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dation. The rich mosques are in the East abandoned cistern. On the 14th of June he what convents formerly were in Europe: appeared before Kleber, who was walking there are found prayer, religious instruction, with Protain, the architect of the army, and and hospitality. The young fanatic in- showing him what repairs were required to timated his design to the four principal be done in the house, to obliterate the traces Sheiks of the mosque, who were at the head of the bombs and balls.
Suleiman ap of the department of instruction. They proached him, as if to beg alms, and while were alarmed at his resolution, and at the Kleber was preparing to listen to him, he consequences to which it was likely to lead ; rushed upon him, and plunged the dagger they told him it would not succeed, and that several times into his breast. Kleber fell it would bring great disasters upon Egypt; under the violence of this attack. Protain, but still they refrained from apprizing the having a stick in his hand, fell upon the French authorities. When this wretched assassin, struck him violently on the head, man was sufficiently confirmed in his but was thrown down in bis turn by a stab resolution, he armed himself with a dagger, with the dagger. At the cries of the two followed Kleber for several days, but finding victims, the soldiers ran to the spot, raised no opportunity to approach him,
he resolved their expiring General, sought and seized to penetrate into the garden of the head- the murderer, whom they found skulking quarters, and to hide himself there in an behind a heap of rubbish."
as existed among the ancient Egyptians, and which we still find in Syria. Besides what has been already stated as to the practice of the Egyptians, an interesting illustration may be derived from the Mosaic pavement at Præneste, where we see a trellissed vinebower, under whose pleasant shade several persons sit on benches, drinking wine and solacing themselves with music. At a vil. lage (Beitdjin) near Cæsarea, Shulze and his party took supper under a large vine, the stem of which was nearly a foot and a half in diameter, the height about thirty feet, and covered with its branches and shoots (for the shoots must be supported) a hut of more than fifty feet long and broad. The bunches of the grapes were so large as to weigh ten or twelve pounds, and might be compared to our plums. Such a bunch is cut off and laid on the board, and each helps himself to as many as he pleases. Dr. Russell acquaints us that "the large grapes produced in the houses, upon the vines that cover the stairs and arbours, are of beautiful appearance, but have little flavour."
In Psalm lxxx. we find the same favourite figure as that employed by Isaiah ; and in its amplification some beautiful descriptions, with a little further information, occur :-“ A vine thou didst bring out of Egypt; Thou castedst out the nations and planted
it. Thou preparedst the ground for it; It spread its roots and filled the land. The mountains were covered with its shade, And with its tendrils the lofty cedars; Its boughs it extended to the sea, And its branches to the great river. Why hast thou broken down its fences So that every passenger croppeth it? The boar from the forest wasteth it, And the wild beasts of the field devour it.”
As the allusions here are to modes of culture which have already been noticed, no further elucidation is required. The use of fences is implied in the evils attending their destruction ; for as the destruction of the embankments of the terraced hills involved the destruction of the vineyard by the action of the elements, so the ruin of the fences exposes the vine to be spoiled by man and beasts. Both these consequences are exhibited in connexion in the passage previously adduced from Isaiah.
The fences appear to have been, as they are now, of thorns and of stones.
Among the depredators on vines, mention is made of "the foxes, the little foxes," which spoiled the vines when they had tender
grapes, and which the vine-dressers were anxious to catch. (Sol. Song, ii. 15.)
It seems that the system under which the vineyards were once cultivated, was in ancient times much the same as that which now prevails in the same country; that is to say, when a man cultivated his own vineyard, he hired day-labourers, (at the times when extra labour was required,) whose wages, in the time of Christ, was sevenpence half-penny by the day; (Matt. xx. 2;) but extensive proprietors generally let out their vineyards, when a certain proportion of the produce was given to the owner, and another to the cultivator of the soil. (Matt. xxi. 34.) The general principles under which this system at present works has frequently been exhibited respecting the culture of silk. But the conditions somewhat vary as applied to other products. The proprietor is supposed to have the ground in perfect working condition when the bargain is made. Then, in the first instance, he advances a sum of money for whatever outlay may be necessary as to implements, animals, &c. From the product he first deducts ten, fifteen, or twenty per cent., according as (after ancient regulations) the ground is more or less taxed. The remainder is divided into two equal parts, one of which the proprietor takes, and the other is for the cultivators; the value of which moiety is, however, reduced by the obligation to repay the money advanced to them at the outset. Seed when required by the cultivator, is always supplied by the proprietor. But some inconvenience in thus dividing the produce of the vine, appears to have suggested, as sometimes the better course, that the husbandman should keep all, and pay to the proprietor either a fixed rent or the value of his share in money. In Isaiah vii. 23, the rent for a thousand vines is said to have been “a thousand silverlings," or shekels, about half a crown each. From this, as compared with Solomon's Song, viii. 11, 12, we may collect that a shekel the vine was an ordinary rent, and also that vines were rented by the thousand, and sometimes perhaps to different tenants, in the same vineyard or estate, when it contained several thousand vincs. It would also appear that the cultivator received at the rate of twenty per cent.; which is certainly less than the present proportion, in about the same degree as the difference in the day's wages of the ancient and modern husbandman, and, doubtless, from the same cause, a redundant population in former times, and a great want of inhabitants now.
