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Animals, rapid multiplication of, 10
Anisacodon, N. American Tertiary, 137
Anoa of Celebes, peculiarities of, 428
Anoplotheriidae, European Miocene, 119
Anoplotherium, European Miocene, 119
European Eocene, 126
S. American Eocene, 148
Anseres, arrangement of, 98
peculiar Palaearctic genera, 250
peculiar Ethiopian genera of 313
culiar Australian genera of 487
Antelopes in the Indian Miocene deposits, 122
birthplace and migrations of, 155
Palaearctic, 182
Antelotherium, Indian Miocene, 122
Anthracotheridor, N. American Tertiary, 137
Anthracotherium, European Miocene, 119
Antiacodon, N. American Tertiary, 133
Antilles, Pliocene Mammalia of, 148
Antilope, Post-Pliocene, 112
in Brazilian caves, 144
Antiquity of the genera of insects, 166
of the genera of land and freshwater
shells, 168
Aphanapteryx of Mauritius, 164
Aphelotherium, European Eocene, 125
Aquila, European Miocene, 161
Archaeopteryx, Bavarian Oolite, 163
Arctic zone not a separate region, 68
Arctocyon, European Eocene, 125
Arctodus, N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
Arctomys, European Pliocene, 113
Arctotherium in Brazilian caves, 144
S. American Pliocene, 146
Argus pheasant, figure of 339
peculiarity in display of plumage, and
confirmation of Mr. Darwin's views,
340
Artiodactyla, European Eocene, 126
N. American Tertiary, 137
S. American Pliocene, 146
Arvicola, European Pliocene, 113
in Brazilian caves, 145
S. American Pliocene, 147
8. American Eocene, 148
Auchena, N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
Auckland Islands, birds of, 455
Australia, physical features of 387
Australia and S. America, supposed land con-
nection between, 398
Australian region, description of, 387
zoological characteristics of, 390
mammalia of, 390
birds of, 391
reptiles of, 396
amphibia of 397
fresh-water fish of 397
summary of vertebrata of 397
supposed land-connection of with S. Ame-
rica, 398
insects of 403
lepidoptera of, 404
coleoptera of, 405
land shells of 407
sub-regions of, 408
early history of 465
Australian sub-region, mammalia of 438
illustration of mammalia of, 439
birds of, 440
illustration of fauna of 441
Austro-Malayan sub-region, physical features
of 388
zoology of, 409
Aye-aye, figure of, 278 -
Azores, visited by European birds, 17
birds of, 207

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Babirusa of Celebes, peculiarities of, 428
Badger, figure of 195
Balaena, European Pliocene, 112
Balaenodon, European Pliocene, 112
Baly, Mr., on Phytophaga of Japan, 280
Banca, its pecnliar species and solution of a
problem in distribution, 356
Barriers, as affecting distribution, 6
permanence of, as affecting distribution, 7
to the dispersal of birds, 17
Bates, Mr., on Carabidae of Japan, 228
on Longicorns of Japan, 230
Bathmodon, N. American Tertiary, 136
Bathrodon, N. American Tertiary, 133
Batrachia, Tertiary, 165
Bats, powers of flight of 15
classification of 87
of New Zealand, 450
Bears, probable cause of absence of, from
tropical Africa, 291
Beaver, N. American Tertiary, 140
Beetles, families selected for study, 103
from the Lias, 167
of Azores, 207
of Japan, 228
Belemnoziphius, European Pliocene, 112
Belt, Mr., his theory of a great Siberian lake
during the glacial epoch, 218
on change of climate caused by diminu-
tion of obliquity of ecliptic, 466
Birds, means of dispersal of, 15
dispersal of by winds, 16
American, found in Europe, 16
reaching the Azores, 17
barriers to dispersal of, 17
limited by forests, 17 -
classification of 93
Miocene of Greece, 116
extinct, 160
fossil of Palaearctic region, 161
European of Miocene period, 161
Eocene of Europe, 162
relations of, 162
extinct of North America. 163
recently extinct in Sond, 164
Cretaceous of N. America, 164
remains of in Brazilian caves, 164
recently extinct in Madagascar and the
*. Islands, o 6
cosmopolitan groups of, 17
nunnerous o Palaearctic, 183
of the European sub-region, 193
northern range of in Europe, 193
of the zone of pine forests, 194
of Iceland, 198
of the Mediterranean sub-region, 203
of Malta, 206 (note)
of Azores, 207
of the Cape Verd Islands, 215
of Siberian sub-region, 219
Oriental found in Siberia, 219
extreme northern Asiatic, 2.19
of northern Asiatic forests, 220
of the Manchurian sub-region, 223
Palaearctic genera of, in the Manchurian
sub-region, 224

