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Hyaena, Indian Miocene, 121
fossil in N. China, 123
Hyaenarctos in European Pliocene, 112
European Miocene, 118
Indian Miocene, 121
S. American Pliocene, 146
Hyaenictis, Miocene of Greece, 115
European Miocene, 118
Hyaenidae, European Miocene, 118
Hyaenodon, European Miocene, 118
European Eocene, 125
N. American Tertiary, 134
Hyaenodontidae, European Miocene, 118
Hydrochoerus, N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
Hydrornis, European Miocene, 162
Hyohippus, N. American Tertiary, 135
Hyomoschus, European Miocene, 120
Hyopotamus, European Miocene, 119
N. American Tertiary, 137
Hyopsodus, N. American Tertiary, 133
Hyotherium, European Miocene, 119
Hypertragulus, N. American Tertiary, 138
Hypisodus, N. American Tertiary, 138
Hopsiprymnus, Australian Post-Tertiary, 157
Hyrachyus, N. American Tertiary, 136
Hyracodon, N. American Tertiary, 136
Hyracoidea, classification of, 90
Palaearctic, 242
Ethiopian, 304
Hyracotherium, supposed, in European Eo-
cene, 125
European Eocene, 126
Hystria, European Pliocene, 113
Miocene of Greece, 116
N. American Tertiary, 140

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Grallae, peculiar Oriental genera of, 386
peculiar Australian genera of 486
Gray, Dr. J. E., on classification of Cetacea,88
Greece, Upper Miocene deposits of, 115
summary of Miocene fauna of 116
Groups peculiar to a region, how defined, 184
Gulick, Rev. J. T., on Achatinellidae of the
Sandwich Islands, 446
Günther, Dr., his classification of reptiles, 98
his classification of fishes, 101
on gigantic tortoises of Galapagos and the
Mascarene Islands, 289 .
on range of Indian reptiles in the Hima-
layas, 329

h.
Haast, Dr., on extinct birds of New Zealand,
460

Habitat, definition of, 4
Hainan, zoology of, 384
Halcyornis, European Eocene, 103
Halitherium, European Pliocene, 112
European Miocene, 119
Helladotherium, Miocene of Greece, 116
European Miocene, 120
biatteria of New Zealand, 456
Helictis, Himalayan, figure of, 331
Heliz, Eocene, 169
Hemibos, Indian Miocene, 122
Hemicyon, European Miocene, 118
Herpetotherium, N. American Tertiary, 134
Hesperomys, N. American Tertiary, 140
in Brazilian caves, 145
S. American Pliocene, 147
Hesperornis, N. American Cretaceous, 164
Heterodon, in Brazilian caves, 145
Heraprotodon, Indian Miocene, 122
Hickman, Mr. John, on a cause of the extinc-
tion of large animals, 158
Himalayas, altitude reached by various groups
in the, 329, 333
Hipparion, European Pliocene, 112
Miocene of Greece, 115
European Miocene, 119
N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
N. American Tertiary, 135
Hippopotamus, Post-Pliocene, 112
European Pliocene, 113
Indian Pliocene, 122
Hipposyus, N. American Tertiary, 133
Hippotherium, European Miocene, 119
Indian Miocene, 122
Hippotragus, European Miocene, 120
Homalodontotherium, S. American Pliocene,
146
Homalophus, European Miocene, 161
Homocamelus, N. American Tertiary, 138
Honeysuckers, birds specially adapted to
Australia, 892
Hooker, Dr., on deficiency of odours in New
Zealand plants, 464
Hoplocetus, European Pliocene, 112
Hoplophoneus, N. American Tertiary, 134
Horses, fossil, in Indian Miocene, 121
perfect series of ancestral, in N. America,

186
probable birthplace of, 154
Hutton, Capt. F. W., on origin of New Zealand
fauna, 461
Huxley, Professor, on zoological regions, 59
division of animal kingdom by, 85
Hyaena, Post-Pliocene, 112
Miocene of Greece, 115

