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The Opisthocomi consist of one family containing a single species, the "Hoazin " of Guiana.

Family 93. Opisthocomidæ.

The Accipitres, or birds of prey, which were long considered to be the highest and most perfect order of birds, are now properly placed lower down in the series, their affinities being more with the aquatic than with the perching birds. The following is the arrangement adopted by Mr. Sharpe in his recently published British Museum catalogue of diurnal birds of prey : —

Sub-orders.

Fam. 91. Vulturidae Falcones 95. Serpentariidæ

96. Falconidæ

...

Sub-families.
Vulturinæ .. Vultures.
Sarcorhamphinæ Turkey-buzzards.
Polybornice Caracaras.
Accipitrina Hawks.
Buteonina Buzzards.
Aquilina

Eagles.
Falconinæ

Falcons.
Fishing-eagles.
Owls.

Pandiones...97. Pandionidæ
Striges ...98. Strigidæ

The Grallæ or Grallatores are in a very unsettled state. The following series of families is in accordance with the views of some of the best modern ornithologists :

...

99. Rallidæ ...
100. Scolopacidæ
101. Chionididæ
102. Thinocoridæ
103. Parridæ ...
104. Glareolidæ
105. Charadriidæ
106. Otididæ ...
107. Gruidæ ...
108. Cariamidæ
109. Aramidæ...
110. Psophiidae
111. Eurypygidae
112. Rhinochætidæ
113. Ardeidæ ...
114. Plataleida
115. Ciconidæ
116. Palamedeidæ
117. Phænicopteridæ ...

Rails, &c.
Sandpipers and Snipes
Sheath-bills.
Quail-snipes.
Jacanas.
Pratincoles.
Plovers.
Bustards.
Cranes.
Cariamas.
Guaraunas.
Trumpeters.
Sun-bitterns.
Kagus.
Herons.
Spoonbills and Ibis.
Storks.
Screamers.
Flamingoes.

The Anseres or Natatores are almost equally unsettled. The Hamingoes are usually placed in this order, but their habits best assort with those of the waders.

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The last order of birds is the Struthiones or Ratitæ, considered by many naturalists to form a distinct sub-class. It consists of comparatively few species, either living or recently extinct.

...

Fam.
126. Struthionidæ
Living 127. Casuariidæ

128. Apterygidæ

129. Dinornithidæ Extinct 130. Palapterygidæ

131. Æpyornithidæ

Ostriches.
Cassowaries.
Apteryx.
Dinornis.
Palapteryx.
Apyornis.

REPTILES.

In reptiles I follow the classification of Dr. Günther as given in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. clvii., p. 625. He divides the class into five orders as follows :

Sub-classes.

...

Orders. 1. Ophidia

Serpents.
Lizards.
The Hatteria.
Crocodiles.
Tortoises.

I. Squamata
II. Loricata
III. Cataphracta

2. Lacertilia
(3. Rhyncocephalina
4. Crocodilia
5. Chelonia

In the arrangement of the families comprised in each of these orders I also follow the arrangement of Dr. Günther and Dr. J. E. Gray, as given in the British Museum Catalogue, or as modified by the former gentleman who has kindly given me much personal information.

The Ophidia, or Snakes, form the first order and are classified as follows:

Burrowing Snakes.

Dwarf ground-snakes.
Colubrine Snakes.
Fresh-water Snakes.
Desert-snakes.

Fam.
1. Typhlopidæ
2. Tortricidæ ...
3. Xenopeltidæ
4. Uropeltidæ
5. Calamaridæ
6. Oligodontidæ.
7. Colubridæ ...
8. Homalopsidæ

9. Psammophidæ
Innocuous Snakes 10. Rachiodontidæ.

11. Dendrophidæ
12. Dryiophidæ
13. Dipsasidæ ...
14. Scytalidæ.
15. Lycodontidae
16. Amblycephalidæ
17. Pythonidæ
18. Erycidæ ...
19. Acrochordidæ

20. Elapide
Venomous Colubrine ) 21. Dendraspididæ.
Snakes

22. Atractaspididæ.

23. Hydrophidae §

Tree-snakes.
Whip-snakes.
Nocturnal tree-snakes.

Fanged ground-snakes.
Blunt-heads.
Pythons.
Sand-snakes.
Wart-snakes.

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Cobras, &c.

...

Sea-snakes.

Pit-vipers.
True vipers

...

The second order, Lacertilia, are arranged as follows :

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Fam. 44. Lialidæ. 45. Scincidæ 46. Ophiomoridæ 47. Sepidæ ... 48. Acontiadæ. 49. Geckotidæ 50. Iguanidæ 51. Agamidæ 52. Chameleonidæ

::::

Geckoes.
Iguanas.
Fringed Lizards.
Chameleons.

The third order, Rhyncocephalina consists of a single family :

53. Rhyncocephalidae

The Hatteria of New Zealand.

The fourth order, Crocodilia or Loricata, consists of three families :

54. Gavialidæ
55. Crocodilidæ
56. Alligatoridæ

Gavials.
Crocodiles.
Alligators.

The fifth order, Chelonia, consists of four families :

57. Testudinidæ
58. Chelydidæ
59. Trionychidæ
60. Cheloniidæ

::::

Land and fresh-water Tortoises,
Fresh-water Turtles.
Soft Turtles.
Sea Turtles.

AMPHIBIA.

In the Amphibia I follow the classification of Professor Mivart, as given for a large part of the order in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1869. For the remainder I follow Dr. Strauch, Dr. Günther, and a MSS. arrangement kindly furnished me by Professor Mivart.

The class is first divided into three groups or orders, and then into families as follows:

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Order II.--BATRACHIA URODELA. 2. Sirenidæ

Siren. 3. Proteidæ

Proteus. 4. Amphiumidæ

Amphiuma. 5. Menopomidæ

Giant Salamanders. 6. Salamandridæ

Salamanders and Newts.

Order III. BATRACHIA ANOURA.
Fam.

Fam. 7. Rhinophrynidæ

16. Pelodryadæ 8. Phryniscide

17. Hylidæ

Tree Frogs. 9. Hylaplesida

18. Polypedatidæ

Toads. 10. Bufonidæ...

19. Ranidæ

Frogs. 11. Xenorhinidæ

2). Discoglossidæ 12. Engystomidæ

21. Pipidæ

Tongueless 13. Bombinatoridæ

22. Dactylethridæ... } Toads. 14. Plectromantidæ 15. Alytidæ

Frogs.

FISHES.

These are arranged according to the classification of Dr. Günther, whose great work “The British Museum Catalogue of Fishes," has furnished almost all the material for our account of the distribution of the class.

In that work all existing fishes are arranged in six sub-classes and thirteen orders. A study of the extraordinary Ceratodus from Australia has induced Dr. Günther to unite three of his sub-classes ; but as his catalogue will long remain a handbook for every student of fishes, it seems better to follow the arrangement there given, indicating his later views by bracketing together the groups he now thinks should be united.

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