POPISII SUPERSTITION AND PRIESTLY CUPIDITY IN ROME. Among the innumerable churches, there is
one I must select for separate mention. It is the church of the Arà Cæli. supposed to be built on the site of the old temple of
Jupiter Feretrius, and approached, on forehead of every one, and tendered its side, by a long, steep flight of steps, which clumsy foot to them to kiss ; a ceremony seem incomplete without some group of bearded which they all performed, down to a dirty soothsayers on the top. It is remarkable little ragamuffin of a boy, who had walked in for the possession of a miraculous Bambino, from the street. When this was done, he or wooden doll, representing the infant laid it in the box again ; and the company, Saviour; and I first saw this miraculous rising, drew near, and commended the jewels Bambino, in legal phrase, in manner follow- in whispers. In good time he replaced the ing, that is to say :
coverings, shut up the box, put it back in its We had strolled into the church one after- place, locked up the whole concern (holy noon, and were looking down its long vista of family and all) behind a pair of folding-doors; gloomy pillars, (for all these ancient churches, took off his priestly vestments, and received built upon the ruins of old temples, are dark the customary “small charge,” while his and sad,) when the Brave came running in, companion, by means of an extinguisher with a grin upon his face that stretched it fastened to the end of a long stick, put out from ear to ear, and implored us to follow the lights one after another. The candles him without a moment's delay, as they were being all extinguished, and the money all going to show the Bambino to a select party. collected, they retired, and so did the specWe accordingly hurried off to a sort of chapel tators. or sacristy, hard by the chief altar, but not in I met this same Bambino in the street a the church itself, where the select party, con- short time afterwards, going in great state to sisting of two or three Catholic gentlemen the house of some sick person. It is taken and ladies (not Italians) were already as- to all parts of Rome for this purpose consembled, and where one hollow-cheeked stantly: but I understand that it is not young Monk was lighting up divers candles, always as successful as could be wished; for, while another was putting on some clerical making its appearance at the bedside of robes over his coarse brown habit. The weak and nervous people in extremity, accandles were on a kind of altar, and above it companied by a numerous escort, it not were two delectable figures, such as you unfrequently frightens them to death. . . would see at any English fair, representing It is a very valuable property, and much the holy Virgin and St. Joseph, as I suppose, confided in ; especially by the religious body bending in devotion over a wooden box or to whom it belongs. coffer, which was shut.
I am happy to know that it is not conThe hollow-cheeked Monk, number one, sidered immaculate, by some who are good having finished lighting the candles, went Catholics, and who are behind the scenes, down on his knees in a corner before this from what was told me by the near relation set-piece; and the Monk number two, having of a Priest, himself a Catholic, and a gentleput on a pair of highly-ornamented and gold- man of learning and intelligence. This bespattered gloves, lifted down the coffer, Priest made my informant promise that he with great reverence, and set it on the altar. would on no account allow the Bambino to Then, with many genuflexions and muttering be borne into the bed-room of a sick lady, certain prayers, he opened it, and let down in whom they were both interested. “For," the front, and took off sundry coverings of said he, “if they (the Monks) trouble her satin and lace from the inside. The ladies with it, and intrude themselves into her had been on their knees from the commence- room, it will certainly kill her." My inment, and the gentlemen now dropped down formant accordingly looked out at the window devoutly, as he exposed to view a little when it came, and, with many thanks, declined wooden doll, in face very like General Tom to open the door.
