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some, 211


Frogs of oceanic islands, 309

Fruit-bats, 119
FEMALE birds, greater brilliancy of Fruits of equatorial forest-trees, 36

Fruits, attractive colours of, 224
Female insects, greater brilliancy of protective colours of, 225
some, 203

greater antiquity of protected than
Ferns, 46

attractive, 227
Ferns, preponderance of in Tahiti and

Juan Fernandez, 269, 270
Fiji Islands, pale butterflies of, 259

Fire-ants, 83
Fishes, causes of general coloration of, GALAPAGOS, colours of productions of,

Flowering-trunks, probable cause of, 34 poor in flowers and insects, 235
Flowers, comparative scarcity of in weedy vegetation of, 272
equatorial forests, 60

Gardener, Dr., on a large water-boa, 115
Flowers and insects, 64

Geckos, 112
Flowers of temperate zones brilliantly Geiger, on ancient perception of colour,
coloured, 165

comparatively scarce in tropical Geranium pratense, G. pusillum, 233
forests, 167

Gibbons, 116
Flowers, attractive colours of, 228 Ginger-worts, 47
fertilized by insects, 228

Gladstone, Mr., on the colour-sense, 245
attractive odours of, 230

Glow-worm, use of its light, 205
when sweet-scented not conspi. Goliath cuckoo, 105
cuously coloured, 230

Gosse, Mr. on Jamaica humming-birds,
attractive grouping of, 231

132, 135
alpine, why so beautiful, 232

the pugnacity of humming-birds,
why allied species differ in beauty,


on food of humming-birds, 137
when wind-fertilized not coloured, Gould, Mr. on the motions of humming.

birds, 131
relation of colours of, to distribu Grammatophyllums, 51
tion, 235

Green, why the most agreeable colour,
and fruits, recent views as to action 244
of light on, 236

Grisebach, on cause of vivid colours of
Flowers of Auckland and Campbell's arctic flowers, 237
Isles, bright coloured, 238

Guilielma speciosa, 42
Flying-lizards, 113

Gums from equatorial forest-trees, 36
Foliage, two chief types of, in tropical
forests, 33

colours of, 221
Foot of savages does not approach
that of apes, 289 (note)

Habenaria chlorantha, 230
Forest-belt, cause of equatorial, 27 Habits of humming-birds, 130
Forest-belts, temperate, 29

Heat due to condensation of atmo-
Forest-tree, section of a Bornean, 32 spheric vapour, 14
formed from climbers, 32

changes colours, 183
Forest-trees, characteristics of, 30 Heliconiinæ and Acræinæ, local re-
Forest-trees of low growth, 34

semblances of, 256
Forest-trees, uses of equatorial, 35 Hindostan and Africa, resemblances of
Forests, effect of on rainfall and drought, fauna of, 328

Hooker, Sir J. on flowers of Auckland
devastation caused by destruction Isles, 238
of, 20

on deficient odour of New Zealand
equatorial, 29

flowers, 277
undergrowth of tropical, 34 Hornbills, 107
Formica gigas, 81

Horns of beetles, probable use of, 202
Foxes, none in Isle of Wight in 1605, Howling-monkeys, 118

Humming-birds, number of, 124, 133
Frogs and toads, 116

distinctness of, 125, 129
Frog, with bright colours uneatable, 175 structure of, 125


Local causes of colour-development, 216
Locusts, richly coloured tropical, 94
Longicorns, 95
Lophornis ornatus, very pugnacious,

Lord Howe's Island, white rail in, 264
Lubbock, Sir John, on colour percep-

tion in insects, 255

Humming-birds, colours and ornaments
of, 127
descriptive names of, 129
motions and habits of, 130
display of ornaments by males, 134
food of, 135
nests of, 137
geographical distribution and varia.

tion of, 138
of Juan Fernandez, 140
influenced by varied conditions in

South America, 147
relations and affinities of, 148
sternum of, 151
eggs of, 152
feather-tracts of, 152
resemblance of swifts to, 152
nestlings of, 153
differences from sun-birds, 154


Indian peninsula once an island, 325

ancient fauna of, 325
Insects, wingless, 97

general observations on tropical, 98
Insular plants and insects, relations of,

Interference-colours in animals, 184
Islands, influence of locality on colour

in, 257


Juan Fernández, humming-birds of, 140

insects of, 270
abundance of humming-birds in,


Madagascar, white-marked butterflies

of, 260
Madagascar once united to Africa, 325
Madagascar and Malaya, resemblances

of fauna of, 328
Male birds, origin of ornamental plum-

age of, 205
Male birds which incubate, 212
Male humming-birds produce a shriller

sound, 215
Males, theory of display of ornaments

by, 207
Malva sylvestris, M. rotundifolia, 233
Mammals, 116
Mammalia, supposed variations of, com-
parable to those of butterflies, 261