Bunaelurus, N. American Tertiary, 134

Buprestidium, Oolitic insect, 167

Butterflies, arrangement of, 103
Palaearctic, 187
of Central Europe, 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, 205
of Azores, 207
peculiar to Siberian sub-region, 220
of Japan and North China, 227
of the Ethiopian region, 255
number of Ethiopian species, 256
of Indo-Malay sub-region, 342
of the Australian region, 404
of the Austro-Malay sub-region, 404
of the Moluccas, 419
of Celebes, peculiarities of, 434
of New Zealand, 457

C.

Birds, Oriental genera of, in the Manchurian
sub-region, 224
characteristic of N.W. China and Mon-
golia, 226
table of Palaearctic families of 235
of West Africa, 243
list of Palaearctic genera of 243
of the Ethiopian region, 253
of the East African sub-region, 260
S. African, 267
genera of, peculiar to Madagascar, 275
common to Madagascar and Oriental or
Ethiopian regions, 276
species common to Madagascar and Africa
or Asia, 277
table of Ethiopian families of, 295
table of Ethiopian genera of, 306
of the Oriental region, 316
of the Indian sub-region, 323
Oriental genera of in Central India, 324
Palaearctic and Ethiopian genera in
Central India, 325
of Ceylon, 327
of Indo-Chinese subregion, 330
of Indo-Malayan sub-region, 337
illustration of peculiar Malayan, 339
of the Philippine Islands, 346
table of Oriental families of 366
table of Oriental genera of, 375
of Australian region, 391
specially organized Australian families of,
392
of the Papuan Islands, 410
culiarities of, 413
rilliant colours of, 413
remarkable forms of, 414
of the Moluccas, 418
peculiarities of, 421
of Timor group, 423
of Celebes, 428
of Australia, 440
of New Zealand, 451
peculiar to New Zealand, 452
of Norfolk Island, 453
of Lord Howe's Island, 453
of the Chatham Islands, 454
of the Auckland Islands, 455
table of families of Australian, 471
table of genera of Australian, 478
Black ape of Celebes, 427
Blanford, Mr. W. T., on the “Indian"

region, 60
on relations of Indian sub-region with
Africa, 321
Blapsidium, Oolitic insect, 167
Blyth, Mr., on zoological regions, 60
on the relations of Indian sub-region with
Africa, 821
Borneo, probable recent changes in, 357
Bos, Post-Pliocene, 112
Indian Miocene, 122
Bourbon, zoology of, 280
reptiles of, 281
Boridae, European Miocene, 120
Brachymys, European Miocene, 120
Bramatherium, Miocene of Perim Island, 122
Brazilian cave-fauna, 143
remarks on, 145
Breweria borinensis, carboniferous insect, 168
Britain, peculiar species in, 197
British Isles, zoology of, 197
Broad-bill, Malayan, figure of 340
Brontotheridae, N. American Tertiary, 137
Brontotherium, N. American Tertiary, 137
Bubo, European Miocene, 162
Bulimus, Eocene, 169

