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not only find great felines, surpassing in size and destructive power the lions and leopards of Africa, with hyænas of a size and in a variety not to be equalled now, but also huge rhinoceroses and elephants, two forms of giraffes, and a host of antelopes, which, from the sample here obtained, were probably quite as numerous and varied as they now are in Africa. Joined with this abundanoe of antelopes we have the absence of deer, which probably indicates that the country was open and somewhat of a desert character, since there were deer in other parts of Europe at this epoch. The occurrence of but a single species of monkey is also favourable to this view, since a well-wooded country would most likely have supplied many forms of these animals.
Miocene Fauna of Central and Western Europe. We have now to consider the Miocene fauna of Europe generally, of which we have very full information from numerous deposits of this age in France, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and Hungary.
Primates.-Three distinct forms of monkeys have been found in Europe—in the South of France, in Switzerland, and Wurtemberg; one was very like Colobus or Semnopithecus; the othersPliopithecus and Dryopithecus—were of higher type, and belonged to the anthropomorphous apes, being nearest to the genus Hylobates pr gibbons. Both have occurred in the South of France. The Dryopithecus was a very large animal (equal to the gorilla), and M. Lartet considers that in the character of its dentition it approached nearer to man than any of the existing anthropoid apes.
Insectivora.—These small animals are represented by numerous remains belonging to four families and a dozen genera. Of Erinaceus (hedgehog) several species are found in the Upper Miocene; and in the Lower Miocene of Auvergne two extinct genera of the same family- Amphechinus and Tetracus—have been discovered. Several species of Talpa (mole) occur in the Upper Miocene of France, while the extinct Dinylus is from Germany, and Palæospalaw from the Lower Miocene of the Isle of
Wight. The Malayan family Tupaiidæ or squirrel-shrews, is believed to be represented by Oxygomphus, a fossil discovered in South Germany (Wiesenau) by H. von Meyer. The Soricidæ or shrews, are represented by several extinct genera—Plesiosorex, Mysarachne and Galeospalax; as well as by Amphisorex and Myogale still living. Echinogale, a genus of Centetidæ now confined to Madagascar, is said to occur in the Lower Miocene of Auvergne, a most interesting determination, if correct, as it would form a transition to the Solenodon of the Antilles belonging to the same family; but I am informed by Prof. Flower that the affinities of the animals described under this name are very doubtful.
Carnivora.-Besides Felis and Machairodus, which extend back to the Upper Miocene, there are two other genera of Felidæ, Pseudælurus in the Upper Miocene of France, and Hyænodon, which occurs in the Upper and Lower Miocene of France, named from some resemblance in its teeth to the hyænas, and considered by some Palæontologists to form a distinct family, Hyænodontidæ. The Viverridæ, or civets, were very numerous, consisting of the living genus Viverra, and three extinct forms-Thalassictis= Ictitherium, as large as a panther, and Soricictis, a smaller form, occurring both in France and Hungary. Of Hyænidæ, there was the living genus Hyæna, and the extinct Hyænictis, which has occurred in Hungary as well as in Greece. The Canidæ, or wolf and fox family, were represented by Pseudocyon, near to Canis; Hemicyon, intermediate between dogs and, gluttons; and Amphicyon, of which several species occur in the Upper and Lower Miocene of France, some of them larger than a tiger. The Mustelidæ, or weasels, were represented by five genera, the existing genera Lutra (otter) and Mustela (weasel); Potamotherium, an extinct form of otter; Taxodon, allied to the badger and otter; Palæomephitis in Germany, and the Promephytis (already noticed) in Greece. The bears were represented only by Hycenarctos, which has been noticed as occurring in the Pliocene, and first appears in the Upper Miocene of France. Seals are represented by a form resembling the Antarctic Otaria, remains of which occur in the Upper Miocene of France.
Cetacea (whales).—These occur frequently in the Miocene deposits, four living, and five extinct genera having been described; but these marine forms are not of much importance for our purpose.
Sirenia (sea-cows).—These are represented by two extinct genera, Halitherium and Trachytherium. . Several species of the former have been discovered, but the latter has occurred in France only, and its affinities are doubtful.
Ungulata.--Horses are represented by Hipparion and Anchitherium, the latter occurring in both Upper and Lower Miocene and Eocene; while Hipparion, which is more nearly allied to living horses, first appears in the Upper Miocene and continues in the Pliocene.
