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great islands were recently united to the continent, and that their separation took place by one general subsidence of the whole. It is more consonant with what we know of such matters, that the elevations and depressions were partial, varying in their points of action and often recurring; sometimes extending one part of an island, sometimes another; now joining an island to the main land, now bringing two islands into closer proximity. There is reason to believe that sometimes an intervening island has sunk or receded and allowed others which it before separated to effect a partial union independently of it. If we recognise the probability that such varied and often-renewed changes of level have occurred, we shall be better able to understand how certain anomalies of distribution in these islands may have been brought about. We will now endeavour to sketch the general features of the zoology of this interesting district, and then proceed to discuss some of the relations of the islands to each other. Mammalia.--We have seen that the Indo-Chinese sub-region possesses 13 species of mammalia in common with the IndoMalay sub-region, and 4 others peculiar to itself, besides one Ethiopian and several Oriental and Palaearctic forms of wide range. Of this latter class the Malay islands have comparatively few, but they possess no less than 14 peculiar genera, viz. Simia, Siamanga, Tarsius, Galeopithecus, Hylomys, Ptilocerus, Gymnura, Cynogale, Hemigalea, Arctogale, Barangia, Mydaus, Helarctos, and Tapirus. The islands also possess tigers, deer, wild pigs, wild cattle, elephants, the scaly ant-eater, and most of the usual Oriental genera; so that they are on the whole fully as rich as, if not richer than, any part of Asia; a fact very unusual in island faunas, and very suggestive of their really continental nature. Plate VIII. Scene in Borneo with Characteristic Malayan Quadrupeds—The Malayan fauna is so rich and peculiar that we devote two plates to illustrate it. We have here a group of mammalia, such as might be seen together in the vast forests of Borneo. In the foreground we have the beautiful deer-like Chevrotain (Tragulus javanicus). These are delicate little

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