European Miocene, 118

Ibidipodia, European Miocene, 162
Ibidorhynchus, figure of, 331
Iceland, zoology of, 198
Icthyornis, N. American Cretaceous, 164
Icticyon in Brazilian caves, 144
Ictitherium, Miocene of Greece, 115
European Miocene, 118
Ictops, N. American Tertiary, 133
India, Miocene fauna of, allied to that of
Europe, 123
geological features of, 328
Indian, sub-region, description of, 321
supposed relation to Ethiopian region, 321
mammalia of 322
birds of, 323
reptiles and amphibia of, 326
Indo-Chinese, sub-region, description of, 329
zoological characteristics of, 330
illustration of 331
reptiles of, 331
amphibia of 331
insects of, 332
islands belonging to, 333
Indo-Malayan sub-region, description of, 834
mammalia of 336
illustrations of, 336,339
birds of, 337
remote geographical relations of, 339
reptiles and amphibia of, 340
fishes of, 341
insects of 341
coleoptera of, 342
terrestrial mollusca of 343
zoological relations of islands of, 345
recent geographical changes in, 357
probable origin of fauna of, 359
Insects, means of dispersal of 32

Insects, tenacity of life of 33 Japan, general character of the fauna of,230
adapted to special conditions, 33 former land-connexions of, 231

groups selected for the study of their
geographical distribution, 102
o of the genera of, 166
fossil of European Miocene, 166
European Cretaceous, 167
European Wealden, 167
Palaeozoic, 168
Palaearctic, 187
of Central Europe, 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, 205
of the Siberian sub-region, 220
of the Manchurian sub-region, 227
of the Ethiopian region. 255
of the East African sub-region, 260
of West Africa, 265
S. African, 268
of Madagascar, 282
general remarks on, 284
of tropical Africa and America, probable
cause of similarities in, 291
of Indo-Chinese sub-region, 332
of the Oriental region, 318
of Ceylon, 327
of Indo-Malay sub-region, 341
statistics of collecting in the various
islands of the Malay Archipelago, 343
of the Australian region, 403
of New Guinea, 417
of the Moluccas, 420
of Timor group, 426
of Celebes, 454
of New Zealand, 458
scarcity of, in New Zealand, 462
influence of on the flora, 463
Insectivora, European Miocene, 117
N. American Post-Pliocene, 129
N. American Tertiary, 133
Insectivora, classification of 87
of the Palaearctic region, 181
of N. China and E. Thibet, 222
range of Palaearctic genera of, 239
of Madagascar, 273
range of Ethiopian genera of 301
of the Oriental region, 315
range of Oriental genera of 372
range of Australian genera of, 476
Isacis, N. American Tertiary, 133
Ischyromys, N. American Tertiary, 140
Islands, N. European. zoology of 197
of the Mediterranean sub-region, 206
of the West African sub-region, 265
of Ethiopian region, 269
Mascarene, 280
of the Indo-Chinese sub-region, 333
of Indo-Malay sub-region, 345
Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa, 443
Society and Marquesas, 444
New Caledonia and New Hebrides, 445
Sandwich, 446
of New Zealand sub-region, 453
Norfolk, 453
Lord Howe's, 454
Chatham, 454
Auckland, 455
Issiodromys, European Pliocene, 113

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Java, mammalia of 349
productions of, well-known, 350
birds of, 351
representative species of birds in, 352
origin of the anomalous features of its
fauna, 352
Sumatra and Borneo, their geographical
contrasts and zoological peculiarities
explained, 357 *
Junonia, European Miocene, 167