Cadurcotherium, European Eocene, 125
Caelodon, in Brazilian caves, 145
Coelogenys, in Brazilian caves, 144
Caenopithecus, European Eocene, 124
Cainotherium, European Miocene, 120
European Eocene, 126
Calamodon, N. American Eocene, 139
Callithriz in Brazilian caves, 184
Canaries, birds of, 208
beetles of 209
Canidor, European Miocene, 118
European Eocene, 125
N. American Tertiary, 134
remarkable S. African, 267
Canis, European Pliocene, 112
Post-Pliocene, 112
European Miocene, 118
Indian Miocene, 121
European Eocene, 125
N. American Post-Pliocene, 129
N. American Tertiary, 134, 135
in Brazilian caves, 144
S. American Pliocene, 146
Camel, fossil in Indian Miocene, 122
birth-place and migrations of, 155
Palaearctic, 182
Camelidae, essentially extra-tropical, 112
N. American Tertiary, 138
Camelopardalis, Miocene of Greece, 116
Indian Miocene, 122
Camelotherium, S. American Pliocene, 147
Cape of Good Hope, peculiar flora and fauna

of 266
Cape Verd Islands, zoology of, 214
Cape-hare, S. African, 267
Cardiodus, S. American Pliocene, 147
Cariama, Brazilian caves, 164
Carnivora of European Pliocene, 112
Miocene of Greece, 115
European Miocene, 118
Indian Miocene, 121
Euro Eocene, 125
N. American Post-Pliocene, 129
N. American Tertiary. 134
of Brazilian caves, 144
S. American Pliocene, 146
Carnivora, classification of, 88
antiquity of, 153
of the Palaearctic region, 182
list of Palaearctic genera of 240
list of Ethiopian genera of, 302
range of Oriental genera of, 373
list of Australian genera of, 476
Caroline Islands, birds of, 444
Carterodon in Brazilian caves, 145

Carus, and Gerstaeker on classification of
animals, 85
row, on classification of the Cetacea,

Castor, European Pliocene, 113
European Miocene, 120
Casoryr, N. American Tertiary, 138
Cathartes, Brazilian caves, 164
Cave-fauna of Brazil, 143
Cavia, European Miocene, 121
in Brazilian caves, 144
S. American Pliocene, 147
Cebochaerus, European Eocene, 126
Cebus in Brazilian caves, 144
Celebes, physical features of, 389
mammalia of, 426
birds of, 428
insects of, 434
origin of fauna of, 436
Centetidae, European Miocene, 118
Ceratodus, remarkable Australian fish, 397
Cercolmbes in Brazilian caves, 145
Cercopithecus in European Pliocene, 112
Cervidae, European Miocene, 120
birth-place and migrations of, 155
Cervus, European Pliocene, 113
Indian Pliocene and Miocene, 122
N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
N. American Tertiary, 138
in Brazilian caves, 144
8. American Pliocene, 147
Cetacea, European Pliocene, 112
European Miocene, 119
N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
N. American Tertiary, 140
Cetacea, classification of, 89
range of Oriental genus, 374

Ceylon and Malaya, resemblance of insects ot,
327

Ceylonese sub-region, 326
mammalia of, 327
birds of, 327
reptiles of, 327
amphibia of, 327
insects of 327
past history of, as indicated by its fauna,
328
Chalicomys, European Pliocene, 113
Chalicotherium, European Miocene, 119
Indian Miocene, 122
fossil in N. China, 123
Chamaeleo, N. American Eocene, 165
Chamois, figure of, 195
Chatham Islands, birds of 454
Chelonia, classification of, 100
Chelyara, European Pliocene, 165
Chevrotain of Malaya, figure of, 336
Chili should not be placed in the Palaea
or Nearctic regions, 63
China, fossil mammals in, resembling those of
Indian and European Miocene, 362
North, mammalia of, 222
Chinchillidae in Brazilian caves, 145
S. American Pliocene, 147
Pliocene of Antilles, 148
Chiroptera, classification of 87
list of Palaearctic genera of 239
list of Ethiopian genera of 300
range of Oriental genera of, 871
list of Australian genera of 475
Chiroptera, European Eocene, 125
in Brazilian caves, 144
Chlamydotherium in Brazilian caves, 145
Choeromorus, European Miocene, 119
Choeropotamus, European Eocene, 126
Choerotherium, Indian Miocene, 122

