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boundary, which are wholly wanting in the Malayan subregion. The Philippine islands are best classed with the IndoMalay group, although they are strikingly deficient in many Malayan types, and exhibit an approach to the Celebesian division of the Austro-Malay sub-region. Zoological Characteristics of the Oriental Region.—The Oriental Region possesses examples of 35 families of Mammalia, 71 of Birds, 35 of Reptiles, 9 of Amphibia, and 13 of Fresh-water Fishes. Of these 163 families, 12 are peculiar to the region; namely, Tarsiidae, Galeopithecidae, and Tupaiidae among Mammalia, while Æluridae, though confined to the higher Himalayas, may perhaps with more justice be claimed by the Palaearctic region; Liotrichidae, Phyllornithidae, and Eurylaemidae among birds; Xenopeltidae (extending, however, to Celebes), Uropeltidae, and Acrochordidae among reptiles; Luciocephalidae, Ophiocephalidae and Mastacembelidae among fresh-water fishes. A number of other families are abundant, and characteristic of the region; and it possesses many peculiar and characteristic genera, which must be referred to somewhat more in detail. Mammalia.-The Oriental region is rich in quadrumana, and is especially remarkable for its orang-utans and long-armed apes (Simia, Hylobates, and Siamanga); its abundance of monkeys of the genera Presbytes and Macacus; its extraordinary long-nosed monkey (Presbytes nasalis); its Lemuridae (Nycticebus and Loris); and its curious genus Tarsius, forming a distinct family of lemurs. All these quadrumanous genera are confined to it, except Tarsius which extends as far as Celebes. It possesses more than 30 genera of bats, which are enumerated in the lists given at the end of this chapter. In Insectivora it is very rich, and possesses several remarkable forms, such as the flying lemur (Galeopithecus); the squirrel-like Tupaiidae consisting of three genera; and the curious Gymnura allied to the hedgehogs. In Carnivora, it is especially rich in many forms of civets (Viverridae), possessing 10 peculiar genera, among which Prionodon and Cynogale are remarkable; numerous Mustelidae, of which Gymnopus, Mydaus, Aonyx and Helictis are the most conspicuous; Ælurus, a curious animal, cat-like in appearance but more allied to the bears, forming a distinct family of Carnivora, and confined to the high forest-districts of the Eastern Himalayas and East Thibet; Melursus and Helarctos, peculiar forms of bears; Platanista, a dolphin peculiar to the Ganges and Indus. Among Ruminants it has the beautiful chevrotain, forming the genus Tragulus in the family Tragulidae; with one peculiar genus and three peculiar sub-genera of true deer. The Antilopinae and Caprinae are few, confined to limited districts and not characteristic of the region; but there are everywhere wild cattle of the genera Bibos and Bubalus, which, with species of Rhinoceros and Elephas, form a prominent feature in the fauna. The Rodents are less developed than in the Ethiopian region, but several forms of squirrels everywhere abound, together with some species of porcupine; and the Edentata are represented by the scaly manis.