local resemblances of, in Africa, 262
Mammalia of Palæarctic Region, 315

of Ethiopian Region, 317
of Oriental Region, 319
of miocene period in Euro-Asia,

Man, antiquity and origin of, 280

indications of extreme antiquity

of, 285
highly developed at very early

period, 286

antiquity of intellectual, 290
Mangroves, 58
Manicaria saccifera, 41
Mantidæ, 91
Mantis resembling an orchis-flower, 173
Marantaceæ, 47
Marmosets, 118
Marshall, Messrs. on barbets, 106
Martins, M. Charles, on increased size

of leaves of arctic plants, 236
Mates readily found by birds, 200
Mauritia, palm, 40
Maximiliana regia, 41
Meiglyptes, 150
Meldola, Mr. R. on variable colouring

in insects, 170
Meliphagidæ in Auckland Isles pro-

bably flower-fertilizers, 239
Melliss, Mr. on flora of St. Helena, 275
Migrations between N. America and
Euro-Asia, 334
between N. America and South
America, 335



LAND and sea, peculiar distribution of,
existing distribution of, very

ancient, 312
Leaf-insects, 92
Leaves, supposed use of odours of, 277
Lemuria, an hypothetical continent,

not required, 328
Leopoldinia major, 45
Lepidoptera, diurnal, 72
Leptalis, a good case of mimicry, 189
Leptena erastus, 256
Light, theory of, as producing colours,

action of, on plants, 222
supposed direct action of, on colours

of flowers and fruits, 236
Lizards, 111

man, 284



Mesembryanthemum, stone, 223 Odontomachus, genus of ants, 82
Meteorological phenomena, intensity of, Odour deficient in New Zealand flowers,
at the equator, 23

Mimicry, theory of, 189

Odours absorbed unequally by dif-
Mimosa pudica, 59

ferently coloured stuffs, 266
Mivart, Professor, on animal origin of of flowers attractive, 230

Ecodoma cephalotes, 85
on the divergent affinities of man Ecophalla smaragdina, 82
and apes, 288

Ogle, Ďr. on colour and sense-percep-
Mongredien, Mr. on showy and fragrant tion, 265
flowers, 230

Oil from palms, 45
Monkeys, 116

Oncidiums, 51
Monkeys and pigeons, 102

Optical theory of colour, 180
Moseley, Mr. on humming-birds of Juan Orchids, 49
Fernandez, 143

Oriental Region, 319
Moseley, Mr. H. N. on birds conveying Ornamental humming-birds, the most
seeds to islands, 268

pugnacious, 214
Moths, conspicuously coloured cater Ornaments, display of, by male hum-
pillars of, uneatable, 175

ming-birds, 134
Motmots, 105

Orthoptera, 91
Mott, Mr. Albert, on antiquity of in-

tellectual man, 291
Mounds of N. America, antiquity of,

Mound-builders, a semi-civilized race, PALÆARCTIC Region, 314

Palms, 40
Müller, Dr. Hermann, on fertilization height of, 41
of alpine flowers, 232

climbing, 41
on fertilization of Martagon lily, Palm-wine, 43

Palm-trees, uses and products of, 42-
on variations of insect-fertilized 46
flowers, 275

Pandanaceæ, 49
on differences of allied species of Papilio, pale varieties of, in Moluccas
flowers, 233

and New Guinea, 258
Musa paradisiaca, 48

Papilionide and Nymphalidæ, local
Musaceæ, 48

resemblances of, 255
Mygale, a bird-catching spider, 97 Papilio nireus, changes of colour of
Mysis chameleon, changes of colour of,

pupa of, 168

Parrots, 99

red in Moluccas and New Guinea,


black in New Guinea and Mada-
NEARCTIC REGION, mammalia of, 329

birds of, 330
Neotropical region, mammalia of, 331

Passeres, 108
birds of, 332

Phyllostoma, 120
Nests of humming-birds, 137

Phasmidæ, 91-93
Newton, Professor, on appearance of

Phonix sylvestris, 45
living humming-birds, 130

Pha@thornithine, 136
New Zealand, poor in flowers and in-

Pheasants, brilliant plumage of, in cold
sects, 235

countries, 163
New World, regions of the, 329

Pheidole, genus of ants, 84
North American earth-works, 292

Philippine Islands, metallic colours of
Nuttall, Mr. on the rufous flame-bearer,

butterflies of, 259

white-marked birds of, 263
Nymphalidæ, local resemblances of

Picariæ, 103
species of distinct genera of, 257

Pickering, Mr. on plants of Pacific

Islands, 269
Pierida and Lycenidæ, local resem-

blances of, 256

Pigeons, 102
OCEANIC ISLANDS, peculiar floras of, 269 black in Australia and Madagascar,
theory of, 307


gascar, 264


Pigs, white poisoned in Virginia, black Scorpions, 97
not, 265

Screw-pines, 49
Pipes from N. American mounds, 295 Scythrops, 105
Plantain, 48

Seeds, how protected, 226
Plantain-eaters, 197

Sensitive-plants, 59
Plants, protective coloration in, 223 Sexes of butterflies differently coloured
Platycerium, 47

for recognition, 196
Plumage of tropical birds, 109

Sexual colours, 177
of humming-birds, 128

theory of, 192
Polyrachis, genus of ants, 81

Sexual selection not a cause of colour,
Polyalthea, tree with flowers on trunk, 198

neutralized by natural selection,
Polygonum bistorta, P. aviculare, 233

Pontia rape, changes of colour of Sickle-bill humming-bird, 136
chrysalis of, 168