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Jacchus, in Brazilian caves, 144
Japan and North China, physical features of,
221

southern extremity of perhaps belongs to
the Oriental region, 226

Lacertilia, classification of, 99
Ladrone Islands, birds of, 444
Lagomys, European Pliocene, 113
European Miocene, 120
Lagostomus, in Brazilian caves, 145
S. American Pliocene, 147
Lake Baikal, seals of, 218
Land and water, proportions of 35 o
Land and fresh-water shells, antiquity of the
genera of, 168
Land-shells, Palaeozoic, 169
Palaearctic, 190
of Madeira, 209
of the Cape Verd Islands, 215
of the Ethiopian region, 257
of W. Africa, 265
of Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands,
285

of Indo-Malay sub-region, 344
of the Australian region, 407
of Sandwich Islands, 446
of New Zealand, 459
Lanius, European Miocene, 161
Laopithecus, N.American Tertiary, 133
Laornis, N. American Cretaceous, 164
Lemuria, a hypothetical land, 76
Lamuravidae, N. American Tertiary, 133
Lemuravus, N. American Tertiary, 133
Lemuridae, European Eocene, 124
Lemuroidea, range of Ethiopian genera of, 300
range of Oriental genera of 871
Lepictis, N. American Tertiary, 133
Lepidoptera, cosmopolitan families of 177
table of Palaearctic families of 238
S. African, 268
table of Ethiopian families of 299
of the Oriental region, 318
table of oriental families of 369 o
of the Australian region, 404
table of Australian families of, 472
Leptarchus, N. American Tertiary, 135
Leptauchenia, N. American Tertiary, 138
Leptochoerus, N. American Tertiary, 137
Leptodon, Miocene of Greece, 116
Leptomeryx, N. American Tertiary, 138
Leptoptilus, European Miocene, 162

us, allied form in European Eocene,168
Leptosomus of Madagascar, 278
figure of, 279
Leptotherium, in Brazilian caves, 144
Lepus, in Brazilian caves, 145
S. American Pliocene, 147
Lestodon, S. American Pliocene, 147
Lewis, Mr. George, his collection of Japan
insects, 228
Lebellula, from the Lias, 167
Lilljeborg, Professor, on classification of the
Rodentia, 90
Limnaea, Eocene, 169
European Secondary, 169
Limnatormis, European Miocene, 161
Limnocyon, N. American Tertiary, 134
Limnohyus, N. American Tertiary, 136
Limnotheridae, N. American Tertiary, 183
Limnotherium, N. American Tertiary, 133
Listriodon, European Miocene, 119
Lithomys, European Miocene, 120
Lithornis, European Eocene, 163
Lizards, classification of, 99
Tertiary, 165
wide range of a species in Polynesia, 448
Loncheres, in Brazilian caves, 145
Lonchophorus, in Brazilian caves, 145
Lophiodon, European Eocene, 125
N. American Tertiary, 136
Lophiotherium, N. American Tertiary, 136
Lord Howe's Island, birds of, 453
Lozomylus, Pliocene of Antilles, 148
Lund, Dr., his researches in caves of Brazil, 143
Lutra, European Miocene, 118
Indian Miocene, 121
Lycaena, Miocene of Greece, 115
Lyre-bird, figure of, 441

M.

Macacus, European Pliocene, 112
Miocene of Greece, 115
Indian Miocene, 121
supposed in European Eocene, 125
Machairodus, 110, 111
Miocene of Greece, 115
European Miocene, 118
Indian Miocene, 121
N. American Tertiary, 134
in Brazilian caves, 144
S. American Pliocene, 146
Macrauchenia, S. American Pliocene, 146
Macrotherium, Miocene of Greece, 116
European Miocene, 121
Madagascar, extinct birds of, 164
description of, 272
mammalia of, 272
birds of, 274
reptiles of, 279
amphibia of, 280
extinct fauna of 282
general remarks on insect fauna of, 284
Madeira, birds of 208
land shells of, 208
beetles of, 210
wingless insects numerous in, 211
how stocked with animals, 213
Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo, zoological
unity of, 353 -
comparison of mammalia, 354
of birds, 355
Malagasy sub-region, description of, 272
mammalia of, 272
birds of, 274
illustration of zoology of, 278

