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A paper on the subject, The Work of the City Superintendent, was next read by T. M. Balliet, superintendent of schools, Springfield, Mass. (Page 182.)

The following joined in the discussion : W. A. Blair, Dr. W. T. Harris, Dr. A. E. Winship, Superintendent J. M. Greenwood, S. S., Parr, G. J. Luckey, and Superintendent John Hancock. (Page 191.)

The Department adjourned at 4.45 P. M. to meet at 8 P. M.


The Department met at 8 P. M.; President Fred. M. Campbell in the chair.


The School Principal was the subject of a paper read by George Howland, superintendent of schools, Chicago. (Page 195.)

The second paper, The Qualifications of School Principals, was presented by J. M. Greenwood, superintendeut of schools, Kansas City, Mo. (Page 209.)



The Department reassembled at 9.30 A. M., President Campbell in the chair.

M. A. Newell, chairman of the Committee on Resolutions, reported favorably the resolution offered the preceding day by Mr. Anderson (p. 13), and it was accordingly passed.

The Committee on International Copyright, W. E. Sheldon, E. O. Lyte, Henry A. Wise, H. M. La Follette, and W. R. Thigpen, reported progress, and asked to be allowed further time. This request was, on motion, granted.

The Committee on National University (Chas. S. Young, W. E. Sheldon, A. S. Draper, Robert Allyn, and M. A. Newell) reported progress, and was continued.


The first paper was read by M. A. Newell, State superintendent of public instruction, Maryland. Topic: Teachers' Examinations. (Page 217.)

Mr. Sheldon read an invitation from Mr. and Mrs. Cabell to the members of the Department for lunch, directly after the visit to the President.

The next paper was by L. W. Day, superintendent of schools, Cleveland, Ohio--a discussion of the paperon Teachers' Examinations. (Page

219.) This discussion was continued by E. E. Higbee, Henry A. Wise, J. W. Dickinson, Darlington J. Snyder, E. E. White, and Wm. H. Maxwell. (Page 222.)

In the course of his remarks the following resolution was offered by Superintendent Maxwell:

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed to formulate the scholastic and professional attainments that should be required for admission to the positions of class teacher and of principal, and how far diplomas of graduation from high schools, normal schools, colleges, and universities should be taken in lieu of examination, and to report at the next meeting of this Department.

Referred to Committee on Resolutions.

Examination for Promotion was the subject of a paper presented by William De Witt Hyde, president of Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me. (Page 229.)

Another paper on the same subject was read by William M. Giffin, principal of Lawrence Street Grammar School, Newark, N. J. (Page 236.)

Department adjourned to call on President Harrison.


The Department, after having visited President Harrison, re-assem. bled at 2 o'clock.

Mr. George A. Littlefield, superintendent of schools, Newport, R. I., was introduced, and read a paper discussing the subject, Examination for Promotion. (Page 243.)

This subject was further discussed by S. S. Parr, E. E. White, and Dr. Mowry. (Page 250.)

Dr. M. A. Newell, chairman of the Committee on Resolutions, reported for the consideration of the Department the resolution offered in the forenoon session by W. H. Maxwell, and also the resolution relating to the attitude of President Harrison upon the subject of education (p. 12). These resolutions were adopted; also the following, relating to national aid to education :

Resolved, That we re-affirm our profound conviction of the need of national aid to education, and that we recommend to Congress the passage of the Blair Educational Bill, or some like measure, at the earliest possible day.

The Committee on Resolutions submitted the following report: Resolved, That the thanks of this body are tendered to the several railroads and hotels which have given us their usual reduction of rates.

2. To the officers of the District of Columbia and of the Smithsonian Institution who have aided us in the arrangements for this meeting.

3. To the gentlemen who have read papers and participated in the discussions, and to the press for their reports of our proceedings.

4. To the officers of the Department, and especially to the president, Fred. M. Campbell, of Oakland, Cal., for the programme of this meeting, which has proved to be one of the most interesting and profitable in the history of the Department, and has brought together the extreme East and the remote West-a fitting finale to the

boundless hospitality which the general Association experienced at the hands of the people of California last sunumer.

M. A. NEWELL (Chairman),


President Fred. M. Campbell read a paper. Topic: The State and the Higher Education. (Page 254.)

Dr. H. B. Adams, Johns Hopkins University, was introduced, and read a paper on The State and Higher Education. (Page 262.)

The following resolution was offered by Superintendent W. B. Powell, Washington, D. C.:

Thereas, The Bureau of Education has begun a systematic inquiry into the higuer education in the United States, and has already publisheil a series of valuable monographs upon the history of colleges and universities in various States of the American Union, and

Whereas, The Bureau has extended its inquiries into the higher educational history of the Northwest, and into the historic relation of the Federal and State governments to higher education,

Resolved, That tho Department of Superintendence cordially approves of this work, 80 successfully begun, and recommends its continuance throughout the American Union, and its extension to the history of secondary education, as well as the speedy publication of the monographs now in hand.

After some remarks upon the work and necds of the Bureau by [Ion. John Eaton and others (page 277) the resolution was passed.

The president announced the following committees :

Committee on Manual Training (Anderson's motion): E. E. White, Columbus, Ohio; J. W. Dickinson, Boston, Mass.; Wm. N. Barringer, Newark, N.J.; M. A. Newell, Baltimore, Md.; Henry Sabin, Des Moines, Iowa; Geo. Howlani, Chicago, Ill.; John Hancock, Columbus, Ohio.

