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The Opisthocomi consist of one family containing a single species, the "Hoazin " of Guiana.
Family 93. Opisthocomidæ.
The Accipitres, or birds of prey, which were long considered to be the highest and most perfect order of birds, are now properly placed lower down in the series, their affinities being more with the aquatic than with the perching birds. The following is the arrangement adopted by Mr. Sharpe in his recently published British Museum catalogue of diurnal birds of prey : —
Fam. 91. Vulturidae Falcones 95. Serpentariidæ
The Grallæ or Grallatores are in a very unsettled state. The following series of families is in accordance with the views of some of the best modern ornithologists :
99. Rallidæ ...
The Anseres or Natatores are almost equally unsettled. The Hamingoes are usually placed in this order, but their habits best assort with those of the waders.
The last order of birds is the Struthiones or Ratitæ, considered by many naturalists to form a distinct sub-class. It consists of comparatively few species, either living or recently extinct.
129. Dinornithidæ Extinct 130. Palapterygidæ
In reptiles I follow the classification of Dr. Günther as given in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. clvii., p. 625. He divides the class into five orders as follows :
Orders. 1. Ophidia
In the arrangement of the families comprised in each of these orders I also follow the arrangement of Dr. Günther and Dr. J. E. Gray, as given in the British Museum Catalogue, or as modified by the former gentleman who has kindly given me much personal information.
The Ophidia, or Snakes, form the first order and are classified as follows:
23. Hydrophidae §
The second order, Lacertilia, are arranged as follows :
Fam. 44. Lialidæ. 45. Scincidæ 46. Ophiomoridæ 47. Sepidæ ... 48. Acontiadæ. 49. Geckotidæ 50. Iguanidæ 51. Agamidæ 52. Chameleonidæ
The third order, Rhyncocephalina consists of a single family :
The Hatteria of New Zealand.
The fourth order, Crocodilia or Loricata, consists of three families :
The fifth order, Chelonia, consists of four families :
Land and fresh-water Tortoises,
In the Amphibia I follow the classification of Professor Mivart, as given for a large part of the order in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1869. For the remainder I follow Dr. Strauch, Dr. Günther, and a MSS. arrangement kindly furnished me by Professor Mivart.
The class is first divided into three groups or orders, and then into families as follows:
Order II.--BATRACHIA URODELA. 2. Sirenidæ
Siren. 3. Proteidæ
Proteus. 4. Amphiumidæ
Amphiuma. 5. Menopomidæ
Giant Salamanders. 6. Salamandridæ
Salamanders and Newts.
Order III. BATRACHIA ANOURA.
Fam. 7. Rhinophrynidæ
16. Pelodryadæ 8. Phryniscide
Tree Frogs. 9. Hylaplesida
Toads. 10. Bufonidæ...
Frogs. 11. Xenorhinidæ
2). Discoglossidæ 12. Engystomidæ
Tongueless 13. Bombinatoridæ
22. Dactylethridæ... } Toads. 14. Plectromantidæ 15. Alytidæ
These are arranged according to the classification of Dr. Günther, whose great work “The British Museum Catalogue of Fishes," has furnished almost all the material for our account of the distribution of the class.
In that work all existing fishes are arranged in six sub-classes and thirteen orders. A study of the extraordinary Ceratodus from Australia has induced Dr. Günther to unite three of his sub-classes ; but as his catalogue will long remain a handbook for every student of fishes, it seems better to follow the arrangement there given, indicating his later views by bracketing together the groups he now thinks should be united.