Malagasy sub-region, reptiles of 279
amphibia of 280
extinct fauna of, 282, 289
insects of, 282
early history of, 286
Malaya and Indo-Malaya, terms defined, 345
(note
Malayan forms of life reappearing in West
Africa, 263
fauna, probable origin of 359
resemblances to that of Madagascar and
Ceylon explained, 361
Malta, Post-Pliocene fauna of 114
formerly joined to Africa, 201
fossil elephants of, 201
birds of 206 (note)
Mammalia, means of dispersal of, 10
as limited by climate, 11
as limited by rivers, 12
how far limited by the sea, 13
dispersed by ice-floes and drift-wood, 14
means of dispersal of aquatic, 15
of most importance in determining zoo-
logical regions, 57
classification of 85
birthplace and migrations of some families
of, 142, 153
cosmopolitan groups of, 176
of the Palaearctic region, 181
of the European sub-region, 192
of the Mediterranean sub-region, 202
of the Siberian sub-region, 217
characteristic of Western Tartary, 218
of the Manchurian sub-region, 222
Palaearctic genera of, in the Manchurian
sub-region, 222
Oriental genera of, on borders of same
sub-region. 223
peculiar to Japan, 223
characteristic of N.W. China and Mongolia,
226
table of Palaearctic families of 234
range of Palaearctic genera of 239
of the Ethiopian region, 253
absence of certain important groups, 253
of the East African sub-region, 260
of West Africa, 262
of S. Africa, 267
of Madagascar, 272
table of Ethiopian families of, 294
table of Ethiopian genera of, 300
of the Oriental region, 315
range of the genera inhabiting the Indian
sub-region, 322
of Ceylon, 327
of the Indo-Chinese sub-region, 330
of the Indo-Malayan sub-region, 336
illustration of characteristic Malayan,
836

of the Philippine Islands, 345
table of Oriental families of, 365
table of Oriental genera of, 371
of Australian region, 390
of the Papuan Islands, 410
of the Moluccas, 417
of Timor group, 422
of Celebes, 427
of Australia, 439
illustration of, 439
of New Zealand, 450
table of families of Australian, 470
table of genera of Australian, 475
Mammal, the most ancient American, 134
Mammalia, extinct, of Old World, 107
extinct, of historic period, 110
extinct, comparative age of in Europe,127

Mammalia, extinct, of the New World, 129
extinct, of N. America and Europe, com-
pared, 141
original birth-place of some families and
genera, 142, 153
of the secondary period, 160
Manatus, N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
Manchurian sub-region, description of, 220
mammalia of, 222
birds of, 223
reptiles and amphibia of, 227
fresh-water fish of 227
insects of, 227
coleoptera of, 228
Marquesas Islands, birds of 443
Marsh, Mr., on improvability of Asiatic and
African deserts, 200
on camels and goats as .destructive to
vegetation, 200
Marsupials, classification of 91
N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
European Miocene, 121
first migration to America, 155
diversified forms of, 391
of America prove no connexion with
Australia, 399
list of Australian genera of 476
Martes, N. American Tertiary, 135
Mascarene Islands, zoology of, 280
extinct fauna of 282
gigantic land-tortoises of, 289
Mastodon, European Pliocene, 113
Miocene of Greece, 116
European Miocene, 120
in Brazilian caves, 144
S. American Pliocene, 147
Indian Miocene, 123
N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
N. American Tertiary, 138
Mauritius, zoology of, 280
reptiles of, 281
McCoy, Professor, on Palaeontology of
Victoria, 466
Mediterranean, recent changes in, 39
sub-region, description of, 109
mammalia of 202
birds of, 203
reptiles and amphibia of, 204
fresh-water fish of 205
insects of, 205 -
islands of 206
sea not separating distinct faunas, 201
Megacerops, N. American Tertiary, 137
Megalomeryr, N. American Tertiary, 138
Megalocnus, fossil in Cuba, 148
Megalonyx, N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
in Brazilian caves, 145

