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small islands; but such localities seem favourable to the Platycercidae, for another peculiar species is found in the remote Macquarie Islands, more than 400 miles farther south. A peculiar species and genus of ducks, Nesometta aucklandica, is also found here, and as far as yet known, nowhere else. A species of the northern genus Mergus is also found on these islands, and has been recently obtained by Baron von Hügel. Plate XIII. Illustrating the peculiar Ornithology of New Zealand—Our artist has here depicted a group of the most remarkable and characteristic of the New Zealand birds. In the middle foreground is the Owl-parrot or Kakapoe (Stringops habroptilus), a nocturnal burrowing parrot, that feeds on fern-shoots, roots, berries, and occasionally lizards; that climbs but does not fly; and that has an owl-like mottled plumage and facial disc. The wings however are not rudimentary, but fully developed; and it seems to be only the muscles that have become useless for want of exercise. This would imply, that these birds have not long been inhabitants of New Zealand only, but were developed in other countries (perhaps Australia) where their wings were of use to them. . Beyond the Kakapoe are a pair of the large rails, Notornis mantelli; heavy birds with short wings quite useless for flight, and with massive feet and bill of a red colour. On the right is a pair of Kiwis (Apterya australis), one of the queerest and most unbird-like of living birds. It has very small and rudimentary wings, entirely concealed by the hair-like plumage, and no tail. It is nocturnal, feeding chiefly on worms, which it extracts from soft earth by means of its long bill. The genus Aptery c forms a distinct family of birds, of which four species are now known, besides some which are extinct. They are allied to the Cassowary and to the gigantic extinct Dinornis. On the wing are a pair of Crook-billed Plovers (Anarhynchus frontalis), remarkable for being the only birds known which have the bill bent sideways. This was at first thought to be a malformation; but it is now proved to be a constant character of the species, as it exists even in the young chicks; yet the purpose served by such an anomalous structure is not yet discovered. No country on the globe can offer such an extraordinary set of birds as are here depicted.

Reptiles—These consist almost wholly of lizards, there being no land-snakes and only one frog. Twelve species of lizards are known, belonging to three genera, one of which is peculiar, as are all the species. Hinulia, with two species, and Mocoa, with four species (one of which extends to the Chatham Islands), belong to the Scincidae; both are very wide-spread genera and occur in Australia. The peculiar genus Naultinus, with six species, belongs to the Geckotidae, a family spread over the whole world. The most extraordinary and interesting reptile of New Zealand is, however, the Hatteria punctata, a lizard-like animal living in holes, and found in small islands on the north-east coast, and more rarely on the main land. It is somewhat intermediate in structure between lizards and crocodiles, and also has bird-like characters in the form of its ribs. It constitutes, not only a distinct family, Rhyncocephalidae, but a separate order of reptiles, RHYNCOCEPHALINA. It is quite isolated from all other members of the class; and is probably a slightly modified representative of an ancient and generalised form, which has been superseded in larger areas by the more specialized lizards and saurians. The only representatives of the Ophidia are two sea-snakes of Australian and Polynesian species, and of no geographical interest. Amphibia.-The solitary frog indigenous to New Zealand, belongs to a peculiar genus, Liopelma, and to the family Bomburatoridae, otherwise confined to Europe and temperate South America. Fresh-water Fishes—There are, according to Captain Hutton, 15 species of fresh-water fish in New Zealand, belonging to 7 genera; six species, and one genus (Retropinna), being peculiar. Retropinna richardsoni belongs to the Salmonidae, and is the only example of that family occurring in the Southern hemisphere, where it is confined to New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. The wide distribution of Galacias attenuatus—from the Chatham Islands to South America—has already been noticed; while another species, G. fasciatus, is found in the Chatham and Auckland Isles as well as New Zealand. A second genus peculiar to New Zealand, Neochanna, allied to Galacias, has recently been described. Prototroctes oxyrhynchus is allied to an Australian species, but belongs to a family (Haplochitonidae) which is otherwise South American. An eel, Anguilla latirostris, is found in Europe, China, and the West Indies, as well as in New Zealand while the genus Agonostoma ranges to Australia, Celebes, Mauritius, and Central America. Insects—The great poverty of this class is well shown by the fact, that only eleven species of butterflies are known to inhabit New Zealand. Of these, six are peculiar, and one, Argyrophenga (Satyridae), is a peculiar genus allied to the Northern genus Erebia. The rest are either of wide range, as Pyrameis cardui and Diadema bolina ; or Australian, as Hamdyaas zoilus ; while one, Danaiserippus, is American, but has also occurred in Australia, and is no doubt a recent introduction into both countries. Only one Sphina, is recorded, and no other species of the Sphingina except the British currant-moth, AEgeria tipuliformis, doubtless imported. Coleoptera are better represented, nearly 300 species having been described, all or nearly all being peculiar. These belong to about 150 genera, of which more than 50 are peculiar. No less than 14 peculiar genera belong to the Carabidae, mostly consisting of one or two species, but Demetrida has 3, and Metaglymma 8 species. Other important genera are Dicrochile, Homalosoma, Mecodema, and Scopodes, all in common with Australia. Mecodema and Metaglymma are the largest genera. Even the Auckland Islands have two small genera of Carabidae found nowhere else. Cicindelidae are represented in New Zealand by 6 species of Cicindela, and 1 of Dystipsidera, a genus peculiar to the Australian region. The Lucanidae are represented by two peculiar genera, Dendroblaw and Oryomus; two Australian genera, Lissotes and Ceratognathus; and by the almost cosmopolite Dorcus.

