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whatever elevations and subsidences these countries may have undergone, they have not been connected either with Asia, Africa, or South America during the whole Tertiary period.

In conclusion, I would especially remark that the various changes in the outlines and mutual relations of our continents, which I have now endeavoured to establish, must not be supposed to have been all strictly contemporaneous. Some may have been a little earlier or a little later than others; some changes may have been slower, others more rapid ; some may have had but a short duration, while others may have persisted through considerable geological periods. But, notwithstanding this uncertainty as to details, the great features of the geographical revolutions which I have indicated, appear to be established by a mass of concurring evidence ; and the lesson they teach us is, that although almost the whole of what is now dry land has undoubtedly once lain deep beneath the waters of the ocean, yet such changes on a great scale are excessively slow and gradual; so that, when compared with the highest estimates of the antiquity of the human race, or even with that of most of the higher animals, our existing continents and oceans may be looked upon as permanent features of the earth's surface.


At page 59 I have said that there are only three or four species of Mimosa which are sensitive. This is a mistake, as the greater portion of the species in the extensive genus Mimosa, as well as some species of several other genera of Leguminosæ, and also of Oxalidaceæ, possess this curious property. I cannot find, however, that any one has suggested in what way the sensitiveness may have been useful to the species which first acquired it. My guess at an explanation may therefore induce botanists who are acquainted with the various species in a state of nature, to suggest some better solution of the problem.



Argus-pheasant, wonderful plumage of,

Arums, 48
Assai of the Amazon, 43
Auckland Isles, handsome flowers of,

Audubon, on the ruby humming-birds,

130, 137
Australian Region, mammalia of, 340

birds of, 340
extinct fauna of, 341
its supposed union with S. America,

Azara, on food of humming-birds, 135

Abrus precatoria, perhaps a case of

mimicry, 226
Absorption-colours or pigments, 183
Acræide, warning colours of, 174
Adaptive characters, 150, 155
Affinities, how to determine doubtful,

African large mammalia, recent immi.

grants, 323
Allen, Mr. Grant, on protective colours

of fruits, 225
Alpine flowers, why so beautiful, 232
Amboyna, large sized butterflies of, 258
American monkeys, 118
American Continents, past history of,

Ancient races of North and South

America, 298
Andaman Islands, pale butterflies of,

white-marked birds of, 263
Anderson, Mr. W. Marshall, on cranium

from N. American mound, 296
Andes, very rich in humming-birds, 139
Animal colours, how produced, 184

life in tropical forests, 70
Anthribida, 95
Auts, wasps, and bees, 80

numbers of, in India and Malaya,

destructive to insect-specimens, 85
and vegetation, special relation

between, 89
A patura and Heterochroa, resemblance

of species of, 257
Apes, 116
Aqueous vapour of atmosphere, its
influence on temperature, 9

quantity at Batavia and Clifton, 10
Arctic plants, large leaves of, 236

flowers and fruits brightly coloured,

Areca palm, 45
Arenga saccharifera, 43


uses of, 53—58
Bananas, wild, 47
Banana, 48
Barber, Mrs. on colour changes of pupa

of Papilio nireus, 168
Barbets, 105
Bark, varieties of in tropical forests, 33
Barometer, range of, at Batavia, 24
Batavia, Meteorology of, 4

and London, diagram of mean

temperatures, 5
greatest rainfall at, 24

range of barometer at, 24
Bates, Mr. on climate at the Equator, 24

on scarcity of forest-flowers on

Amazon, 61
on animal life in Amazon valley, 70
on abundance of butterflies at Ega,
on importance of study of butter-

flies, 78
on leaf-cutting ants, 86
on blind ants, 88
on bird-catching spider, 97
on use of toucan's bill, 106
on large serpents, 115
on the habits of humming birds,



Bats, 118
Beetles, 94

abundance of, in New Forest-clear-

ings, 96

probable use of horns of, 202
Belt, Mr. on virgin forests of Nicaragua,

on aspects of tropical vegetation, 67
on leaf-cutting ants, 86
on an Acacia inhabited by ants, 89
on uses of ants to the trees they

live on, 90
on a leaf-like locust, 93
on tree-frogs, 116
on the habits of humming-birds,

133, 134
on uneatable bright-coloured frog,


on use of light of glow-worm, 205
Betel-nut, 45
Bill of humming-birds, 129
Biology, by-paths of, illustrated, 251
Birds, 99

how many known, 124
cases of local variation of colour

among, 262
influence of locality on colours of,

which fertilize flowers, 273, 274
and insects blown to oceanic islands,

of Palæarctic Region, 316
of Ethiopian Region, 318

of Oriental Region, 320
Bonelli, Mr., on the Sappho comet

humming-bird, 132
Bullock on food of humming-birds, 153
Buprestidæ, 94
Burchell, Dr., on the “stone mes-

embryanthemum," 223
Butterflies, abundance of, in tropical
forests, 72
conspicuousness of in tropical

forests, 73
colours and form of, 74
peculiar habits of tropical, 76
tropical and temperate compared as

to colour, 164
females do not choose their part-
with gaily-coloured females, 204
numbers and variety of, 255
influence of locality on colours of,