Birds.-The families and genera of birds which give a character to Oriental lands, are so numerous and varied, that we can here only notice the more prominent and more remarkable. The Timaliidae, represented by the babblers (Garrulaw, Pomatorhinus, Timalia, &c.), are almost everywhere to be met with, and no less than 21 genera are peculiar to the region; the elegant fork-tailed Enicurus and rich blue Myiophonus, though comparatively scarce, are characteristic of the Malayan and IndoChinese faunas; the elegant little “hill-tits” (Liotrichidae) abound in the same part of the region; the green bulbuls (Phyllornis) are found everywhere; as are various forms of Pycnonotidae, the black and crimson “minivets” (Pericrocotus), and the glossy “king-crows” (Dicrurus); Urocissa, Platylophus and Dendrocitta are some of the interesting and characteristic forms of the crow family; sun-birds (Netariniidae) of at least three genera are found throughout the region, as are the beautiful little flower-peckers (Dicaeidae), and some peculiar forms of weaverbirds (Ploceus and Munia). Of the starling family, the most conspicuous are the glossy mynahs (Eulabes). The swallowshrikes (Artamus) are very peculiar, as are the exquisitely coloured pittas (Pittidae), and the gaudy broad-bills (Eurylamidae). Leaving the true Passeres, we find woodpeckers, barbets, and cuckoos everywhere, often of peculiar and remarkable forms; among the bee-eaters we have the exquisite Nyctionnis with its pendent neck-plumes of blue or scarlet; brilliant kingfishers and strangely formed hornbills abound everywhere; while brown-backed trogons with red and orange breasts, though far less frequent, are equally a feature of the Ornithology. Next we have the frog-mouthed goatsuckers (Battrachostomus), and the whiskered swifts (Dendrochelidon), both wide-spread, remarkable, and characteristic groups of the Oriental region. Coming to the parrot tribe, we have only the long-tailed Palaeornis and the exquisite little Loriculus, as characteristic genera. We now come to the pigeons, among which the fruiteating genera Treron and Carpophaga are the most conspicuous. The gallinaceous birds offer us some grand forms, such as the peacocks (Pavo); the argus pheasants (Argusianus); the firebacked pheasants (Euplocamus); and the jungle-fowl (Gallus), all strikingly characteristic; and with these we may close our sketch, since the birds of prey and the two Orders comprising the waders and swimmers offer nothing sufficiently remarkable to be worthy of enumeration here. Reptiles.—Only the more abundant and characteristic groups will here be noticed. In the serpent tribe, the Oligodontidae, a small family of ground-snakes; the Homalopsidae, or freshwater snakes; the Dendrophidae, or tree-snakes; the Dryiophidae, or whip-snakes; the Dipsadidae, or nocturnal tree-snakes; the Lycodontidae or fanged ground-snakes; the Pythonidae, or rocksnakes; the Elapidae, or venomous colubrine snakes (including the “cobras”); and the Crotalidae, or pit-vipers, are all abundant and characteristic, ranging over nearly the whole region, and presenting a great variety of genera and species. Among lizards, the Varanidae or water-lizards; the Scincidae or “scinks;” the Geckotidae, or geckoes; and the Agamidae, or eastern iguanas; are the most universal and characteristic groups. Among crocodiles the genus Crocodilus is widely spread, Gavialis being characteristic of the Ganges. Among Chelonia, or shielded reptiles, forms of fresh-water Testudinidae and Trionychidae (soft tortoises) are tolerably abundant. Amphibia.-The only abundant and characteristic groups of this class are toads of the family Engystomidae; tree-frogs of the family Polypedatidae; and several genera of true frogs, Ranidae. Fresh-water Fishes.—The more remarkable and characteristic fishes inhabiting the fresh waters of the Oriental region belong to the following families: Nandidae, Labyrinthici, Ophiocephalidae, Siluridae, and Cyprinidae; the last being specially abundant. The sketch here very briefly given, must be supplemented by an examination of the tables of distribution of the genera of all the Mammalia and Birds inhabiting the region. We will now briefly summarize the results. Summary of the Oriental Vertebrata.-The Oriental region possesses examples of 163 families of Vertebrata of which 12 are peculiar, a proportion of a little more than one-fourteenth of the whole. Out of 118 genera of Mammalia 54 seem to be peculiar to the region, equal to a proportion of or or a little less than half Of Land-Birds there are 342 genera of which 165 are peculiar, bringing the proportion very close to a half. In the Ethiopian region the proportion of peculiar forms both of Mammalia and Birds is greater; a fact which is not surprising when we consider the long continued isolation of the latter region—an isolation which is even now very complete, owing to the vast extent of deserts intervening between it and the Palaearctic region; while the Oriental and Palaearctic were, during much of the Tertiary epoch, hardly separable.


Lepidoptera.--We can only glance hastily at the more prominent features of the wonderfully rich and varied butterflyfauna of the Oriental region. In the first family Danaidae, the genera Danais and Euploea are everywhere abundant, and the latter especially forms a conspicuous feature in the entomological aspect of the country; the large “spectre-butterflies” (Hestia) are equally characteristic of the Malayan sub-region. Satyridae, though abundant are not very remarkable, Debis, Melanitis, Mycalesis, and Ypthima being the most characteristic genera. Morphidae are well represented by the genera Amathusia, Zeucidia, Discophora, and Thaumantis, some of the species of which almost equal the grand South American Morphos. The Nymphalidae furnish us with a host of characteristic genera, among the most remarkable of which are, Terinos, Adolias, Cethosia, Cyrestis, Limenitis, and Nymphalis, all abounding in beautiful species. Among the Lycaenidae are a number of fine groups, among which we may mention Ilerda, Myrina, Deudorya, Aphneus, Iolaus, and Amblypodia, as characteristic examples. The Pieridae furnish many fine forms, such as Thyca, Iphias, Thestias, Eronia, Prioneris, and Dercas, the last two being peculiar. The Papilionidae are unsurpassed in the world, presenting such grand genera as Teinopalpus and Bhutanitis; the yellow-marked Ornithopterae; the superb “Brookiana;” the elegant Leptocercus; and Papilios of the “Coon,” “Philoxenus,” “Memfnon,” “Protenor,” and especially the ‘green-andgold-dusted' “Paris” groups. The Moths call for no special observations, except to notice the existence in Northern India of a number of forms which resemble in a striking manner some of the most remarkable of the above mentioned groups of the genus Papilio, especially the “Protenor” group, which there is reason to believe is protected by a peculiar smell or taste like the Heliconias and Danaidae. Coleoptera.-The most characteristic Oriental form of the Cicindelidae or tiger beetles, is undoubtedly the elegant genus Collyris, which is found over the whole region and is almost confined to it. Less abundant, but equally characteristic, is the wingless ant-like Tricondyla. Two small genera Apteroessa and Dromicidia are confined to the Indian Peninsula, while Therates only occurs in the Malayan sub-region. The Carabidae, or ground carnivorous beetles, are so numerous that we can only notice a few of the more remarkable and characteristic forms. The wonderful Mormolyce of the IndoMalay sub-region, stands pre-eminent for singularity in the entire family. Thyreopterus, Orthogonius, Catascopus, and Pericallus are very characteristic forms, as well as Planetes and

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