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tion, which represents a scene in the Alps of Central Europe, with figures of some of the most characteristic Mammalia and Birds of this sub-region. On the left is the badger (Meles Taarus) one of the weasel family, and belonging to a genus which is strictly Palaearctic. It abounds in Central and Northern Europe and also extends into North Asia, but is represented by another species in Thibet and by a third in Japan. The elegantly-formed creatures on the right are chamois (Rupicapra tragus), almost the only European antelopes, and wholly confined to the higher mountains, from the Pyrenees to the Carpathians and the Caucasus. The chamois is the only species of the genus, and is thus perhaps the most characteristic European mammal. The bird on the left, above the badgers, is the Alpine chough, (Fregilus pyrrhocoraa). It is found in the high mountains from the Alps to the Himalayas, and is allied to the Cornish chough, which is still found on our southwestern coasts, and which ranges to Abyssinia and North China. The Alpine chough differs in having a shorter bill of an orange colour, and vermilion red feet as in the other species. In the foreground are a pair of ruffs (Machetes pugnaa) belonging to the Scolopacidae or snipe family, and most nearly allied to the genus Tringa or sandpiper. This bird is remarkable for the fine collar of plumes which adorns the males in the breeding season, when they are excessively pugnacious. It is the only species of its genus, and ranges over all Europe and much of Northern Asia, migrating in the winter to the plains of India, and even down the east coast of Africa as far as the Cape of Good Hope; but it only breeds in the Palaearctic region, over the greater part of which it ranges.
Reptiles and Amphibia.-There are no genera of reptiles peculiar to this sub-region. Both snakes and lizards are comparatively scarce, there being about fourteen species of the former and twelve of the latter. Our common snake (Tropidomotus matriz) extends into Sweden and North Russia, but the viper (Viperus berus) goes further north, as far as Archangel (64° N.), and in Scandinavia (67° N), and is the most Arctic of all known snakes. Of the lizards, Lacerta stirpium (the sand lizard) has the most northerly range, extending into Poland and Northern Russia; and Anguis fragilis (the blind or slow-worm) has almost an equal range. Amphibia, being more adapted to a northern climate, have acquired a more special development, and thus several forms are peculiar to the North European sub-region. Most remarkable is Proteus, a singular eel-like aquatic creature with small legs, found only in the subterranean lakes in Carniola and Carinthia; Alytes, a curious toad, the male of which carries about the eggs till they are hatched, found only in Central Europe from France to the east of Hungary; and Pelodytes, a frog found only in France. Frogs and toads are very abundant all over Europe, the common frog (Rana temporaria) extending to the extreme north. The newts (Triton) are also very abundant and widely spread, though not ranging so far north as the frogs. The genera Bombinator (a toad-like frog), and Hyla (the tree frog) are also common in Central Europe. Freshwater Fish-Two genera of the perch family (Percidae) are peculiar to this sub-region,-Percarina, a fish found only in the river Dniester, and Aspro, confined to the rivers of Central Europe. Of the very characteristic forms are, Gasterosteus (stickle-back), which alone forms a peculiar family—Gasterosteidae; Perca, Acerina and Lucioperca, genera of the perch family; Silurus, a large fish found in the rivers of Cenrtal Europe, of the family Siluridae; Esox (the pike), of the family Esocidae, Cyprinus (carp), Gobio (gudgeon), Leuciscus (roach, chub, dace, &c.), Tinca (tench), Abramus (bream), Alburnus (bleak), Cobitis (loach), all genera of the family Cyprinidae. Insects—Lepidoptera.-No genera of butterflies are actually confined to this sub-region, but many are characteristic of it. Parnassius, Aporia, Leucophasia, Colias, Melitara, Argynnis, Vanessa, Limenitis, and Chionobas, are all very abundant and widespread, and give a feature to the entomology of most of the countries included in it. Coleoptera-This sub-region is very rich in Carabidae; the genera Elaphrus, Nebria, Carabus, Cychrus, Pterostichus, Amara, Trechus and Peryphus being especially characteristic. Staphylinidae abound. Among Lamellicorns the genus Aphodius is most characteristic. Buprestidae are scarce; Elateridae more abundant. Among Malacoderms Telephorus and Malachius are characteristic. Curculionidae abound: Otiorhyuchus, Omias, Erirhinus, Bagous, Rhynchites and Ceutorhynchus being very characteristic genera. Of Longicorns Callidium, Dorcadion, Pogonochaerus, Pachyta and Leptura are perhaps the best representatives. Donacia, Crioceris, Chrysomela, and Altica, are typical Phytophaga; while Coccinella is the best representative of the Securipalpes. North European Islands-The British Islands are known to have been recently connected with the Continent, and their animal productions are so uniformly identical with continental species as to require no special note. The only general fact of importance is, that the number of species in all groups is much less than in continental districts of equal extent, and that this number is still farther diminished in Ireland. This may be accounted for by the smaller area and less varied surface of the latter island; and it may also be partly due to the great extent of low land, so that a very small depression would reduce it to the condition of a cluster of small islands capable of Supporting a very limited amount of animal life. Yet further, if after such a submergence had destroyed much of the higher forms of life in Great Britain and Ireland, both were elevated so as to again form part of the Continent, a migration would commence by which they would be stocked afresh; but this migration would be a work of time, and it is to be expected that many species would never reach Ireland or would find its excessively moist climate unsuited to them. Some few British species differ slightly from their continental allies, and are considered by many naturalists to be distinct. This is the case with the red grouse (Lagopus scoticus) among birds; and a few of the smaller Passeres have also been found to vary somewhat from the allied forms on the Continent, showing that the comparatively short interval since the glacial period, and the slightly different physical conditions dependent on insularity, have sufficed to commence the work of specific modification. There are also a few small land-shells and several insects not yet found elsewhere than in Britain; and even one of the smaller Mammalia—a shrew (Sorex rusticus). These facts are all readily explained by the former union of these islands with the Continent, and the alternate depressions and elevations which are proved by geological evidence to have occurred, by which they have been more than once separated and united again in recent times. For the evidence of this elevation and depression, the reader may consult Sir Charles Lyell's Antiquity of Man. Iceland is the only other island of importance belonging to this sub-region, and it contrasts strongly with Great Britain, both in its Arctic climate and oceanic position. It is situated just south of the Arctic circle and considerably nearer Greenland than Europe, yet its productions are almost wholly European. The only indigenous land mammalia are the Arctic fox (Canis lagopus), and the polar bear as an occasional visitant, with a mouse (Mus islandicus), said to be of a peculiar species. Four species of seals visit its shores. The birds are more interesting. According to Professor Newton, ninety-five species have been observed; but many of these are mere stragglers. There are twenty-three land, and seventy-two aquatic birds and waders. Four or five are peculiar species, though very closely related to others inhabiting Scandinavia or Greenland. Only two or three species are more nearly related to Greenland birds than to those of Northern Europe, so that the Palaearctic character of the fauna is unmistakable. The following lists, compiled from a paper by Professor Newton, may be interesting as showing more exactly the character of Icelandic ornithology. 1. Peculiar species. –Troglodytes borealis (closely allied to the common wren, found also in the Faroe Islands); Falco islandicus (closely allied to F. gyrfalco); Lagopus islandorum (closely allied to L. rupestris of Greenland). 2. European species resident in Iceland.—Emberiza nivalis, Corvus coraz, Haliaeetus albicilla, Rallus aquaticus, Haematopus ostralegus, Cygnus ferus, Mergus (two species), Phalacocorac (two