He endeavoured, in Thumb, the American dwarf, gorgeously another case of which he had no other knowdressed in satin and gold lace, and actually ledge than such as he gained as a passer-by blazing with rich jewels. There was scarcely at the moment, to prevent its being carried a spot upon its little breast, or neck, or into a small unwholesome chamber, where a stomach, but was sparkling with the costly poor girl was dying. But he strove against offerings of the faithful. Presently he lifted it unsuccessfully, and she expired while the it out of the box, and carrying it round crowd were pressing round her bed. - Pictures among the kneelers, set its face against the from Italy.
THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON.
No stranger who visits London considers that he has seen all the " lions" if he has not
caught a glimpse of the Duke. In illustration of this remark, I may mention one circumstance. A lady of my acquaintance, on
the morning of her intended departure from London, after a short visit, was walking with a friend in Hyde Park, near ApsleyHouse, as early as six o'clock. As they walked along, she said, “Well, I have seen everything I wanted to see in London, excepting the Duke of Wellington; and I would rather have seen him than all the rest." She uttered this remark in a loud, sprightly voice, little dreaming that any but her friend heard it. Immediately, however, a gentleman passed her, raised his hat, and smilingly said, i Madam, I am happy to present him to you;" and, again bowing, passed on, followed at a little distance by his groom. There was no mistaking of the personage who spoke. It was the Duke himself; and I need hardly say, that the lady was, in spite of her confusion, not a little gratified by the incident. - Sketches of Poets, Painters, and Politicians.
failing usually imputed to travellers ? " Another of the fraternity having baffled his cross-examination, he suddenly remarked, “You were born and bred in Manchester, I perceive?” The witness admitted that it was so. “I knew it," said Erskine carelessly, “from the absurd tie of your neckcloth." The traveller's weak point was touched, for he fancied that his dress had been perfect; and the Counsel gained his object, the man's presence of mind was gone. : When induced to make a personal observation on a witness, Erskine divested it of asperity by a tone of jest and good-humour. In a cause at Guildhall, brought to recover the value of a quantity of whalebone, a witness was called, of impenetrable stupidity. There are two descriptions of whalebone, of different value, the long and the thick. The defence turned on the quality delivered, that an inferior article had been charged at the price of the best. A wituess for the defence baffled every attempt at explanation by his dulness. He confounded thick whalebone with long in such a manner, that Erskine was forced to give it up. “ Why, man, you don't seem to know the difference between what is thick and what is long. Now, I'll tell you the difference. You are a thickheaded fellow, and you are not a long-headed one!"
In a cause at Guildhall, Mingay spoke of one Bolt, a wharfinger on the Thames, who loved litigation, and whose name regularly appeared as plaintiff or defendant in the cause-paper of the sittings after term, in very harsh language, for his dishonest and litigious spirit. “Gentlemen,” replied Erskine, “the Counsel has taken unwarrantable liberties with my client's good name. He is so remarkably of an opposite character, that he goes by the name of Bolt-upright." This was all invention.
PEEL AND BYRON AT SCHOOL.
Last, and not least, Sir Robert Peel was his contemporary; and it is now with very odd feelings that we read the anecdote in Byron's life, that when a great fellow of a boy-tyrant, who claimed little Peel as a fag, was giving him a castigation, Byron came and proposed to share it. “While the stripes were succeeding each other, and poor Peel writhing under them, Byron saw and felt for the misery of his friend; and although he knew that he was not strong enough to fight
with any hope of success, and that it was dangerous even to approach him, he advanced to the scene of action, and with a blush of rage, tears in his eyes, and a voice trembling with terror and indignation, asked very humbly if- would be pleased to tell him how many stripes he meant to inflict ? • Why,' returned the executioner, you little rascal, what is that to you? Because, if you please,' said Byron, holding out his arm,
I would take half.'"-Wm. Howitt's Homes and Haunts of British Poets.
ERSKINE IN COURT. A WITNESS was put into the box, who travelled to get orders. This description of persons go indiscriminately by the name of riders, and travellers, but most affect the latter. “You are, I understand, a rider?" “A traveller, sir," was the reply. “Pray," said Erskine, “are you addicted to that
RAVAGES OF THE PLAGUE. The plague in 1347 destroyed 50,000 of the inhabitants of London; in 1407, 30,000 persons were swept off in the same city by the same scourge; and in 1604, one-fourth of the whole population died of it. In 1665, it again visited London, taking off 68,000 persons. In Bossorah, 1773, 80,030 were destroyed by it. In Smyrna, 1784, 20,000. In Tunis, 1784, 32,000. In Egypt, 1792, 800,000!