S. American Pliocene, 147
Megalostoma, Eocene, 169
Megamys, S. American Eocene, 148
Megaspira, European Tertiary, 169
Megatheridae, in Brazilian caves, 145
Megatherium, N. American Post-Pliocene, 130

in Brazilian eaves, 145

S. American Pliocene, 147
Melania, European secondary, 169
Melengris, N. American Miocene, 163
Mellipora, Indian Miocene, 121
Melolonthidium, Oolitic insect, 167
Meniscotherium, N. American Tertiary, 138
Menotherium, N. American Tertiary, ig3
Mephitis, in Brazilian caves, 144
Merychus, N. American Tertiary, 138
Merychippus, N. American Tertiary, 135
Merychochorus, N. American Tertiary, 138
Merycodus, N. American Tertiary, 138

Merycopotamus, Indian Miocene, 122
Merycotherium of Siberian drift, 112
Mesacodon, N. American Tertiary, 133
Mesohippus. N. American Tertiary, 135
Mesonyx, N. American Tertiary, 134
Mesopithecus, Miocene of Greece, 115
Meyer, Dr. A. B., on reptiles and amphibia ol
New Guinea, 415
Microlestes, oldest European mammal, 160
Micromeryr, European Miocene, 120
Microsyops, N. American Tertiary, 133
Microtherium, European Miocene, 120
Middendorf, on extreme northern birds, 219
Migrating birds, in which region to be placed,
185
Migration of animals, 10 /
general phenomena of 18
of birds, 19
of birds in Europe, 19
probable origin of, 22
of birds in India and China, 23
of birds in N. America, 23
changes in extent of 24
of birds in S. Temperate America, 25
general remarks on, 25
Milvus, European Miocene, 162
Miocene fauna of the Old World, 114
fauna of Greece, 115
fauna of Greece, summary of 116
fauna of Central Europe, 117
deposits of Siwalik Hills. 121
faunas of Europe and Asia, general obser-
vations on, 123
Miohippus, N. American Tertiary, 135

| Mivart, Professor, on classification of primates,

86

on classification of insectivora, 87

on classification of amphibia, 101
Moles almost wholly Palaearctic, 181
Mole-rat, of W. Tartary, 218
Mollusca, means of dispersal of 30

classification of 104

groups selected for study, 104
Moluccas, zoology of, 417

birds of, 419

reptiles of, 420

insects of, 420

eculiarities of fauna of 421

Monkeys on the high Himalayas, 12

fossil in N. American Miocene

in E. Thibet, 222

abundance of in the Oriental region, 315
Monotremata, classification of, 91

list of Australian genera of, 477
“More-pork” of Australia, o of 442
Morotherium, N. American Pliocene, 140
Motacilla, European Miocene, 161
Mound-builders, peculiar Australian birds,

393

Moupin, position and zoology of, 221
Muridae, S. American Pliocene, 147
Murray, Mr. Andrew, on zoological region, 63
Mustela, Miocene of Greece, 115
European Miocene, 118
S. American Pliocene, 146
Mustelidae, in Brazilian caves. 144
Mylodon, N. American Post-Pliocene, 130
S. American Pliocene, 147
Myogale, European Miocene, 118
Myomorphus, fossil in Cuba
Myopotamus, in Brazilian caves, 145
Myoxus, European Miocene, 120
European Eocene, 126
Musarachne, European Miocene, 118
Mysops, N. American Eocene, 140
Myaophagus, N. American Post-Pliocene, 130