Hippotherium, in the Upper Miocene of the Vienna basin, forms a transition to Paloplotherium, an Eocene genus of Tapiridæ or Palæotheridæ. Tapirs, allied to living forms, occur in both Upper and Lower Miocene. Rhinoceroses are still found in the Upper Miocene, and here first appear the four-toed hornless rhinoceros, Acerotherium. The Suidæ (swine) are rather numerous. Sus (wild boar) continued as far back as the Upper Miocene; but now there first appear a number of extinct forms which have been named Hyotherium, Palæochærus, Chæromorus, all of a small or moderate size; Hyopotamus, nearly as large as a tapir ; and Anthracotherium, nearly the size of a hippopotamus and, according to Dr. Leidy, the type of a distinct family. Listriodon, from the Upper Miocene of the Vienna basin, is sometimes classed with the tapirs.
We now come to a well-marked new family of Artiodactyle or even-toed Ungulata, the Anoplotheriide, which consisted of more slender long-tailed animals, allied to the swine but with indications of a transition towards the camels. The only genera that appear in the Miocene formation are, Chalicotherium, nearly as large as a rhinoceros, of which three species have been found in Germany and France; and Synophodus, known only from its teeth, which differ somewhat from those of the Anoplotherium which appears earlier in the Eocene formation. Another extinct family, Amphimericidæ or Xiphodontidæ, is represented by two
genera, Cainotherium and Microtherium, in the Miocene of France. They were of very small size, and are supposed to be intermediate between the Suidæ and Tragulidæ.
The Camelopardalidæ, or giraffes, were represented in Europe in Miocene times by the gigantic Helladotherium, which has been found in the south of France, and in Hungary, as well as in Greece. The chevrotains (Tragulidæ) are represented by the extinct genus Hyomoschus.
The Cervidæ do not seem to have appeared in Europe before the Upper Miocene epoch, when they were represented by Dorcatherium and Amphimoschus, allied to Moschus, and also by true Cervus, as well as by small allied forms, Dremotherium, Amphitragalus (in the Lower Miocene), Micromeryx, Palæomeryx, and Dicrocerus.
The Bovidæ, or hollow-horned ruminants, were not well represented in Central Europe in Miocene times. There were no sheep, goats, or oxen, and only a few antelopes of the genus Tragocerus, and one allied to Hippotragus; and these all lived in the Upper Miocene period, as did the more numerous forms of Greece.
Proboscidea.—The true elephants do not extend back to the Miocene period, but they are represented by the Mastodons, which had less complex teeth. These first appear in the Upper Miocene of Europe, five species being known from France, Germany, Switzerland, and Greece. Dinotherium, already noticed as occurring in Greece, extended also to Germany and France, where remains of three species have been found.
Rodentia.—A considerable number of generic forms of this order have been obtained from the Miocene strata. The principal genera are Cricetodon, allied to the hamsters, numerous in both the Upper and Lower Miocene period of France; Myoxus (the dormice) in France, and an allied genus, Brachymys, in Germany. The beavers were represented by the still living genus Castor, and the extinct Steneofiber in France. The squirrels by the existing Scuirus and Spermophilus ; and by extinct forms, Lithomys and dulacodon, in Germany, the latter resembling the African genus Aulacodes. The hares, by Lagomys and an
extinct form Titanomys. Besides these, remains referred to the South American genera, Cavia (cavy) and Dasyprocta (agouti), have been found, the former in the Upper Miocene of Switzerland, the latter in the Lower Miocene of Auvergne. Palæomys, allied to the West Indian Capromys, has been found in the same deposits ; as well as Theridomys, said by Gervais to be allied to Anomalurus and Echimys, the former now living in W. Africa, the latter in S. America.
Edentata.—These are only represented by the Macrotherium and Ancylotherium of the Grecian deposits, the former occurring also in France and Germany in Upper Miocene strata.
Marsupials.—These consist of numerous species related to the opossums (Didelphys), but separated by Gervais under the name Peratherium. They occur in both Upper and Lower Miocene beds.
Upper Miocene Deposits of the Siwalik Hills and other Localities
in N.W. India. These remarkable fresh-water deposits form a range of hills at the foot of the Himalayas, a little south of Simla. They were investigated for many years by Sir P. Cautley and Dr. Falconer, and add greatly to our knowledge of the early fauna of the Old World continent.
Primates.- Remains of the genera Semnopithecus and Macacus were found, with other forms of intermediate character; and some teeth indicated animals allied to the orang-utan of Borneo, and of similar size.
Carnivora.—These consisted of species of Felis and Machairodus of large size; Hyæna, Canis, Mellivora, and an allied genus Ursitaxus; Ursus, in the deposits of the Nerbudda valley (of Pliocene age); Hyænarctos as large as the cave bear ; Amphicyon of the size of a polar bear in the deposits of the Indus valley, west of Cashmere); Lutra, and an extinct allied genus Enhydrion.
Ungulata.— These are very numerous, and constitute the most important feature of this ancient fauna. Horses are represented by a species of Equus from the Siwalik Hills and the Irawaddy