The Scarabeidae consist of ten species only, belonging to four Vol. I.-31

genera, two of which are peculiar (Odontria and Stethaspis); and two Australian (Pericoptus and Calonota). There are no Cetoniidae. There is only one Buprestid, belonging to the Australian genus Cisseis. The Elateridae, (about a dozen species) belong mostly to Australian genera, but two, Metablaw and Ochosternus, are peculiar. There are 30 species of Curculionidae, belonging to 22 genera. Of the genera, 12 are peculiar; 1 is common to New Zealand and New Caledonia; 5 belong to the Australian region, and the rest are widely distributed. Longicorns are, next to Carabidae, the most numerous family, there being, according to Mr. Bates (Ann. Nat. Hist, 1874), about 35 genera, of which 26 are peculiar or highly characteristic, and 7 of the others Australian. The largest and most characteristic genera are Aomona and Xyloteles, both being peculiar to New Zealand; few of the remainder having more than one or two species. Demonaz extends to the Moluccas and S. E. Asia. A dozen of the genera have no near relations with those of any other country. Phytophaga are remarkably scarce, only two species of Colaspis being recorded; and there is only a single species of Coccinella. The other orders of Insects appear to be equally deficient. Hymenoptera are very poorly represented, only a score of species being yet known; but two of the genera are peculiar, as are all the species. The Neuroptera and Heteroptera are also very scarce, and several of the species are wide-spread forms of the Australian region. The few species of Homoptera are all peculiar. The Myriapoda afford some interesting facts. There are nine or ten species, all peculiar. One genus, Lithobius, ranges over the northern hemisphere as far south as Singapore, and probably through the Malay Archipelago, but is not found in Australia. Henicops occurs elsewhere only in Tasmania and Chili. Cryptops, only in the north temperate zone; while

two others, Cermatia and Cormocephalus, both occur in Australia.

Land-Shells—Of these, 114 species are known, 97 being peculiar. Three species of Helic are also found in Australia, and five more in various tropical islands of the Pacific. Nanina, Lymnasa, and Assiminea, are found in Polynesia or Malaya, but not in Australia. Amphibola is an Australian genus, as is Janella. Testacella and Limax belong to the Palaearctic region.

From the Chatham Islands, 82 species of shells are known, all being New Zealand species, except nine, which are peculiar.

The Ancient Fauna of New Zealand.—One of the most remarkable features of the New Zealand fauna, is the existence, till quite recent times, of an extensive group of wingless birds, —called Moas by the natives—many of them of gigantic size, and which evidently occupied the place which, in other countries, is filled by the mammalia. The most recent account of these singular remains, is that by Dr. Haast, who, from a study of the extensive series of specimens in the Canterbury museum, believes, that they belong to two families, distinguished by important differences of structure, and constitute four genera,_ Dinornis and Miornis, forming the family Dinornithidae ; Palapteryx and Euryapteryx, forming the family Palapterygidae. These were mostly larger birds than the living Apteryx, and some of them much larger even than the African ostrich, and were more allied to the Casuariidae and Struthionidae than to the Apterygidae. No less than eleven species of these birds have been discovered; all are of recent geological date, and there are indications that some of them may have been in existence less than a century ago, and were really exterminated by man. Remains have been found (of apparently the same recent date) of species of Apteryx, Stringops, 0cydromus, and many othér living forms, as well as of Harpagornis, a large bird of prey, and Cnemiornis, a gigantic goose. Bodies of the Hatteria punctata have also been found along with those of the Moa, showing that this remarkable reptile was once more abundant on the main islands than it is now.

The Origin of the New Zealand Fauna-Having now given

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