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causes of this change were of two kinds. There was a great geographical and physical revolution effected by the elevation of the Himalayas and the Thibetan plateau, and, probably at the same time, the northward extension of the great Siberian plains. This alone would produce an enormous change of climate in all the extra-tropical part of Asia, and inevitably lead to a segregation of the old fauna into tropical and temperate, and a modification of the latter so as to enable it to support a climate far more severe than it had previously known. But it is almost certain that, concurrently with this, there was a change going on of a cosmical nature, leading to an alteration of the climate of the northern hemisphere from equable to extreme, and culminating in that period of excessive cold which drove the last remnants of the old sub-tropical fauna beyond the limits of the Palaearctic region. From that time, the Oriental and the Ethiopian regions alone contained the descendants of many of the most remarkable types which had previously flourished over all Europe and Asia; but the early history of these two regions, and the peculiar equatorial types developed in each, sufficiently separate them, as we have already shown. The Malayan sub-region is that in which characteristic, Oriental types are now best developed, and where the fundamental contrast of the Oriental, as compared with the Ethiopian and Palaearctic regions, is most distinctly visible.

TABLES OF DISTRIBUTION.

In constructing these tables, showing the distribution of various classes of animals in the Oriental region, the following sources of information have been chiefly relied on, in addition to the general treatises, monographs, catalogues, &c., used for the compilation of the Fourth Part of this work. Mammalia.-Jerdon's Indian Mammalia; Kelaart's Fauna of Ceylon; Horsfield and Moore's Catalogue of the East India Museum; Swinhoe's Catalogue of Chinese Mammalia; S. Müller's Zoology of the Indian Archipelago; Dr. J. E. Gray's list of Mammalia of the Malay Archipelago (Voyage of Samarang); and papers by Anderson, Blyth, Cantor, Gray, Peters, Swinhoe, &c. Birds—Jerdon's Birds of India; Horsfield and Moore's Catalogue; Holdsworth's list of Ceylon Birds; Schlegel's Catalogue of the Leyden Museum; Swinhoe on the Birds of China, Formosa, and Hainan; Salvadori on the Birds of Borneo; Lord Walden on the Birds of the Philippine Islands; and papers by Blyth, Blanford, Elwes, Elliot, Stoliczka, Sclater, Sharpe, Swinhoe, Verreaux, and Lord Walden. Reptiles—Günther's Reptiles of British India; papers by same author, and by Dr. Stoliczka.

TABLE I.

FAMILIES OF ANIMALS INHABITING THE ORIENTAL REGION.

ExPLANATION.

Names in italics show families peculiar to the region.
Numbers correspond with those in Part IV.

Names enclosed thus (

belong to it.

) barely enter the region, and are not considered really to

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. Paridae
. Liotrichidae ...
. Phyllornithidae
. Pycnonotidae ...
. Oriolidae... "...
. Campephagidae
. Dicruridae -
. Muscicapidae ...
. Pachycephalid
. Laniidae ...
. Corvidae ... "...
. Nectariniidae...
. Dicaeidae...
. Hirundinidae ...
. Fringillidae
. Ploceidae
. Sturnidae
. Artamidae
. Alaudidae --
. Motacillidae ...
. Eurylaemidae ...
. Pittidae ...

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Neotropical

Ethiopian
Palaearctic, Ethiopian, Neotropical
W. Africa
All regions but Ethiopian and Australian
All regions but Australian and Neotropical
Ethiopian

Cosmopolite, excl. Oceania
Palaearctic, Ethiopian
All regions but Australian
S. Palaearctic, Ethiopian
All regions but Australian

Ethiopian

Almost Cosmopolite

Almost Cosmopolite

Ethiopian, Australian

Palaearctic

Not Ethiopian or Australian
American and Palaearctic
Palaearctic, Nearctic, Australian
Palaearctic, Nearctic, Australian, Madagascar
The Eastern Hemisphere and North America

Ethiopian, Moluccas
The Eastern Hemisphere
Ethiopian, Australian
Ethiopian, Australian
The Eastern Hemisphere
Australian
The Eastern Hemisphere and North America
Cosmopolite
Ethiopian, Australian
Ethiopian, Australian,
Cosmopolite -
All regions but Australian
Ethiopian, Australian
The Eastern Hemisphere
Australian
All regions but Neotropical
Cosmopolite

Ethiopian, Australian

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Range beyond the Region.

Order and Family.

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PICARIAE.

. Picidae ...
. Yungidae -
. Indicatoridae
. Megalaemidae
. Cuculidae
. Coraciidae
. Meropidae
. Trogonidae ...
. Alcedinidae ...
. Bucerotidae ...
. Upupidae
. Podargidae
. Caprimulgidae
. Cypselidae

PsittAcI.

76.
78.

(Cacatuidae)...
Palaeornithidae

CoLUMBAs.
84. Columbidae ...

GALLINA.

. Pteroclidae ...
. Tetraonidae ...
. Phasianidae
. Turnicidae
. Megapodiidae

ACCIPITREs.

94.
96.
97.
98.

Vulturidae
Falconidae
Pandionidae ...
Strigidae ... ...

GRALLE.

99. 100. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107.

113.
114.
115.
117.

Rallidae
Scolopacidae...
Parridae...
Glareolidae -
Charadriidae...
Otididae...
Gruidae .
Ardeidae
Plataleidae
Ciconiidae ..
Phaenicopteridae


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— |All regions but Australian
|Palaearctic
Ethiopian
Ethiopian, Neotropical
|Cosmopolite
|Ethiopian, Australian
Ethiopian, Australian
Neotropical, Ethiopian
Cosmopolite
Ethiopian, Austro-Malayan
Ethiopian, S. Palaearctic
Australian
Cosmopolite
Cosmopolite

— Australian — Ethiopian, Austro-Malayan

Cosmopolite

Ethiopian, Palaearctic
Eastern Hemisphere and North America
Ethiopian, Palaearctic, North America
Ethiopian, Australian, S. Palaearctic
Australian

All regions but Australian — Cosmopolite — Cosmopolite — Cosmopolite

— Cosmopolite

— Cosmopolite

- |Tool regions

— Eastern Hemisphere

— |Cosmopolite Eastern Hemisphere All regions but Neotropica

— Cosmopolite

— Almost Cosmopolite

- Almost Cosmopolite

Ethiopian, Neotropical, S. Palaearctic

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