Choneziphius, European Pliocene, 112

Chough, Alpine, figure of, 195

Circumpolar zones, objections to system of, 67

Classification as affecting the study of distri-
bution, 83

Clausilia, Eocene, 169

Climate, as a limit to the range of mammalia,

11
gradual change of, before the glacial epoch,
41

Coleoptera, families selected for study, 103
Palaearctic, 188
number of Palaearctic species, 189
of Central Europe, 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, 205
of the Cape Werd Islands, 215
of the Ethiopian region, 256
S. African, 268
of Madagascar, 282, 283
of the Oriental region, 319
of Indo-Malay sub-region, 342
of the Australian region, 405
affinity of Australian and South American,
406, 407
of Celebes, 435
of New Zealand, 457
Collocalia, European Miocene, 161
Colobus, European Miocene, 117
Colonoceras, N. American Tertiary, 136
Colossochelys of Indian Miocene, 123,4165
Columbae, classification of, 96
range of Palaearctic genera of 248
range of Ethiopian genera of, 311
range of Oriental genera of, 384
range of Australian genera of, 485
Comoro islands, zoology of, 281
Continents, distribution of, 37
recent changes of, 38
Continental extension in Mesozoic times, 156
Corvus, European Miocene, 161
Coryphodon, European Eocene, 126
Cosmopolitan groups enumerated, 175
Cricetodon, European Miocene, 120
Cricetus, European Pliocene, 113
Crocodiles, Eocene, 165
Crocodilia, classification of, 100
Crook-billed plovers of New Zealand, 456
Crotch, Mr., on beetles of the Azores, 209
Crowned-pigeon, figure of, 415
Cryptormis, European Eocene, 163
Ctenomys, S. American Pliocene, 147
Cuba, extinct mammalia of 148
Curculionidium, Oolitic insect, 167
Cyclostoma, Eocene, 169
Cyllo sepulta, European Cretaceous, 167
Cynaelurus, in Brazilian caves, 144
Cynopithecus of Celebes, affinities of, 427
Cyotherium, European Eocene, 125

D.

Daptophilus, N. American Tertiary, 134
Darwin, Mr., his explanation of the cause of
the abundance of apterous insects in
Madeira, 211
on the relation of flowers and insects, 463
Dasyprocta, European Miocene, 121
in Brazilian caves, 144
Dasypus, in Brazilian caves, 145
S. American Pliocene, 147
Dasyurus, Australian Post-Tertiary, 157
David, Père, his researches in China and Thi-
bet, 221, 222
on birds of N. China, 226

Deer, fossil in N. American Tertiary forma-
tions, 138
Palaearctic, 182
probable cause of absence of from tropical
Africa, 291
Delphinus, European Pliocene, 112
Dendrocygna, European Miocene, 162
Desman of S. Russia, figure of, 219
Diceratherium, N. American Tertiary, 137
Dichobune, European Eocene, 126
Dicotyles, N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
. American Tertiary, 137
in Brazilian caves, 144
S. American Pliocene, 146
birthplace and migrations of, 155
Dicrocerus, European Miocene, 120
Dido European Eocene, 126
N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
in Brazilian caves, 145
Dididae, 164
Dinocerata, N. American Tertiary, 139
Dinoceras, N. American Eocene, 139
Dinornis, allied form in European Eocene, 163
of New Zealand and Australia, 164
Dinornithidae of New Zealand, 164
Dinotherium, Miocene of Greece, 116
European Miocene, 120
Miocene of Perim Island, 123
Dinyctis, N. American Tertiary, 134
Dinylus, European Miocene, 117
Diplacodon, N. American Tertiary, 136
Diprotodon, Australian Post-Tertiary, 157
Dispersal of animals, 10
of mammalia, 10
of reptiles and amphibia, 28
Distribution, affected by climate, 5
affected by physical features, 5
contrasts of, in similar climates, 5
similarities of, in diverse climates, 6
barriers as affecting, 6
study of, dependent on a good classifica-
tion, 83
of animals an adjunct to geology, 8
of animals requires certain preliminary
studies, 8
of animals dependent on physical geo-
graphy, 35
ofanimals, as affected by the glacial epoch.
40
of animals, as affected by changes of
vegetation, 43
of animals, as affected by organic changes,
44

