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active or extinct, is known in its entire area; while extensive beds of coal of tertiary age, in every part of it, prove that it has been subject to repeated submersions, at no distant date geologically. An indication, if not a proof, of still more recent submersion is to be found in the great alluvial valleys which on the south and south-west extend fully 200 miles inland, while they are to a less degree a characteristic feature all round the island. These swampy plains have been formed by the combined action of rivers and tides; and they point clearly to an immediately preceding state of things, when that which is even now barely raised above the ocean, was more or less sunk below it.
These various indications enable us to claim, as an admissible and even probable supposition, that at some epoch during the Pliocene period of geology, Borneo, as we now know it, did not exist; but was represented by a mountainous island at its present northern extremity, with perhaps a few smaller islets to the south. We thus have a clear opening from Java to the Siamese Peninsula; and as the whole of that sea is less than 100 fathoms deep, there is no difficulty in supposing an elevation of land connecting the two together, quite independent of Borneo on the one hand and Sumatra on the other. This union did not probably last long; but it was sufficient to allow of the introduction into Java of the Rhinoceros javanicus, and that group of IndoChinese and Himalayan species of mammalia and birds which it alone possesses. When this ridge had disappeared by subsidence, the next elevation occurred a little more to the east, and produced the union of many islets which, aided by subaerial denudation, formed the present island of Borneo. It is probable that this elevation was sufficiently extensive to unite Borneo for a time with the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, thus helping to produce that close resemblance of genera and even of species, which these countries exhibit, and obliterating much of their former speciality, of which, however, we have still some traces in the long-nosed monkey and Ptilocerus of Borneo, and the considerable number of genera both of mammalia and birds confined to two only out of the three divisions of typical Malaya. The subsidence which again divided these countries by arms of the sea rather wider than at present, might have left Banca isolated, as already referred to, with its proportion of the common fauna to be, in a few instances, subsequently modified. Thus we are enabled to understand how the special relations of the species of these islands to each other may have been brought about. To account for their more deep-seated and general zoological features, we must go farther back. . Probable Origin of the Malayan Fauna.-The typical Malayan fauna is essentially an equatorial one, and must have been elaborated in an extensive equatorial area. This ancient land almost certainly extended northward over the shallow sea as far as the island of Palawan, the Paracels shoals and even Hainan. To the east, it may at one time have included the Philippines and Celebes, but not the Moluccas. To the south it was limited by the deep sea beyond Java. It included all Sumatra and the Nicobar islands, and there is every reason to believe that it stretched out also to the west so as to include the central peak of Ceylon, the Maldive isles, and the Cocos islands west of Sumatra. We should then have an area as extensive as South America to 15° south latitude, and well calculated to develop that luxuriant fauna and flora which has since spread to the Himalayas. The submergence of the western half of this area (leaving only a fragment in Ceylon) would greatly diminish the number of animals and perhaps extinguish some peculiar types; but the remaining portion would still form a compact and extensive district, twice as large as the peninsula of India, over the whole of which a uniform Malayan fauna would prevail. The first important change would be the separation of Celebes; and : his was probably effected by a great subsidence, forming the deep strait that now divides that island from Borneo. During the process Celebes itself was no doubt greatly submerged, leaving only a few islands in which were preserved that remnant of the ancient Malayan fauna that now constitutes one of its most striking and anomalous features. The Philippine area would next be separated, and perhaps be almost wholly submerged; or broken up into many small volcanic islets in which a limited number of Malayan types alone survived. Such a condition of things will account for the very small variety of mammalia compared with the tolerably numerous genera of birds, that now characterise its fauna; while both here and in Celebes we find some of the old Malayan types preserved, which, in the extended area of the Sunda Isles have been replaced by more dominant forms. The next important change would be the separation of Java; and here also no doubt a considerable submergence occurred, rendering the island an unsuitable habitation for the various Malay types whose absence forms one of its conspicuous features. It has since remained permanently separated from the other islands, and has no doubt developed some peculiar species, while it may have preserved some ancient forms which in the larger area have become changed. From the fact that a number of its species are confined either to the western or the eastern half of the island, it is probable that it long continued as two islands, which have