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FEMALF birds, greater brilliancy of
some, 211
Female insects, greater brilliancy of
some, 203
Ferns, 46
Ferns, preponderance of in Tahiti and
Juan Fernandez, 269, 270
Fiji Islands, pale butterflies of, 259
Fire-ants, 83
Fishes, causes of general coloration of,
Flowering-trunks, probable cause of 34
Flowers, comparative scarcity of in
equatorial forests, 60
Flowers and insects, 64
Flowers of temperate zones brilliantly
coloured, 165
comparatively scarce in tropical
forests, 167
Flowers, attractive colours of, 228
fertilized by insects, 228
attractive odours of 230
when sweet-scented not conspi-
cuously coloured, 230
attractive grouping of, 231
alpine, why so beautiful, 232
why allied species differ in beauty,
when wind-fertilized not coloured,
relation of colours of, to distribu-
tion, 235
and fruits, recent views as to action
of light on, 236
Flowers of Auckland and Campbell's
Isles, bright coloured, 238
Flying-lizards, 113
Foliage, two chief types of, in tropical
forests, 33
colours of, 221
Foot of savages does not approach
that of apes, 289 (note)
Forest-belt, cause of equatorial, 27
Forest-belts, temperate, 29
Forest-tree, section of a Bornean, 32
formed from climbers, 32
Forest-trees, characteristics of, 30
Forest-trees of low growth, 34
Forest-trees, uses of equatorial, 35
Forests, effectofon rainfall and drought,
devastation caused by destruction
of, 20
equatorial, 29
undergrowth of tropical, 34
Formica gigas, 81
Foxes, none in Isle of Wight in 1605,
Frogs and toads, 116
Frog, with bright colours uneatable, 175

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Humming-birds, colours and ornaments
of, 127

descriptive names of, 129

motions and habits of, 130

display of ornaments by males, 134

food of, 135

nests of, 137

geographical distribution and varia-
tion of, 138

of Juan Fernandez, 140

influenced by varied conditions in
South America, 147

relations and affinities of, 148

sternum of, 151

eggs of 152

feather-tracts of, 152

resemblance of swifts to, 152

nestlings of, 153

differences from sun-birds, 154

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IGUANAs, 113
Indian peninsula once an island, 325
ancient fauna of, 325
Insects, wingless, 97
general observations on tropical, 98
Insular plants and insects, relations of,
Interference-colours in animals, 184
Islands, influence of locality on colour
in, 257

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Juan Fernandez, humming-birds of 140
insects of, 270
* of humming-birds in,

LANd and sea, peculiar distribution of,

existing distribution of,
ancient, 312

Leaf-insects, 92
Leaves, supposed use of odours of, 277
Lemuria, an hypothetical continent,

not required, 328
Leopoldinia major, 45
Lepidoptera, diurnal, 72
Leptalis, a good case of mimicry, 189
Leptena erastus, 256
Light, theory of, as producing colours,



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action of, on plants, 222
supposed directaction of, on colours
of flowers and fruits, 236
Lizards, 111

Local causes of colour-development, 216
Locusts, richly coloured tropical, 94
Longicorns, 95
Lophornis ornatus,
Lord Howe's Island, white rail in, 264
Lubbock, Sir John, on colour percep-
tion in insects, 255

very pugnacious,

M. :
MACAws, 100
Madagascar, white-marked butterflies
of, 260
Madagascar once united to Africa, 325
Madagascar and Malaya, resemblances
of fauna of 328
Male birds, origin of ornamental plum-
age of, 205
Male birds which incubate, 212
Male humming-birds produce a shriller
sound, 215
Males, theory of display of ornaments
by, 207 -
Malva sylvestris, M. rotundifolia, 233
Mammals, 116
Mammalia, ol. variations of, com-
parable to those of butterflies, 261
local resemblances of, in Africa, 262
Mammalia of Palaearctic Region, 315
of Ethiopian Region, 317
of Oriental Region, 319
of miocene period in Euro-Asia,
Man, antiquity and origin of, 280
indications of extreme antiquity
of, 285
highly developed at very early
antiquity of intellectual, 290
Mangroves, 58
Manicaria saccifera, 41
Mantidae, 91
Mantis resembling an orchis-flower, 173
Marantaceae, 47
Marmosets, 118
Marshall, Messrs. on barbets, 106
Martins, M. Charles, on increased size
of leaves of arctic plants, 236
Mates readily found by birds, 200
Mauritia, palm, 40
Mazimiliana regia, 41
Meiglyptes, 150
Meldola, Mr. R. on variable colouring
in insects, 170
Meliphagidae in Auckland Isles pro-
bably flower-fertilizers, 239
Melliss, Mr. on flora of St. Helena, 275
Migrations between N. America and
uro-Asia, 334
between N. America and South
America, 335

A. A

Mesembryanthemum, stone, 223
Meteorological phenomena, intensity of,
at the equator, 23
Mimicry, theory of, 189
Mimosa pudica, 59
Mivart, Professor, on animal origin of
man, 284
on the divergent affinities of man
and apes, 288
Mongredien, Mr. on showy and fragrant
flowers, 230
Monkeys, 116
Monkeys and pigeons, 102
Moseley, Mr. on humming-birds of Juan
Fernandez, 143
Moseley, Mr. H. N. on birds conveying
seeds to islands, 268 -
Moths, conspicuously coloured cater-
pillars of, uneatable, 175
Motmots, 105
Mott, Mr. Albert, on antiquity of in-
tellectual man, 291
Mounds of N. America, antiquity of,
296 -
Mound-builders, a semi-civilized race,