of animals, hypothetical illustration of,
46

of animals, complexity of the causes af.
fecting the, 43

of animals, problems in, 51

of plants, as affected by the glacial epoch,
42

Dodo of Mauritius, 282
Dolichopterus, European Miocene, 162
Dommina, N. American Tertiary, 134
Dorcatherium, European Miocene, 120
Dremotherium, Miocene of Greece, 116
European Miocene, 120
Dresser, Mr. H. E., on northern range of
European birds, 193
Dromatherium, N, American Triassic, 134
oldest American mammal, 160
Drongo-shrike, Malayan figure of, 340
Dryopithecus European Miocene, 117

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East Africa, geographical features of, 258
wide range of genera and species over, 259
few special types in, 260
East African sub-region, description of, 258
genera and species ranging over the whole
of, 259
mammalia of, 260
birds of, 260
reptiles of, 260
amphibia and fishes of 260
insects of, 260
few peculiar types in, 260
illustration of zoology of, 261
East Australia, peculiar birds of, 440
East Thibet, mammalia of, 222
Eaton, Rev. A. E., on insects of Kerguelen
Island, 211
Echimyidae, in Brazilian caves, 145
Echinogale, European Miocene, 118
Ectognathus, N. American Eocene, 139
Edentata, Miocene of Greece, 116
European Miocene, 121
N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
N. American Pliocene, 140
of Brazilian caves, 145
S. American Pliocene, 147
Edentata, classification of 90
probable birthplace of, 155
range of Ethiopian genera of, 305
range of Oriental genus of, 375
Elephants, fossil of Indian Miocene, 123
fossil in N. American Post-Pliocene for-
mations, 130
birthplace and migrations of, 155
Elephant shrews, S.African, 267
Elephas, Post-Pliocene, 112
fossil in N. China, 123
N. American Tertiary, 138
Elliot, Mr., his great work on the birds o
paradise, 415
Elornis, European Miocene, 162
Elotherium, N. American Tertiary, 137, 139
Elwes, Mr., on birds of Persia, 204
on true relations of the birds of Central
India, 323
Embasis, N. American Tertiary, 134
Emu, figure of, 441
Emys, Indian Miocene, 123
Miocene and Eocene, 165
Emydida, Indian Miocene, 123
Enhydrion, Indian Miocene, 121
Eobasileus, N. American Eocene, 139
ocene period, 124
fauna of S. America, 148
Ephemera, from the Lias, 167
Eporeodon, N. American Tertiary, 138
Equidae, European Pliocene, 112
Miocene of Greece, 115
European Eocene, 125
Equus, European Pliocene, 112
Post-Pliocene, 112
Indian Miocene, 121
N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
N. American Tertiary, 135
Brazilian caves, 144
S. American Pliocene, 146
Ereptodon, N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
Erinaceus, European Miocene, 117
Erythromachus of Rodriguez, 164
Esthonyx, N. American Eocene, 189
Ethiopian region should not include any part
of India, 63
defined, 73
subdivisions of, 73