Size, correspondence of, in tropical
Ponera clavata, terrible sting of, 82 flowers and insects, 236
Portraits on sculptured pipes from Sky, colour of not mentioned in old
mounds, 295

books, 245
Prosthemadera in the Auckland Isles, Smith, Mr. Worthington, on mimicry

in fungi, 223
Protective colours, theory of, 187 Smyth, Professor Piazzi, on the Great
Psittacula diopthalma, sexual difference Pyramid, 298
of colour of, 178

Snakes, 114
Pterylography, 151

Sobralias, 51
Pyramid, the Great, 298

Soil, heat of, 8
the Great, indicates an earlier influence of temperature on climate,
civilization, 300

Pythons, 115

Solenopsis, genus of ants, 84
Sorby, Mr., on composition of chloro-

phyll, 221

South America, extinct fauna of, 336

geographical changes of, 338
RABBITS, why white-tailed, 197

its parallelism with Africa, 339
Rainbow, how described by ancient an area of preservation of ancient
writers, 245

types, 339
Rainfall at London and Batavia, dia Spices from equatorial forest-trees, 36

Spiders, 97
Rainfall, greatest recorded at Batavia, Spruce, Dr. Richard,' on number of

ferns at Tarapoto, 47
Ramsay, Prof. on ancient fresh-water on inconspicuousness of tropical
deposits, 313

flowers, 61
Raphia tædigera, 41

on use of aromatic secretions of
Rattan-palms, 42

leaves, 278
Recognition aided by colour, 196 Stainton, Mr., on insects attacking
Reed, Mr., on humming-birds in Juan scented leaves, 277
Fernandez, 146

Stick-insects, 92
Mr. Edwyn C., on insects of Juan St. Helena, indigenous flowers of, 275
Fernandez, 270

St. John, Mr., on large python, 115
Reptiles, 111

Structure of humming-birds, 125
Reptiles of oceanic islands, 309 Sugar from palm-trees, 44
Rhamphococcyx, 105

Sunda Islands and Japan once joined to

Asia, 326
Sun-birds, differences from humming-

birds, 154

Sun's noonday altitude in Java and

London compared, 6
SALVIN, MR. on the pugnacity of Sun's rays, heating effect of, 7
humming-birds, 134, 214

Sunrise in the equatorial zone, 22
Sauba ant, 85

Swifts, resemblances of to humming-
Saxifraga longifolia, 233

birds, 152
S. cotyledon, 233

Symmachia trochilus, 78
S. oppositifólia, 233

colubris, 75

gram of, 15


Variation, how influenced, 142

Vegetation, equatorial, 27
TAHITI, preponderance of ferns in, 269 Vipers, green, 114
Temperature of London and Batavia Vitality a cause of bright colour, 193
compared, 6
of different latitudes, various causes

of, 7
Temperature, influenced by heat of soil,

influenced by aqueous vapour of WARNING COLOURS, theory of, 189
atmosphere, 9

Wasps and bees, 90
Temperature of tropical and temperate Wave-lengths of coloured rays, 180

zones, cause of, illustrated, 12 Weale, Mr. J. P. Mansel, on plants of
Tertiary faunas and their relations, 344, Karoo, 223

on Ajuga ophrydis, 223
Thaumastura cora, very pugnacious, 214 Webber Mr, on food of humming-birds,
Timor and Scotland, climates com 137
pared, 14

West-Indian Islands, large and brilliant
Timor and Flores, white-marked birds butterflies of, 261
of, 263

peculiarly coloured birds of, 262
Toucans, 106

Whip-snakes, 114
Tree-frogs, 116

White animals poisoned where black
Tristan d'Acunha, bright - coloured

escape, 265
Pelargonium of, 275

White colours influencing sense-percep-
Trochilidæ, 125

tion, 265
Trogons, 105

White colour doubly prejudicial to
Tropical vegetation, concluding re animals, 266
marks on, 65

White tropical birds, 110
probable causes of its luxuriance Wilson, Dr.on pottery from N. American
and variety, 66

mounds, 295
Mr. Belt on, 67

Winds, influence of on temperature, 11
Tropical birds, dull-coloured, 110

direction of near equator, 11, 12
coloration of, 110

cause of cold near equator, 12, 13
green, 110

Wolves in England show its union with
Tropics, limitation of, 3

continent, 305
aspects of animal life in, 121 Woods from equatorial forest-trees, 36
Trunks, variety of, 31, 33

probable cause of flowering, 34
Twilight, short at equator, 21
Typical colours, 179



ZEBRA, possible use of its stripes, 197
Zingiberaces, 47
Zoological regions, 314
Zoological regions of the New World


Vanda lowii, 51
Vampyre-bats, 119


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