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opinion,” says the same writer, “ which is the common one of Catholics, is, that the Pope as Pontiff, has not immediately, or directly, any temporal power, but only spiritual, yet by reason of the spiritual the Pope hath, at least indirectly, a certain, and that a SUPREME POWER, in temporal things.

“ It is an error,” says Augustinus Triumphus, “not to believe the Roman Pontiff to have universal supremacy over things spiritual and temporal, into which error, indeed, many fall from ignorance of the said power, which, as it is infinite, because great is the Lord, and great is his power, and of his greatness there is no end, all created intelligence is found to fail in searching it out.”+

Bellarmine quotes, it as the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, (who was canonized by Pope John XXII., in the year 1323, about half a century after his death, and is therefore one of the Saints - now worshipped by the Romish Church,) that “the Pope is the top of both powers,and “when any one is denounced as excommunicated, his subjects are, by the very act, immediately freed from his dominion and their oath of fidelity." I

According to the doctrine then current at Rome, in the last Lateran great Synod, un


* Quoted by Dr. Isaac Barrow, in his Treatise of the Pope's Supremacy, p. 4. † Quoted by Barrow,

ibid. p. 3. | Ibid. p. 3.

der the Pope's nose and ears, one Bishop styled him Prince of the World. (Orbis Princeps-Episc. Spal. Sess. I. p. 24.) Another great prelate said of him, that he had power above all powers both of heaven and


Baronius also says that there can be no doubt of it, but that the civil principality is subject to the sacerdotal.

Pope Boniface VIII. hath a decree extant in the canon law, running thus:-“We de. clare, say, define, pronounce to be of necessity to salvation, for every human creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff,”—“ for one sword,” saith he, “must be under another, and the temporal authority must be subject to the spiritual power.”_Wherefore, if the earthly power go aștray, it shall be “judged by the spiritual."

Now to a power seated in the Church of God, and pretending to be the successor of the apostles of the Lord, who always commanded and always practised the meekest submission to the powers that be,-a power which claimed such titles and such authority as are manifested in the foregoing extracts from its own authentic documents, yea, from the writings of one of its own saints, now the object of its worshipto such a power the words of the Apostle Paul do most strictly and literally apply. There is no need of weakening the force of language; for we here behold to the very letter, the Manor Sin As God, i. e. as if he had attributes of God, sitting in the TEMPLE OF GOD, showing himself that he is God—that is, possessed of authority, which belongs to no creature in heaven or earth, but to God only.

* Virum in quo erat Potestas supra omnes potentates tam cæli quam terræ.-Epis. Patræ. Sess. 10. p. 132. Barrow. ibid. p. 4.

It was under this assumed power, which belongs to God only, that Pope Alexander VI., issued in 1494, his famous Bull, drawing an imaginary line through the Atlantic, and granting to Ferdinand the Catholic, all the countries he should discover to the west of that line, confirming at the same time in favour of the Portuguese, the grants of their eastern conquests by former Popes. It was in virtue of this title, that the Spaniards summoned the nations of America to submit to their dominion, which they enforced by fire and sword.” (Koch Tableau des Revolutions de l'Europe, tom. i. pp. 299, 300.)


But what shall he do whereby he may be known? Paul saith, which is an adversary. This shall be the work whereby you may know him; he shall set himself against God, and against Christ, for he is an enemy of the cross of Christ. Why then, (say you) are not the Jews, and Mahomet, and the Turk, either all, or the most wicked of them so called, seeing they utterly refuse all Christian religion? Because none of these sit in the temple of God, which is the place where Antichrist shall advance himself; and because Antichrist shall not in open show set himself against Christ, as do the Mahometan, and the Turk, but subtlely and craftily, like an evil and ungracious servant. He will not openly speak his blasphemies, or spit at the Gospel of God, or defy the name of Christ; but he will call himself “the servant of God;" perhaps “the vicar of Christ, and perhaps the servant of God's servants;" or perhaps the head or the chief member of the Church.” He shall say, he is led with the zeal of God's house, and shall do nothing less; for he shall seek himself; he shall say, he seeketh the glory of God, when all that he doth is for the enriching and ambitious enlarging of his own worldly pomp and vanity

In matters of princes, if any man take upon him the name of an ambassador, or a deputy to a prince, having no commission thereto, and in this boldness presume to levy and raise a power, and force the subjects to follow him, although he work all this under the name, and by the colour of the prince's authority (as is the manner of rebels to do,) yet he is a traitor, and his doings are not well thought of, because he dealeth in the prince's matters without warrant from the prince.

Even so antichrist, he shall come in the name of Christ, yet will he do all things against Christ: and under pretence and colour of serving Christ, he shall devour the sheep, and people of Christ; he shall deface whatsoever Christ hath taught; he shall quench that fire which Christ hath kindled; he shall root up those plants which Christ hath planted; he shall undermine that house which Christ hath built; he shall be contrary to Christ; his faith contrary to the faith of Christ, and his life contrary to the life of Christ. Is any man desirous to know Antichrist? His coming shall be notable; it shall astonish the world. By this mark you may know him; he shall be contrary to Christ. To show you at large this contrariety by comparison of things contrary in Christ and Antichrist, would ask long time. It shall be sufficient we consider only some few wherein they are manifestly contrary, that by them judgment may be made of the residue.

St. Paul saith, (Heb. x.) “With one offering hath he consecrated for ever them that are sanctified.” And again, “ We are sanctified by the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once made." What is he then that saith, “I make priests to offer a daily sacrifice for the sins of the people, by whom the offering up of the body of Christ is made every day?" He is contrary to Christ: he is Antichrist.

“St. Paul saith, (Eph. i.) “God hath ap

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