Buttressed trees, 31

Campylopterus hemileucurus, pugna-

cious and ornamental, 214
Cattleyas, 51
Cecropias, trees inliabited by ants, 89
Celebes, large and peculiarly formed
butterflies of, 259

white-marked birds of, 263
Centipedes, 97
Ceylon and Malaya, resemblances of

fauna of, 327
Chameleons, 113
Chameleon, cause of changes of its

colour, 170
Chemical action changes colours, 183
Chili, humming-birds of, 141
Chiroptera, 119
Chrysobactron Rossii, 238
Clark, Rev. Hamlet on leaf-cutting

ants, 86
Climate of Equator, general features of,

Climates of Timor, Angola, and Scot-

land compared, 14
Climbing plants of tropical forests, 37

uses of, 39
Cockatoos, 100
Coelogynes, 51
Coloration of tropical birds, 110
Colour, cause of change of, in humming.

birds, 144
Colour in nature, problems of, 159

how far constant, 161

as affected by heat and light, 161
of tropical birds, 163
of tropical butterflies, 164
of temperate and tropical flowers,

changes of, in animals produced by

coloured light, 167
voluntary change of, in animals,

not usually influenced by coloured

light, 171
Colour, the nature of, 180

how produced, 183
changed by heat, 183
a normal product of organization,

as a means of recognition, 196
proportionate to integumentary de-

velopment, 198

not caused by female selection, 198
Colour absent in wind-fertilized flowers,
same theory of, in animals and

plants, 234
of flowers and their distribution,

Colour, nomenclature of, formerly im-

perfect, 247
Colour-development as illustrated by

humming-birds, 212

ners, 200

Callithea, imitated by species of Cata-

granıma and Agrias, 257
Cailithea markii, 75

[blocks in formation]

Colour-development, local causes of,

in animals, summary, 216
Colour-perception, supposed recent

growth of, 244
Colour-sense, origin of the, 241

need for, 243
not of recent origin, 246

not wholly explicable, 248
Colours, classification of organic, 172

protective, 172
warning, 174
sexual, 177
typical, 179
of animals, how produced, 184
theory of protective, 187
theory of warning, 189
theory of sexual, 192

theory of typical, 215
Colours and ornaments of humming,

birds, 127
Colours of fruits, attractive, 224

protective, 225
Colours, which first perceived, 243
Cometes sparganurus, very pugnacious,

Compositæ, arborescent in oceanic

islands, 276
Continent, past changes of the great

Eastern, 321
Continents of Tertiary period, probable

aspect of, 343
Copride, 95

probable use of horns of, 202
Crematogaster, genus of ants, 83
Cross-fertilization of flowers, use of,

complex arrangements for, 229
Cuckoos, 104


sion of Malay Archipelago, 307
Earth-sculpture or surface-geology, 250
Earth-works, North American, 292
Easter Island, sculptures on, 291
Eciton, genus of foraging ants, 87
Elateridæ, luminous species perhaps

mimetic, 205
Emperor-moth, protective coloration of,

Environment, relation of living things

to, 254
Epicalia, sexes of, differently coloured,

Epilobium angustifolium, E. parvi-

florum, 233
Epimachinæ, 150
Equator, cause of uniform high tempera-
ture near, 6

short twilight at, 21
Equatorial climate, general features of,
uniformity of in all parts of the

world, is

local diversities of, 19
Equatorial forests, general features of,

Equatorial forest-belt, cause of, 27
Equatorial heavens, aspect of, 23
Equatorial zone, temperature of, 3
Ethiopian Region, 317
Eugenes fulgens, 134
Eunica and Siderone, resemblance of

species of, 257
Euplea, pale species of, in Moluccas

and New Guinea, 258
Euro-Asiatic continent, miocene fauna

of, 323
Eustephanus, 141
Erstephanus galeritus, 143
Euterpe oleracea, 43
Evaporation and condensation, equa-

lising effects of, 16


DANAIDÆ, warning colours of, 174
Danainæ, Acræinæ and Heliconiinæ,

local resemblances of, 256
Daphne pontica, 230
Darwin, Mr., on mode of cross-fertiliza-
tion and its use, 228

not too highly rated, 252
on vegetation of Galapagos, 272
on use of scented leaves, 277
on former union of West Indian

islands and S. America, 306
on oceanic islands, 307
revolution in thought effected by,

Deserts on line of tropics, 28
Desmoncus, 41
De Vry, Mr., on the sugar-palm, 43
Dews, cause of heavy tropical, 10

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