BANK-NOTES. As extraordinary affair happened about the Fear 1740. One of the Directors, a very rich maa, had occasion for £30,000, which he was
to pay as the price of an estate he had just bought. To facilitate the matter, he carried the sum with him to the Bank, and obtained for it a bank-note. On his return home, he
was suddenly called out upon particular then called, to pay my respects. On our business ; he threw the note carelessly on the arrival, and giving our names, we were chimney, but when he came back a few immediately shown into the drawing-room. minutes afterwards to lock it up, it was not to In a very short time afterwards the King be found. No one had entered the room: he came to us, and only attended by a male could not, therefore, suspect any person. At servant to open the door. He immediately, last, after much ineffectual search, he was per- on our rising, shook hands with my brother suaded that it had fallen from the chimney and self most cordially, saying, “How do into the fire. The Director went to acquaint you do, Scott ?-how do you do, Stowell? I his colleagues with the misfortune that had am indeed most happy to see you here tohappened to him, and as he was known to be gether : be seated. We sat down, His a perfectly honourable man, he was readily. Majesty placing his chair between us, and he believed. It was only about four-and-twenty kindly responded to our joint congratulahours from the time that he deposited his tions. In a very short time the Queen, money: they thought, therefore, that it unaccompanied, opened a centre door, upon would be hard to refuse his request for a which the King instantly exclaimed, Come second bill. He received it upon giving an in, Charlotte, and make one of us: here is obligation to restore the first bill, if it should Judgment sitting between the twin brothers, ever be found, or to pay the money himself if Law and Equity, and restrained on either it should be presented by any stranger. hand!' We rose, for the double purpose of About thirty years afterwards (the Director making our dutiful obeisance to Her Majesty, having been long dead, and his heirs in pos- as well as bowingly to acknowledge the flatsession of his fortune) an unknown person tering compliment, when the King compresented the lost bill at the Bank, and de- manded us to resume our seats; and the manded payment. It was in vain that they Queen sat down with us. I then thanked mentioned to this person the transaction by His Majesty for his most gracious comwhich that bill was annulled: he would not pliment thus offered to my dear brother and listen to it; he maintained that it had come self, as the humble representatives of our to him from abroad, and insisted upon im- respective professions; and ventured to reply mediate payment The note was payable to His Majesty's point as follows :—'I am to bearer, and the £30,000 were paid him. indeed grateful to your Majesty for the The heirs of the Director would not listen to honour of the association thus conferred; any demands of restitution, and the Bank but allow me to observe, in reply, that Law was obliged to sustain the loss. It was dis- and Equity are properly controlled by Judgcovered afterwards that an architect having ment.' Upon which, George the Third purchased the Director's house, had taken seized both our hands, laughed out heartily, it down in order to build another upon the and said aloud, Scott, Scott, you have fairly same spot, had found the note in a crevice of beaten me: I wished to have given you the chimney, and made his discovery an the honours upon this occasion, but you have engine for robbing the Bank.- History of the outwitted me.' It is needless to say the Bank of England.
Queen enjoyed the joke heartily. We then entered into some general conversation of
more than half an hour's duration. Upon CONDESCENSION AND HUMOUR
our leaving, the King and Queen again OF GEORGE THE THIRD AND shook hands with us most heartily, His QUEEN CHARLOTTE.
Majesty bidding us 'God speed.' We reThe following anecdote of George the
tired under the same ease and absence of Third was related by the late venerable Earl restraint as we had entered ; and you may of Eldon to a personal friend, a short time judge that my departed brother and myself before his decease :-“ Upon the occasion of were in no small' degree satisfied with the the King's recovery from his unhappy
circumstances of our visit to Buckinghamillness, I went, accompanied by my brother
House." Stowell, to Buckingham-House, as it was
MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS,
BEHEADED. FEB, 8th. This beautiful, accomplished, interesting, and unfortunate woman, after being ranked among the most abandoned of her sex for nearly two centuries, owing to the envy and
malice of her rival-cousin and sister-Queen Elizabeth, has at length found champions in Mr. Goodall, Mr. Tytler, and Mr. Whitaker, who have vindicated her character, and shown, that, if, in some respects, she was imprudent, yet that she is more to be pitied than cen