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them, and that mercy is over all his works, as we shall one day with ravishing delight see: in the meantime, I endeavour to suppress all wild imaginations a melancholy fancy is apt to let in; and say with the man in the gospel: 'I believe; help thou my unbelief."

To the Earl of Galway-On Friendship.

I have before me, my good lord, two of your letters, both partially and tenderly kind, and coming from a sincere heart and honest mind-the last a plain word, but, if I mistake not, very significant-are very comfortable to me, who, I hope, have no proud thoughts of myself as to any sort. The opinion of an esteemed friend, that one is not very wrong, assists to strengthen a weak and willing mind to do her duty towards that Almighty Being, who has, from infinite bounty and goodness, so checkered my days on this earth, as I can thankfully reflect I felt many, I may say as many years of pure and, I trust, innocent, pleasant content, and happy enjoyments as this world can afford, particularly that biggest blessing of loving and being loved by those I loved and respected; on earth no enjoyment certainly to be put in the balance with it. All other are like wine, which intoxicates for a time, but the end is bitterness, at least not profitable. Mr. Waller, whose picture you look upon, has, I long remember, these words:

All we know they do above

Is, that they sing, and that they love.

The best news I have heard is, you have two good companions with you, which, I trust, will contribute to divert you this sharp season, when, after so sore a fit as apprehend you have felt, the air even of your improving pleasant garden cannot be enjoyed without hazard.

Te Lord Cavendish-Bereavement.

Though I know my letters do Lord Cavendish no service, yet, as a respect I love to pay him, and to thank him also for his last from Limbeck, I had not been so long silent, if the death of two persons, both very near and dear to me, had not made me so uncomfortable to myself, that I knew I was utterly unfit to converse where I would never be ill company. The separation of friends is grievous. My sister Montague was one I loved tenderly; my Lord Gainsborough was the only son of a sister I loved with too much passion; they both deserved to be remembered kindly by all that knew them. They both began their race long after me, and I hoped should have ended it so too; but the great and wise Disposer of all things, and who knows where it is best to place his creatures, either in this or in the other world, has ordered it otherwise. The best improvement we can make in these cases, and you, my dear lord, rather than I, whose glass_runs low, while you are young, and I hope have many happy years to come, is, I say, that we should all reflect there is no passing through this to a better world without some crosses; and the scene sometimes shifts so fast, our course of life may be ended before we think we have gone half-way, and that a happy eternity depends on our spending well or ill that time allotted us here for probation.

Live virtuously my lord, and you cannot die too soon, nor live too long. I hope the last shall be your lot, with many blessings attending it.


A translation of 'Rabelais,'* partly executed in this period, and which still maintains it place as a faithful rendering of the sense and style of the original, is deserving of notice. The first three books of the History of Gargantua and Pantagruel' were translated by SIR

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* Francis Rabelais, born in 1483 at Chinon, in Touraine, was sometime a churchman, but ran away from his convent and studied medicine. He obtained the Pope's absolution for the breach of his monastic vows, and died cure or rector of Meudon, about 1503. In his satirical romance. Rabelais, under an allegorical veil, lashes the vices of his age, especially the vices of the clergy. His work is stained with grossness and buffoonery. which were perhaps necessary, as Coleridge argues, as an amulet against the monks and legates.

THOMAS URQUHART in 1653; two books were published in his lifetime; and PETER ANTHONY MOTTEUX (1660-1718)-a Frenchman by birth, but known as a dramatic writer in English-republished the work of Urquhart, and added the three remaining books translated by himself. This joint production was again published by JOHN ÖZELL (died in 1743), with corrections of the text of Urquhart and Motteux, and notes by a French editor, JACOB LE DUCHAT (1658– 1735), who is said to have spent forty years in composing annotations on Rabelais.

SIR THOMAS URQUHART of Cromarty was a man of lively fancy, wit, and learning, but on some points hopelessly crazed. He traces the genealogy of his family up to Adam, from whom he was the 153d in descent, and by the mother's side he ascends to Eve. The first of the family who settled in Scotland was one Nomostor, married to Diosa (daughter of Alcibiades), who took his farewell of Greece and arrived at Cromarty, or Portus Salutis, 389 years before Christ! Sir Thomas was knighted by Charles I. and having proceeded with Charles II. into England, was present at the battle of Worcester, and there taken prisoner. He is said to have died of an inordinate fit of laughter, combined with the effect of flowing cups,' on hearing of the restoration of Charles II. Besides his excellent translation of Rabelais, the eccentric knight was author of a treatise on Trigonometry, (1650), 'Epigrams, Divine and Moral' (1646); 'Introduction to the Universal Language' (1653); The Discovery of a most exquisite Jewel, more precious than Diamonds inchased in Gold, the like whereof was never seen in any age; found in the Kennel of Worcester Streets the day after the Fight and six before the Autumnal Equinox,' anno 1651. This 'Jewel' is a vindication of the honour of Scotland from the 'infamy' cast upon it by the rigid Presbyterian party. It contains the adventures of the Admirable Crichton and other brave and eminent Scotsmen. The following is one of Sir Thomas's epigrams:

Take man from woman, all that she can shew,
Of her own proper, is nought else but wo.