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Nanohyus, N. American Tertiary, 137
Nosua, in Brazilian caves, 144
Nearctic region, defined, 79
subdivisions of, 80
distinct from Palaearctic, 79
Necrornis, European Miocene, 161
Neotropical region, defined, 78
subdivisions of, 78
relations of W. African sub-region with, 265
Nesodon, S. American Pliocene, 147
Newton, Professor, on position of Menuridae
and Atrichiidar, 95
on birds of Iceland, 198
New Caledonia, birds of 444
New Guinea, zoology of, 409
mammalia of, 410
birds of, 411
peculiarities of its ornithology, 413
illustration of ornithology of, 414
reptiles and amphibia of, 415
insects of, 416
New Zealand, objections to making a primary
zoological region, 62
extinct birds of, 164
sub-region, description of 449
compared with British Isles, 449
mammalia of, 451
islets of, 453
illustration of ornithology of 455
reptiles of, 456
amphibia of 457
fresh-water fish of, 457
insects of, 458
Longicorns of, 458
Myriapoda of, 458
land-shells of, 459
ancient fauna of, 460
origin of fauna of, 460
poverty of insects in, 462
relations of insect-fauna and flora, 472
Nicobar Islands, their zoological relations, 332
§. migration of the, 21
Norfolk Island, birds of, 453
North America, remarks on Post-Pliocene
fauna of, 130
Post-Pliocene fauna of, partly derived from
S. America, 131
extinct birds of, 163
North Africa, zoological relations of, 202
Notharctos, N. American Tertiary, 133
Notormis of New Zealand, 455
Nototherium, Australian Post-Tertiary, 157

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Ochotherium, in Brazilian caves, 145
Octodontidae, S. American Pliocene, 147
Ophidia, classification of, 99
Opisthoconus, Brazilian caves, 164
Opossum, extinct, in European Miocene, 121
Oreodon, N. American Tertiary, 138
Oreodontidae, N. American Tertiary, 138
Oriental region, defined, 75

subdivisions of, 75

description of, 314

zoological features of, 315

mammalia of, 315

birds of, 316

reptiles of, 317

amphibia of, 317

fresh-water fishes of, 318

summary of vertebrata, 318

insects of, 318

sub-regions of, 321

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Pachyaena, N. American Tertiary, 134
Pachynolophus, European Eocene, 126
Pachytherium, in Brazilian caves, 145
Palaearctic region, defined, 71
subdivisions of 71
general features of, 180
zoological characteristics of 181
has few peculiar families, 181
mammalia of, 181
birds of, 182
high degree of speciality of 184
reptiles and amphibia of, 186
fresh-water fish of, 186
summary of vertebrata of, 186
insects of, 186
coleoptera of, 187
number of coleoptera of, 189
land-shells of, 190
sub-regions of, 190
general conclusions on the fauna of 231
tables of distribution of animals of 233
Palaeucodon, N. American Tertiary, 133
Palaeetus, European Miocene, 162
Palaegithalus, European Eocene, 162
Palaelodus, European Miocene, 162
Palaeocastor, N. American Tertiary, 140
Palaeocercus, European Miocene, 162
Palaeochaerus, European Miocene, 119
Palaeohierar, European Miocene, 162
Palaeolagus, N. American Tertiary, 140
Palaeolama, S. American Pliocene, 147
Palaeomephitis, European Miocene, 118
Palaeomeryx, European Miocene, 120
Palaeomys, European Miocene, 121
Palaeontina oolitica, Oolitic insect, 167
Palaeontology, 107
how best studied in its bearing on geo-
graphical distribution, 168
as an introduction to the study of geo-
graphical distribution, concluding re-
marks on, 169
Palaeonyctis, European Eocene, 125
Palaeoperdiz, European Miocene, 161
Palacophrynus, European Miocene, 166
Palaeoreas, Miocene of Greece, 116
Palaqrtyr, European Miocene, 161
Palaeoryx, Miocene of Greece, 116
Palaeospalaz, 111
European Miocene, 117
Palaeosmops, N. American Tertiary, 136
Paloeotheridae, European Eocene, 125
Palaeotherium, European Eocene, 125
S. American Eocene, 148
Paloeotragus, Miocene of Greece, 116
Palaeotringa, N. American Cretaceous, 164

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