constitutional clauses in the Act of Settlement two hundred years ago, is treated of in the Civil Code of Portugal. Ministerial and judicial responsibility is more stringent than either in England or France. Judicial immunity is a doctrine that finds no favour in Portugal; and both in the Civil Code and in the Code of Procedure there are articles under which a private person can sue a juge de droitfor acts done in his judicial capacity. But though there is much more public law included in the Civil Code of Portugal than in the French Code Civil, its bulk is not so great as to lay it open to the charge of unwieldiness. The Portuguese Civil Code contains 2538 articles as opposed to the 2281 articles of the Code Civil. The wording is equally a model of brevity and succinctness. The 2538 articles of the Portuguese Civil Code are distributed over four books. The first book relates to the civil capacity of persons; the second, to the acquisition of rights; the third, to the right of ownership; the fourth, to civil responsibility and evidence. As the code of one of the Latin races, the Code of Portugal would naturally not exhibit much analogy to our common or statute law, either in form or matter. But a custom of the tenant in emphyteus.s in Portugal, by which, on the death of a tenant, the heir is bound to render the dominus his best chattel, seems fairly comparable to heriots. Again, the custom of gavelkind, by which the tenant can make a feoffment at the age of fifteen, may, as an instance of a power of alienation conferred at an early age, be comparable to the provisions of Article 1764 of the Portuguese Civil Code, by which an absolutely unfettered testamentary power is conferred on any minor over fourteen years old who is not professed in religion.

One of the greatest European authorities, commenting on an English translation of the Code Civil, remarked on the difficulty a translator of the French Code must encounter in rendering into English the exact equivalent of many terms of French law. But the technical terms of Portuguese Civil Law are, in many cases, easily recognisable to a French translator, though not familiar to an English lawyer, such as emphyteusis, preciput, and antichoesis. In many leading principles the Portuguese Civil Code exhibits analogy to the Code Civil as in the absence of primogeniture, and in the law of intestacy, and in the law of watercourses and mines. The Portuguese Code reproduces almost exactly some provisions of the Roman law, such as the senatusconsulta Macedonianum and Vellisanum, and the law of evidence. This last, indeed, is entirely indistinguishable from that of Roman law. But it would be easy to demonstrate instances where the Portuguese Civil Code differs from either the Code Napoléon or the Roman law. Women are under great disabilities; the married woman, for instance, cannot bind herself, cannot sue, cannot acquire. Marriage involves community of goods. The unmarried woman is equally under disabilities. If over fifty years of age when she contracts marriage, she loses the power of aliening her property. The Civil Code of Portugal has so far improved the condition of woman, that since 1867 she is allowed to exercise an influence over her children analogous

(a) Ministére de la Justice--Code Civil Portugais du ler Juillet 1867, Traduit et annoté par G. Lanyrie, Juge President de Section au "Tribunal Civil de la Seine; Joseph Dubois, Secrétaire adjoint du Comité de Legislation étrangère. Paris : Imprimerie Nationale.

Second Sheet.

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