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We have referred in a previous page (ante), to the rise of newspapers. Down to the middle of the seventeenth century, and even later, intelligence of public events was chiefly conveyed by means of news-letters. To prepare such letters,' says Macaulay, became a calling in London, as it now is among the natives of India. The newswriter rambled from coffee-room to coffee-room, collecting reports; squeezed himself into the Sessions House at the Old Bailey, if there was an interesting trial; nay, perhaps obtained admission to the gallery of Whitehall, and noticed how the king and duke [Charles II. and the Duke of York] looked. In this way he gathered materials for weekly epistles, destined to enlighten some county town or

some bench of rustic magistrates. Such were the sources from which the inhabitants of the largest provincial cities, and the great body of the gentry and clergy, learned almost all that they knew of the history of their own time.'

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At this period, there existed a censorship of the press. In 1637, the Star Chamber of Charles I. issued a decree prohibiting the printing of all books, pamphlets, &c. that were not specially licensed and authorised. The Long Parliament continued the restriction by an Order, dated June 14, 1643, which prompted the 'Areopagitica' of Milton, published the following year. But the newspapers appear to have been unmolested. During the civil war, Diurnals' and 'Mercuries,' in small quarto, began to be disseminated by the different parties into which the state was divided. Nearly a score are said to have been started in 1643, when the war was at its height. Peter Heylin, in the preface to his 'Cosmography,' mentions that 'the affairs of each town or war were better presented in the weekly newsbooks.' Accordingly, we find some papers, entitled 'News from Hull,' Truths from York,' 'Warranted Tidings from Ireland,' and 'Special Passages' from other places. As the contest proceeded, the impatience of the public for early intelligence led to the shortening of the intervals of publication; and papers began to be distributed twice or thrice in every week. Among these were the 'French Intelligencer,' the Dutch Spy,' the 'Irish Mercury,' the Scots Dove,' the Parliament Kite,' and the 'Secret Owl.' There were likewise weekly papers of a humorous character, such as Mercurius Acheronticus,' or 'News from Hell;' 'Mercurius Democritus,' bringing wonderful news from the world in the moon; the 'Laughing Mercury,' with perfect news from the antipodes; and Mercurius Mastix,' faithfully lashing all Scouts, Mercuries, Posts, Spies, and other intelligencers. On one side was the Weekly Discoverer,' and on the other, the Weekly Discoverer Stripped Naked.' So important an auxiliary was the press considered, that each of the rival armies carried a printer along with it.

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The most conspicuous of the journalists and political writers of that period were MARCHMONT NEEDHAM (1620-1678), SIR JOHN BIRKENHEAD (1615-1679), and SIR ROGER L'ESTRANGE, already noticed as author and translator (ante). Needham was a servile politician. With his Mercurius Britannicus' be supported the parliamentarians from 1643 to 1647; with his Mercurius Pragmaticus he defended the king and royalists from 1647 till 1649; and with his "Mercurius Politicus' he was the champion of the Independents and Commonwealth till the Restoration in 1660. Birkenhead was a consistent, unscrupulous royalist, with considerable talent for satire and ridicule. His Mercurius Aulicus,' or Court Mercury, was the medium of communication between the court at Oxford and the country at large. Cromwell, with characteristic magnanimity, abolished the office of licenser; but it was restored by the government of Charles II. in 1662.

