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at least 9 inches in thickness, 4 inch brickwork in mortar of very doubtful quality is often found, which should the disconnecting trap be stopped up, becomes a “ soak away” cesspool. As regards the position of this chamber much has been said and many arguments advanced, but where there is no forecourt, no private paving, and no basement or cellar, the question is whether it should be under the public path or in the rear of buildings, for an inspection chamber inside an ordinary shop is decidedly objectionable. Screw-down air-tight covers have been found most suitable in cellars or basements, as they can only be removed by practical workmen.

By-law 5 deals with junctions, those of the Y shape being required. Double Y junctions are not mentioned, and therefore, presumably, can be used, but they are often the cause of stoppage in drains. As regards junctions in inspection chambers I presume the same rule applies, but it is difficult to instil this into some speculative builders who connect drains indiscriminately into a manhole, thinking it the panacea for all evils of bad drainage.

By-law 6 provides for the usual method of ventilation to drains, allowing a soil pipe or pipe from slop sink when of sufficient area to operate as the higher ventilating pipe. One clause of this by-law seems arbitrary since it provides for this pipe being of the same area as the drain with which it communicates, subject to certain exceptions, allowing 3.9-inch soil pipes to operate as ventilators for 4-inch drains. Under these circumstances 6-inch and sometimes even 9-inch ventilating pipes might be necessary.

There is also considerable difference of opinion among surveyors as to fresh air inlets. These should be theoretically close to the ground, but in practice they often operate as outlets, while if the pipe were carried up above the roof much annoyance might be prevented. The materials for ventilating pipes (lead or iron), and whether mica flap inlets should be used, might be specified with advantage, as the latter are often useless, and sometimes even pernicious in the case of high buildings with closets on each floor branching into one soil pipe.

By-law 7 provides for trapping bath, lavatory, and sink wastes, and for preventing gullies being fixed inside buildings when connected directly with the drain. The former provision is often unnecessary, and even detrimental when they are fitted without screw caps for cleansing, especially as the materials and method of jointing are not described. The latter is good in theory but difficult in practice. Where open gullies are absolutely necessary it is usual to have a second one closed and ventilated into the external air, receiving the water from the first through a back or side inlet.

Overflow pipes from cistern, wastes, &c., are to be discharged into the external air. This is a wise precaution, though not without risk in times of severe frost, unless the cistern rooms are properly heated.

By-law 8 deals with soil pipes, the materials of which they are to be formed, with thickness and weight of metal, the method of connecting closet traps to soilpipes, and of connecting soil-pipes to drains. This bylaw appears to have been well drawn up, though the method of jointing iron pipes might include gastim and be treated as previously described, the spigot ends being beaded. The words “safe outlet for foul air” (see also By-law 6) relating to ventilating pipes are ambiguous, and should be qualified by specifying a minimum height and distance from any window. It should also be noted that soil-pipes need only be placed outside buildings whenever practicable; this is an important alteration from existing by-laws as affecting new buildings.

By-law 9 provides for anti-syphonage pipes, and will perhaps be found unduly severe in the case of one and two storied buildings.

By-law 10 deals with slop sinks and their accessories, and has similar provisions to those by-laws relating to closets and soil-pipes, except that it allows 3-inch waste pipes.

By-law 11 provides for the maintenance of drainage work and fittings, and for keeping them in a proper state of repair. The Council may be congratulated upon this by-law, as it should prove of immense usefulness, even though the words “proper state of repair” are rather ambiguous.

By-law 12 provides for a penalty ; and

By-law 13 states that “These by-laws shall, so far “as practicable, apply to any person who shall construct “ any pipe or drain or other means of communicating “with sewers, or any trap or apparatus connected therewith, so far as he shall effect any such works in any

building erected before the confirmation of these by" laws, as if the same were being constructed in a build“ing newly erected.” The words “ so far as practicable” may cause considerable friction, even though they may give relief in extreme cases.

This by-law completes the series, which includes nothing about urinals, a subject upon which by-laws would be most useful.

Other points which seem to require attention besides those previously mentioned are: The prohibition of work being covered before the approval of the surveyor or the inspector of local authority-A form of notice of contravention, stating time for amendment Details of gullies, and the means for preventing liquid refuse or rain water discharged over the same from overflowing and causing dampness to foundations—The necessity of taper or diminishing pipes for connecting different sizes of drains—The prohibition of soil-pipes being placed in narrow chases or built into walls—The provision of adequate flushing tanks and the removal of contaminated soil around defective drains that are being taken up and relaid.





On Mr. Willis Bund's Paper on “ Allotments and

Small Holdings.”

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(A.) Mr. Willis Bund, in the course of his reply to the discussion on his interesting and instructive Paper, expressed regret that he had not heard more on the point put forward by Mr. Scriven, who stated that, in his experience, “the most satisfactory allotments “ he knew of had been obtained by association of the “ labourers themselves.” As some further information upon this point may prove interesting to the members of the Institution, I may remark that I can thoroughly corroborate Mr. Scriven, and although in one case the effect has not been the one desired, yet, taken as whole, the work undertaken by the association has been most satisfactory.

I have to do with ten associations distributed over three different counties (Northants, Bucks, and Hants), and allotments are now never let direct to individuals by the estate with which I am connected. Although some of these associations are composed exclusively of working men, I think I may fairly say that the most


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