Committee on Maxwell's Resolution: Wm. L. Maxwell, Brooklyn, N.Y.; D. L. Kiehle, St. Paul, Minn.; W. E. Sheldon, Boston, Mass.; E. E. Higbee, Harrisburg, Penn.; John L. Buchanan, Richmond, Va.

General John W. Noble, Secretary of the Interior, was introduced to the association and spoke as follows:

Mr. President and Members of the Association, Ladies and Gentlemen : You will pardon me from endeavoring at this time of the day, so late, and this period of my administration, so early, from expressing to you any convictions I may have upon the great cause upon which you are assembled. I come merely to give you the assurance that so far as my advice may go in the Department that I have been honored with an appointment to, it shall be in support of the great principles for which your organization is established. It has been my education from the earliest period to believe in the great principles you adopt. It would be superfluous now for me to speak in advocacy of education in general; but I may say that I believe as sincerely as you do, that in the organiz ation of teachers and in the development of those principles upon which education may be advanced, depends the prosperity of our country. It is not only that education is needed in order that the republic may be preserved, but that education may be attained and advanced properly it is necessary that there should be organization amongst the teachers, that the best and most effective methods be adopted. I have no prepared speech to make. I have thought it not only my privilege, but my duty, to present myself as the representative of an administration that has already announced its strong adherence to the principles of your association. I may say that so far as the bureau over which I am called to preside is concerned, that I will most heartily carry into effect the dictates of its chief."

A. P. Marble, president of the National Educational Association, ad. dressed the members regarding the next meeting of the Association, to be held at Nashville, Tenn., as follows:

"Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, and Mombers of the Association: I have not prepared an elaborate speech upon this occasion, and my remarks will be in the nature of an announcement, and I shall refer you to the printed documents, which will appear in the course of two weeks, for the details; but I will at present give you a very slight outline of what we intend to do.

" Railroad rates to and from Nashville have been secured from, first, all the lines in the Southern Association south of the Ohio; second, lines belonging to the Central Traffic Association, which includes all lines between Buffalo and Chicago; third, of the Western Passenger Association, which includes lines between Chicago and the Missouri River; but we do not expect that reduced rates will be secured from the Pennsylvania, Coast Line, and from the Trunk Line Association, The people of Nashville sent a delegation to the meeting held in San Francisco to secure the holding of a meeting at Nashville, and the board of directors voted that a meeting should be held there. A committee visited Nashville and decided that a meeting should be held in accordance with the vote. We have had delegates from Nashville attend our meetings and they have told us of the wonderful products in their section and desired us to come there, both to see what they have accom. plished and to furnish still further inspiration for the teachers and friends of education in that part of the country.

" It was objected to, when the subject was first broached, that the city was far south, that it would be too warm to go there in summer. I investigated that subject and found it would approach much more nearly to the heat that we experienced in Chicago two years ago, and anybody who bas been through the Chicago fire in connection with the National Association need not be afraid of Nashville. The fact is, that in Worces. ter, in Massachusetts, we have as hot days as they have in New Orleans; but the difference is, our hot days are few, but in Nashville the warm

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weather is continued for more than half the year. I think there is no need of any apprehension of the heat in Nashville. I found also that some people fear that in going to Nashville we should run into yellow fever. Now, there never was a case of yellow fever in Nashville, and when it does come it always comes later in the season than the meeting of the National Association, and I doubt whether it would come at all after the association had met.

"As I stated in an educational journal, there is an epidemic in Nashville of which you ought to caution your lady friends. In one week there were about twenty weddings. Besides our own pleasure, which will be announced by the provisions that will be made in visiting the people, they will look at Mount Lookout, Mammoth Cave, and a collection of people the most delightful on earth; besides that, there is a duty which we owe to that portion of our members who live in that part of the country. They have visited us. They have gone to San Francisco, Chicago, then came to Saratoga, and now invite us down there with open arms to see what they have done and tell them what we have been doing. They will provide entertainment at the hotels, excursions to all parts of the country, and among other things, a distinctive feature will be a Southern barbecue, which will take place on Tuesday, July 16th, and which will be a novelty to those who have never seen anything of that kind.

“In the neighborhood of Nashville is one of the most delightful scenes in this country, called Belle Mead. There is a deer park with three or four hundred deer, which can be seen roaming about among the trees, and the most magnificent stock in the country is raised there, and this is the property of General Jackson, whom I visited. All people who to go Nashville go out to that place. General Jackson told me he was a reconstructed rebel, and I can tell you he is a much better man than I considered him twenty-five years or more ago. I visited several schools in that city, and it was a surprise and a wonder to hear the sentiments expressed. I had read in various newspapers of the feeling which survived the late unpleasantness; yet the children in the schools sang the same Star Spangled Banner that ours do. I visited the colored schools in that city, and was surprised to find one colored school with appliances for building and apparatuses superior to one or two of the white schools which I visited. They have a custom down there of not mixing colors.

“But I have not time, neither do you wish to stop to listen to the detail of all this; but from time to time in educational journals, and through the bulletin, which will be issued to the extent of a hundred thousand copies, you will learn of the details."

Hon. John Eaton spoke regarding the meeting to be held at Nash. ville as follows:

“I wish to add further. Residing at Nashville two years in organiz ing the free schools of Tennessee after the War, I had very good oppor

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