In 1663, L'Estrange was appointed licenser; and in August of that year, he started his 'Public Intelligencer,' which was continued till November 1665, when the Oxford Gazette' appeared. The court had retired to Oxford, in consequence of the plague in London, and when this malady had ceased and the court returned to the metropolis, the title of Oxford Gazette' was changed to that of 'London Gazette.' L'Estrange afterwards defended the arbitrary measures of the court from 1679 to 1687 in his journal, 'The Observator.' He had many rivals, but was never eclipsed, in ready wit or raillery, or as a purveyor of news. In his character of licenser, L'Estrange issued a proclamation for suppressing the printing and publishing unlicensed news-books and pamphlets of news, because it has become a common practice for evil-disposed persons to vend to his majesty's people all the idle and malicious reports that they could collect or invent contrary to law; the continuance whereof would in a short time endanger the peace of the kingdom; the same manifestly tending thereto, as has been declared by all his majesty's subjects unanimously.' The charge for inserting advertisements, as appears from the 'Jockey's Intelligencer,' 1683, was then a shilling for a horse or coach, for notification, and sixpence for 'renewing;' also in the 'Observator Reformed,' it is announced that advertisements of eight lines are inserted for one shilling; and Morphew's County Gentleman's Courant,' two years afterwards, says, that seeing promotion of trade is a matter that ought to be encouraged, the price of advertisements is advanced to 2d. per line.' The publishers at this time, however, seem to have been sorely puzzled for news to fill their sheets, small as they were; and a few of them got over the difficulty in a sufficiently ingenious manner. Thus, the Flying Post,' in 1695, announces, that if any gentleman has a mind to oblige his country friend or correspondent with this account of public affairs, he may have it for 2d. of J. Salisbury, at the Rising Sun in Cornhill, on a sheet of fine paper; half of which being blank, he may thereon write his own private business, or the material news of the day.' And again, 'Dawkes's News-letter-This letter will be done up on good writing paper, and blank space left, that any gentleman may write his own private business. It will be useful to improve the younger sort in writing a curious hand!' Between 1661 and 1688, it appears that no less than seventy newspapers were published-none oftener than twice a week, and some of them very shortlived. In 1709, the first morning paper appeared, under the title of the Daily Courant,' and the discussion of political topics in newspapers is referred to this period. Hallam says: 'I find very little expression of political feelings till 1710, after the trial of Sacheverell and change of ministry. The "Daily Courant" and "Postman " then begin to attack the Jacobites, and the “ Postboy" the Dissenters. But these newspapers were less important than the periodical sheets, such as the "Examiner " and " Medley," which were solely devoted to party

controversy.' Swift and Bolingbroke were among the writers for these periodical publications. The Tory ministers, in 1712, put a stamp-duty of a half-penny on every printed half-sheet, and a penny on a whole sheet, besides a duty of one shilling on every advertisement. Many of the papers were immediately stopped: 'all Grub Street is ruined by the Stamp Act,' said Swift; but the periodical press continued to do battle for popular rights, though subjected to restrictions and persecution. From the accession of George I. may be dated the publication of parliamentary reports, though they were at first but general outlines, and the speakers were indicated by names drawn from Roman history. Even in 1740, Walpole was Tullius Cicero,' and Chesterfield 'Piso.' The real liberty of the press is of very recent date, the result of a long succession of struggles.

The first newspaper printed in Scotland was issued under the auspices of a party of Cromwell's troops at Leith, who caused their attendant printer to furnish impressions of a London Diurnal for their information and amusement. This was Needhain's 'Mercurius Politicus,' and the first number of the Scotch reprint appeared on the 26th of October 1653. In November of the following year, the establishment was transferred to Edinburgh, where this reprinting system was continued till the 11th of April 1660. About nine months afterwards appeared the 'Mercurius Caledonius,' of which the ten numbers published contain some curious traits of the extravagant feeling of joy occasioned by the Restoration, along with many poor attempts at wit and cleverness.* It was succeeded by the Kingdom's Intelligencer,' which continued about seven years. After this, there were only reprints of the English newspapers till 1699, when the Edinburgh Gazette' was established.

In Ireland, the rebellion of 1641 called forth a news-sheet, entitled ‘Warranted Tidings from Ireland.' It was soon dropped; and it was not until 1685 that a regular newspaper, 'The Dublin News-letter,' was published. This was followed by Pue's Occurrences,' a small daily journal printed in Dublin, which was popular, and had vitality enough to exist for half a century.

*For example: March 1, 166.-A Report from London of a new gallows. the supporters to be of stones, and beautified with statues of the three grand traitors, Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Ireton.

As our old laws are renewed, so likewise are our good honest customs, for nobility in streets are known by brave retinues of their relations; when, during the Captivity [the Commonwealth], a lord was scarcely to be distinguished from a commoner. Nay, the old hospitality returns; for that laudable custom of suppers, which was covenanted out with raisins and roasted cheese, is again in fashion; and where before a peevish nurse would have been seen tripping up-stairs and down-stairs, with a posset for the lord or the lady, you shall now see sturdy jackmen, groaning with the weight of sirloins of beef, and chargers loaden with wild-fowl and capon.

But of all our bontadoes and capriccios [on the day of the coronation of Charles II. ], that of the immortal Janet Geddes, princess of the Tron adventurers [herb-women] was the most pleasant; for she was not only content to assemble all her creels, baskets, creepies, forms, and other ingredients that composed her shop, but even her weather chair of state. where she used to dispense justice to her lang-kale vassals, which were all very orderly burnt, she herself countenancing the action with a high-flown spirit and vermilion majesty.'

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