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apostles and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her."*

* Rev. xviii. 8, and 20.- The expectations of Protestant commentators, with respect to the final desolation of the City of Rome, seem to receive a wonderful confirmation from the present state of the climate of Italy.- In consequence of the progress of the Malaria, an unhealthy constitution of the atmosphere which exists in certain parts of Italy, the country surrounding Rome has already become uninhabitable, and the pestilent air has at length begun to affect the city itself.—I select on this singular subject the following information from an article on the argriculture and statistics of Italy, in the Edinburgh Review for September, 1817.

" Another fact seems to be undeniable, that whatever be the cause of this evil, its effects have increased, and are increasing at this moment.--In the times of the Roman power the insalubrity was confined to a few spots, and the country round Rome was extremely populous, though it be now a wilderness almost without inhabitants. During the summer it is so unhealthy that the shepherds and their flocks come every night to take shelter within the walls of Rome, as the only means of avoiding the danger to which they would be exposed by passing the night in the country. The population of Rome itself appears to be diminishing; in 1791, the inhabitants were estimated at 166,000; in 1813, when our author visited Rome again, the number did not exceed 100,000, of whom 10,000 might be counted as vignerons, gardeners, and shepherds. This extraordinary diminution in twenty-one years, is no doubt to be in part attributed to the revolutions which Rome had experienced during that period, but the greater part, in the opinion of Chateauvieux, is to be ascribed to the increased action of the Malaria, which appears to be investing the city on every side. The hills and elevated grounds within the walls of the city where this insalubrity in former times was never felt nor even suspected, are now affected by it in summer. The Quirinal, the Perician, the Palatine, are all visited by a calamity which was formerly unknown to them. If you look at the environs of the city, the beautiful Borghese Villa, the summit of Mount Maria, the Villa of Pamfili, though the two latter are in such dry and ele

I hope that Dr. Chalmers will receive these free remarks, in the same spirit with which they are offered; that of most sincere regret, at my being obliged to regard for the inte

vated situations, have begun to suffer from the same cause."

“ That the inhabitants of Rome should be under no alarm, that the government should be taking no steps to discover the cause or the remedy for this great calamity, is not easily explained. Is it that an enemy who approaches slowly and invisibly does not affect the imagination, even when the reason is convinced of the greatness and the reality of the danger? Or is it that men feel them. selves overwhelmed by the magnitude of the evil, and think no more of providing a remedy against it, than they would against any thing that was to change or abolish the present laws of nature, and involve the world itself in ruins? For this last view of the subject there is certainly no good reason that can be assigned. To restore inhabitants to the Maremma, is undoubtedly difficult; but could the property of that great plain be sufficiently subdivided, and were li. berty to restore to Italy that activity and exertion which once prevailed in it, there is reason to think that the same effects would result from it. which took place in former ages--and that the insalubrity of the Campagna, would either be exterminated or reduced within very narrow bounds. If measures of this kind are not pursued, the consequences must be fatal. The great city which has arrogated to itself the name of eternal—which has already experienced the extremes of good and bad fortune, which after being reared by heroes, has suffered itself to be ravaged by barbarians, and finally, to be governed by Priests, which in the days of its prosperity conquered the world by its arms, and in the days of its weakness enslaved mankind by its opinions ;—that city is about to fall a prey to an in. visible enemy, which a vigilant and wise administration would have enabled it to resist."

Such are the speculations of the Edinburgh Review on this subject, so interesting to the humble and devout stu. dent of sacred prophecy. It was not to be expected that the conductors of that work should look further than se

rests of what appears to me to be important Scripture truth, to dissent from any observations of a person, for whom I entertain so unfeigned a respect, on account of his eminent services to the cause of Christianity.

But in reality, the experience of past ages would be lost upon us as well as those prophetic warnings, announcing to the Church the nature of that great enemy, which she was to encounter in the last ages, if we could in opposition to all the moral analogies of our nature, and to all prophecy, amuse ourselves with delusive hopes of the reformation of a power, which is, if I may so speak, the imbodied malice, and cunning of the great enemy of man. Indeed, it was well observed, with respect to that system, by one who was no commonplace observer, that “It is perhaps impossible in the very nature of things, that such another scheme as Popery could be invented. It is in truth the mystery of Iniquity, that it should be able to work itself into the simple, grand, sublime, holy institution of Christianity; and so to interweave its abominations with the truth, as to occupy the strongest passions, and strongest understandings! While Pascal can speak of Popery as he does, its influence over the mass of the people can excite no surprise.These two master principles—That we must believe as the Church ordains, and that there is no salvation out of this Church-oppose, in the ignorance and fear which they beget, an almost insuperable barrier against the truth."

cond causes, in attempting to account for the above cir. cumstances. To view the hand of God in the operations of his providence, or to give credit to what is revealed in the Scriptures concerning the evil and the punishment of sin, form no part of the creed of those who in the present day call themselves philosophers. But surely the Christian who reads in the word of God, the awful threatenings denounced against Babylon, and who with humble faith waits for their accomplishment as the sure harbingers of those scenes of peace and of glory, which are promised to the Church in the last ages, cannot fail to see in the atmospherical pestilence which is rapidly depopulating the city of Rome, the commencement of those plagues whereby she shall soon perish for ever.

“ Popery," says the same writer, “ was the master-piece of Satan. I believe him utterly incapable of such another contri

It was a systematic and infallible plan for forming manacles and mufflers for the human mind. It was a well laid design to render Christianity contemptible, by the abuse of its principles and institutions. It was formed to overwhelm, to enchant, to sit as the great Whore, making the earth drunk with her fornications.(Life, Character, and Remains of the Rev. Richard Cecil, pp. 133, 135.)


It now remains with me to conclude with one or two practical remarks.--Let us, in the first place, from the view which has been taken of the principles and practice of the Church of Rome, learn to value more highly the inestimable blessings of the Reformation, and also more sedulously to cherish the great principles of Scripture truth which have flowed to us from that source. The spirit of Popery is actively at work even in the Reformed Churches. Hence the determined and persevering opposition of many who call themselves Protestants, some of them even of Episcopal rank, to those associations of which it is the simple but sublime object to disseminate the Bible without note or comment among all nations. Many of the doctrinal errors among Protestants of the present day, may, in like manner, be traced to the same Mystery of Iniquity which had begun to work in the days of the Apostles, and has never been entirely expelled even from the Protestant churches, notwithstanding that their formularies and confessions are so de

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