Page images
PDF
EPUB

The Opisthocomi consist of one family containing a single species, the “Hoazin” of Guiana.

Family 93. Opisthocomidae.

The Accipitres, or birds of prey, which were iong considered to be the highest and most perfect order of birds, are now properly placed lower down in the series, their affinities being more with the aquatic than with the perching birds. The following is the arrangement adopted by Mr. Sharpe in his recently published British Museum catalogue of diurnal birds of prey:

Sub-orders. Fam. vul." Wul - turinae ... ... Wultures. 94. Wulturidae -- | Sarcorhamphinae Turkey-buzzards. Falcones (95. Serpentariidae ... ( Polyborniae ... Caracaras. Accipitrinae ... Hawks. 96. Falconidae --- Buteoninae ... Buzzards. Aquilinae ... ... Eagles. Falconinae ... Falcons. Pandiones...97. Pandionidae ... --- --- ... Fishing-eagles. Striges ...98. Strigidae --- --- --- ... Owls.

The Grallae or Grallatores are in a very unsettled state. The following series of families is in accordance with the views of some of the best modern ornithologists:

99. Rallidae ... --- --- ... Rails, &c. 100. Scolopacidae --- --- ... Sandpipers and Snipes 101. Chionididae --- --- ... Sheath-bills. 102. Thinocoridae ... --- ... Quail-snipes. 103. Parridae ... --- --- ... Jacanas. 104. Glareolidae --- --- ... Pratincoles. 105. Charadriidae --- --- ... Plovers. 106. Otididae ... --- --- ... Bustards. 107. Gruidae ... --- --- ... Cranes. 108. Cariamidae --- --- ... Cariamas. 109. Aramidae... --- --- ... Guaraunas. 110. Psophiidae --- --- ... Trumpeters. 111. Eurypygidae ... --- ... Sun-bitterns. 112. Rhinochoetidae ... --- ... Kagus. 113. Ardeidae ... --- --- ... Herons. 114. Plataleidae --- --- ... Spoonbills and Ibis. 115. Ciconiidae --- --- ... Storks. 116. Palamedeidae ... --- ... Screamers.

117. Phaenicopteridae... --- ... Flamingoes.

The Anseres or Natatores are almost equally unsettled. The flamingoes are usually placed in this order, but their habits best

assort with those of the waders.

Fam.
118. Anatidae
119. Laridae ---
120. Procellariidae
121. Pelecanidae ... --- ---
122. Spheniscidae --- ---
123. Colymbidae
124. Podicipidae ... --- --- ---
125. Alcidae --- --- --- ---

Duck and Geese.
Gulls.

Petrels.
Pelicans.
Penguins.
Divers.

Grebes.

Auks.

The last order of birds is the Struthiones or Ratitae, considered by many naturalists to form a distinct sub-class. It consists of

[blocks in formation]

in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. clvii., p. 625. He divides

the class into five orders as follows:—

Sub-classes. Orders.
1. Ophidia
I. Squamata ... ; 2. Lacertilia . ...
3. Rhyncocephalina
II. Loricata ... 4. Crocodilia

III. Cataphracta 5. Chelonia

Serpents.
Lizards

The Hatteria. - Crocodiles. --- Tortoises.

In the arrangement of the families comprised in each of these orders I also follow the arrangement of Dr. Günther and Dr. J. E. Gray, as given in the British Museum Catalogue, or as

modified by the former gentleman who much personal information.

has kindly given me

[ocr errors][merged small]

99

The Ophidia, or Snakes, form the first order and are classified

as follows:—

Innocuous Snakes!

Wenomous Colubrine
nakes

Viperine Snakes ... {

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

20.
21.
22.
23.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Toid
ypnopidae
Tortricidae... ... -
. Xenopeltidae Burrowing Snakes.
Uropeltidae
Calamaridae Dwarf ground-snakes.
. Oligodontidae.
. Colubridae ... Colubrine Snakes.
. Homalopsidae ... Fresh-water Snakes.
. Psammophidae ... Desert-snakes.
Rachiodontidae.
Dendrophidae Tree-snakes.
Dryiophidae Whip-snakes.
Dipsasidae ... Nocturnal tree-snakes.
Scytalidae.
Lycodontidae ... Fanged ground-snakes.
Amblycephalidae Blunt-heads.
Pythonidae . Pythons.
Erycidae ... ... Sand-snakes.
Acrochordidae ... Wart-snakes.
Elapidae ... ... Cobras, &c.
Dendraspididae.
Atractaspididae.
Hydrophidae Sea-snakes.
Crotalidae ... Pit-vipers.
Viperidae True vipers

The second order, Lacertilia, are arranged as follows:—

26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

Chirotidae

Waranidae

Teidae ..
Lacertidae
Zonuridae
Chalcidae.
Anadiadae.
Chirocolidae.
Iphisadas.

Pygopodidae
Aprasiadae.

Cercosauridae.
Chamaesauridae.
Gymnopthalmidae

Fam.
Trogonophidae ...

Amphisbenidae
Lepidosternidae

Helodermidae.

Amphisbaenians.

Water Lizards.
Teguexins

} Land Lizards

Gape-eyed Scinks.
Two-legged Lizards.

Fam.
44. Lialidae.
45. Scincidae --- --- --- Scinks.
46. Ophiomoridae ... --- --- Snake-lizards.
47. Sepidae ... --- --- --- Sand-lizards.
48. Acontiadae.
49. Geckotidae --- --- --- Geckoes.
50. Iguanidae --- --- --- Iguanas.
51. Agamidae --- --- --- Fringed Lizards.
52. Chameleonidae ... --- --- Chameleons.

The third order, Rhyncocephalina consists of a single family:53. Rhyncocephalidae ... ... The Hatteria of New Zealand.

The fourth order, Crocodilia or Loricata, consists of three families:–

54. Gavialidae --- --- --- Gavials.
55. Crocodilidae ... --- --- Crocodiles.
56. Alligatoridae ... --- --- Alligators.

The fifth order, Chelonia, consists of four families:—

57. Testudinidae ... --- Land and fresh-water Tortoises.
58. Chelydidae ... --- Fresh-water Turtles.
59. Trionychidae ... --- Soft Turtles.
60. Cheloniidae ... --- Sea Turtles.

AMPHIBIA.

In the Amphibia I follow the classification of Professor Mivart, as given for a large part of the order in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1869. For the remainder I follow Dr. -Strauch, Dr. Günther, and a MSS. arrangement kindly furnished me by Professor Mivart.

The class is first divided into three groups or orders, and then into families as follows:—

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

These are arranged according to the classification of Dr. Günther, whose great work “The British Museum Catalogue of Fishes,” has furnished almost all the material for our account

of the distribution of the class.

In that work all existing fishes are arranged in six sub-classes and thirteen orders. A study of the extraordinary Ceratodus from Australia has induced Dr. Günther to unite three of his sub-classes; but as his catalogue will long remain a handbook for every student of fishes, it seems better to follow the arrangement there given, indicating his later views by bracketing together the groups he now thinks should be united.

« EelmineJätka »