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PALEARCTIC Region, 314
Palms, 40
height of, 41
climbing, 41
Palm-wine, 43
Palm-trees, uses and products of, 42–
Pandanaceae, 49
Papilio, pale varieties of, in Moluccas
and New Guinea, 258
Papilionidae and Nymphalidae, local
resemblances of, 255
Papilio nireus, changes of colour of
pupa of, 168
Parrots, 99
red in Moluccas and New Guinea,
black in New Guinea and Mada-
gascar, 264
Passeres, 108
Phyllostoma, 120
Phasmidae, 91–93
Phoenix sylvestris, 45
Phaëthornithinae, 136
Pheasants, brilliant plumage of, in cold
countries, 163
Pheidole, genus of ants, 84
Philippine Islands, metallic colours of
butterflies of, 259
white-marked birds of, 263
Picariae, 103 -
Pickering, Mr. on plants of Pacific
Islands, 269
Pieridae and Lycaenidae, local resem-
blances of 256
Pigeons, 102
black in Australia and Madagascar,

Pigs, white poisoned in Virginia, black
not, 265 -
Pipes from N. American mounds, 295
Plantain, 48
Plantain-eaters, 197
Plants, protective coloration in, 223
Platycerium, 47
Plumage of tropical birds, 109
of humming-birds, 128
Polyrachis, genus of ants, 81
Polyalthea, tree with flowers on trunk,
Polygonum bistorta, P. aviculare, 233
Pontia rapae, changes of colour of
chrysalis of, 168
Pomera clavata, terrible sting of 82
Portraits on sculptured pipes from
mounds, 295
Prosthemadera in the Auckland Isles,
Protective colours, theory of, 187
Psittacula diopthalma, sexual difference
of colour of, 178
Pterylography, 151
Pyramid, the Great, 298
the Great, indicates an earlier
civilization, 300
Pythons, 115

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Scorpions, 97

Screw-pines, 49
Scythrops, 105
Seeds, how protected, 226
Sensitive-plants, 59
Sexes of butterflies differently coloured
for recognition, 196
Sexual colours, 177
theory of 192
Sexual selection not a cause of colour,
oliad by natural selection,
Sickle-bill humming-bird, 136
Size, correspondence of, in tropical
flowers and insects, 236
Sky, colour of not mentioned in old
books, 245
Smith, Mr. Worthington, on mimicry
in fungi, 223
Smyth, Professor Piazzi, on the Great
Pyramid, 298
Snakes, 114
Sobralias, 51
Soil, heat of 8
influence of temperature on climate,

Solenopsis, genus of ants, 84
Sorby, Mr., on composition of chloro-
phyll, 221
South America, extinct fauna of, 336
graphical changes of 338
its parallelism with Africa, 339
an area of preservation of ancient

types, 339
Spices from equatorial forest-trees, 36
Spiders, 97
Spruce, Dr. Richard, on number of
ferns at Tarapoto, 47
on inconspicuousness of tropical
flowers, 61
on use of aromatic secretions of
leaves, 278
Stainton, Mr., on insects attacking
scented leaves, 277
Stick-insects, 92
St. Helena, indigenous flowers of, 275
St. John, Mr., on large python, 115.
Structure of humming-birds, 125
Sugar from palm-trees, 44
Sunda Islands and Japan oncejoined to
Asia, 326
Sun-birds, differences from humming-
birds, 154
Sun's noonday altitude in Java and
London compared, 6
Sun's rays, heating effect of 7
Sunrise in the equatorial zone, 22
Swifts, resemblances of to humming-
birds, 152
Symmachia trochilus, 75
colubris, 75

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influenced by aqueous vapour of
atmosphere, 9
Temperature of tropical and temperate
zones, cause of, illustrated, 12
Tertiary faunas and their relations, 344,
Thaumastura cora, very pugnacious, 214
Timor and Scotland, climates com-
pared, 14
Timor and Flores, white-marked birds
of, 263
Toucans, 106
Tree-frogs, 116
Tristan d'Acunha, bright - coloured
Pelargonium of, 275
Trochilidae, 125
Trogons, 105
Tropical vegetation, concluding re-
marks on, 65
probable causes of its luxuriance
and variety, 66
Mr. Belt on, 67
Tropical birds, dull-coloured, 110
coloration of, 110
en, 110
Tropics, limitation of 3
aspects of animal life in, 121
Trunks, variety of, 31, 33
robable cause of flowering, 34
Twilight, short at equator, 21
Typical colours, 179

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WARNING Colours, theory of, 189
Wasps and bees, 90
Wave-lengths of coloured rays, 180
Weale, Mr. J. P. Mansel, on plants of
Karoo, 223
on Ajuga oph
Webber Mr. on fo
West-Indian Islands, large and brilliant
butterflies of, 261
peculiarly coloured birds of, 262
Whip-snakes, 114
White animals poisoned where black
escape, 265
White colours influencing sense-percep-
tion, 265
White colour doubly prejudicial to
animals, 266
White tropical birds, 110
Wilson, Dr. on pottery from N. American
mounds, 295
Winds, influence of on temperature, 11
direction of near equator, 11, 12
cause of cold near equator, 12, 13
Wolves in England show its union with
continent, 305
Woods from equatorial forest-trees, 36

dis, 223
of humming-birds,

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