Ethiopian region, general features of, 25l
zoological characteristics of, 257
mammalia of, 253
great speciality of, 253
birds of, 253
reptiles of, 254
amphibia of, 255
fresh-water fish of 255
summary of vertebrates of, 255
insects of, 255
coleoptera of, 256
terrestrial mollusca of, 257
sub-regions of, 258
Atlantic islands of, 269
the probable past history of, 285
tables of distribution of animals of, 293
Eumys, N. American Tertiary, 140
Euphractus, S. American Pliocene, 147
Europe, recent changes in physical geography
of, 39
Miocene fauna of Central, 117
Miocene fauna of, allied to existing fauna
of tropical Asia and Africa, 124
European sub-region, description of, 191
forests of, 192
mammalia of, 192
birds of, 193
reptiles and amphibia of, 195
fresh-water fish of, 196
insects of, 196
islands of, 197
Euryceros of Madagascar, figure of, 278
Eurydon, in Brazilian caves, 145
Eurotherium, European Eocene, 126
Eutatus, S. American Pliocene, 147
Eutelodon, European Eocene, 126
Eutemnodus, S. American Eocene, 148
Extinct mammalian fauna of Europe, general
considerations on, 126
mammalia of N. America and Europe,
comparison of 140
mammalia of the Antilles, 148
mammalia of Old and New Worlds,
general remarks on, 148
fauna of New Zealand. 459
Extinction of large animals, causes of, 158

F.

Fauna of Japan, general character and affini-
ties of, 230
of Palaearctic region, general conclusions
as to, 231
extinct, of Madagascar and Mascarene
Islands, 282
Malayan, probable origin of, 359
Moluccan, peculiarities of, 419
Timorese, origin of 422
of Celebes, origin of, 436
of New Zealand, origin of, 460
Felis spelaea, 110
Felis, Miocene of Greece, 115
European Miocene, 118
Indian Miocene, 121
N. American Post-Pliocene, 129
in Brazilian caves, 144
Fernando Po, zoological features of 265
Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa Islands, birds of, 443
Fishes, means of dispersal of, 29
classification of, iOl
cosmopolitan groups of, 176
of the Palaearctic region, 186
of the European sub-region, 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, 205
of the Manchurian sub-region. 227

Fishes, fresh-water,table of Palaearctic families

of, 227

of the Ethiopian region, 255

of South Africa, 268

fresh-water, table of Ethiopian families of,
298

fresh-water, of the Oriental region, 318

of the Indo-Malay sub-region, 341

fresh-water, table of Oriental families of,

369
fresh-water, of the Australian region, 397
fresh-water, resemblance of Australian and
S. American, 400
how the transmission may have taken
place, 401
fresh-water, of New Zealand, 457
Flamingoes, European Miocene, 162
Flora, of New Zealand, as influenced by scar-
city of insects, 462
fossil of Australia, 467
Flower, Professor, on classification of mann-
malia, 85
classification of carnivora, 87
Flying Lemur, Malayan, figure of, 337
Flying Opossum, figure of, 442
Formosa, zoology of, 332
Forests, essential to existence of many Euro-
pean animals, 192
Siberian, greatest extent of, 216

o G.

Galapagos, scarcity of insects in, 463
Galecynus, in European Pliocene, 112
Galera, N. American Post-Pliocene, 13
Galeospalaz, European Miocene, 118
Galeotherium, Post-Pliocene, 111
Galethylax, European Eocene, 125
Galictis, in Brazilian caves, 144
Gallinae, classification of 96
range of Palaearctic genera of 248
range of Ethiopian genera of 311
range of Oriental genera of, 384
range of Australian genera of, 485
Gallus, Miocene of Greece, 116
Gallus bravardi, European Pliocene, 161
Gastormis, European Eocene, 163
Genera common to Post-Pliocene and Pliocene
faunas of N. America, 132
Geological history of Oriental region, 362
Gibraltar, cave fauna of 114
Glacial epoch, as affecting the distribution of
animals, 40
as a cause of the great change in the
fauna of the temperate zones, since
Pliocene times, 151
probably simultaneous in both hemi-
spheres, 151
causing a general subsidence of the
ocean, 152
Glandina, Eocene, 169
Glossotherium, in Brazilian caves, 145
S. American Pliocene, 147
Glyptodon, S. American Pliocene, 147
Gnathopsis, S. American Pliocene, 147
Goats, Palaearctic, 182
, Mr., on Natural History of the
Azores, 207
Golden Moles, S. African, 267
Gracularus, N. American Cretaceous, 164
Grallie, arrangement of 97
peculiar or characteristic Palaearctic ge-
nera, 249
peculiar Ethiopian genera of, 313

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