become united at a comparatively recent period. It has also been subjected to the immigration of Indo-Chinese forms, as already referred to in the earlier part of this sketch. We have thus shown how the main zoological features of the several sub-divisions of the Malayan sub-region may be accounted for, by means of a series of suppositions as to past changes which, though for the most part purely hypothetical, are always in accordance with what we know both of the physical geography and the zoology of the districts in question and those which surround them. It may also be remarked, that we know, with a degree of certainty which may be called absolute, that alternate elevation and subsidence is the normal state of things all over the globe; that it was the rule in the earliest geological epochs, and that it has continued down to the historical era. We know too, that the amount of elevation and subsidence that can be proved to have occurred again and again in the same area, is often much greater than is required for the changes here speculated on, while the time required for such changes is certainly less than that necessitated by the changes
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of specific and generic forms which have coincided with, and been to a large extent dependent on them. We have, therefore, true causes at work, and our only suppositions have been as to how those causes could have brought about the results which we see; and however complex and unlikely some of the supposed changes may seem to the reader, the geologist who has made a study of such changes, as recorded in the crust of the earth, will not only admit them to be probable, but will be inclined to believe that they have really been far more complex and more unexpected than any supposition we can make about them. There is one other external relation of the Malayan fauna about which it may be necessary to say a few words. I have supposed the greatest westward extension of the Malayan area to be indicated by the Maldive islands, but some naturalists would extend it to include Madagascar in order to account for the range of the Lemuridae. Such an extension would, however, render it difficult to explain the very small amount of correspondence with a pervading diversity, between the Malayan and Malagasy faunas. It seems more reasonable to suppose an approximation of the two areas, without actual union having ever occurred. This approximation would have allowed the interchange of certain genera of birds, which are common to the Oriental Region and the Mascarene islands, but it would have been too recent to account for the diffusion of the lemurs which belong to distinct genera and even distinct families. This probably dates back to a much earlier period, when the lemurine type had a wide range over the northern hemisphere. Subjected to the competition of higher forms, these imperfectly developed groups have mostly died out, except a few isolated examples, chiefly found in islands, and a few groups in Africa. In our discussion of the origin of the Ethiopian fauna, we have supposed that a close connection once existed between Madagascar and Ceylon. This was during a very early tertiary epoch; and if, long after it had ceased and the fauna of Ceylon and South India had assumed somewhat more of their present character, we suppose the approximation or union of Ceylon Wol. I.-25
and Malaya to have taken place, we shall perhaps be able to account for most of the special affinities they present, with the least amount of simultaneous elevation of the ocean bed; which it must always be remembered, requires a corresponding depression elsewhere to balance it.
Concluding Remarks on the Oriental Region.—We have already so fully discussed the internal and external relations of the several sub-regions, that little more need be said. The rich and varied fauna which inhabited Europe at the dawn of the tertiary period, as shown by the abundant remains of mammalia wherever suitable deposits of Eocene age have been discovered,— proves, that an extensive Palaearctic continent then existed; and the character of the flora and fauna of the Eocene deposits is so completely tropical, that we may be sure there was then no barrier of climate between it and the Oriental region. At that early period the northern plains of Asia were probably under water, while the great Thibetan plateau and the Himalayan range, had not risen to more than a moderate height, and would have supported a luxuriant sub-tropical flora and fauna. The Upper Miocene deposits of northern and central India, and Burmah, agree in their mammalian remains with those of central and southern Europe, while closely allied forms of elephant, hyaena, tapir, rhinoceros, and Chalicotherium have occurred in North China; leading us to conclude that one great fauna then extended over much of the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. Perim island at the mouth of the Red Sea, where similar remains are found, probably shows the southern boundary of this part of the old Palaearctic region in the Miocene period. Towards the equator there would, of course, be some peculiar groups; but we can hardly doubt, that, in that wonderful time when even the lands that stretched out furthest towards the pole, supported a luxuriant forest vegetation, substantially one fauna ranged over the whole of the great eastern continent of the northern hemisphere. During the Pliocene period, however, a progressive change went on which resulted in the complete differentiation of the Oriental and Palaearctic faunas. The