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DR. BALLIET: It is a question whether the superintendent ought to be expected to expend much of his energy in this direction. It is the duty of school boards to employ none but cultivated teachers. If he is a scholar and cultivated man himself, he will, without any direct effort, stimulate his teachers to read; if he himself lacks the instincts of the scholar and the man of culture, no effort, direct or indirect, will enable him to do so. I hold that the chief work of the superintendent is, and always must be, teaching his teachers how to teach.

MR. MERTZ: Why is it less the superintendent's office in respect to culture than to teacher's work?

DR. BALLIET: That might be made an argument to do away with the superintendent. If the teacher knows her work there is no use for a superintendent. I think the school committees do get some cultured teachers.

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BY GEORGE HOWLAND,

Superintendent of Chicago Schools. My fellow teachers :

Once again I come before you, not for the purpose of pleasing the ear with rhetoric, nor to excite your wonder by some deep question of philosophy, or new discovery in pedagogy, but with some plain thoughts based upon sound principles, I trust, which, it is hoped, may contribute to the pleasure and profit of both teacher and pupil.

In my efforts once and again to emphasize the personal influence of the class teacher in quickening the intellect, and developing the character of the pupil, I have neither lost sight of nor underrated the importance and value of that teacher of teachers—the school principal.

For whatever the character or qualifications of the assistants-whether versed in the details of the school room, or but just essaying her untried powers; whether running her little round of familiar and unquestioned school duties, or ever thoughtfully seeking for new and more fruitful methods, still, with the principal will rest the whole tone and spirit of the school; and its influence in enlisting and uplifting the thought of parents and people, or letting it sink to a low level of negligence and thoughtlessness, will largely depend upon the wisdom, the enterprise, the intelligence, the true manhood or womanhood of the principal.

Many a teacher, I fancy, wearied, worried, and worn with the ever-pressing and perplexing cares of the school room, with its inexorable demands upon her vitality and patience, often, in thought, turns her longing looks to the prize of a principalship, as a quiet refuge from care, from infinite detail, from troublous boys and annoying girls, from wearisome hours of examination papers and dull compositions.

Such do sometimes pass the examinations and become principals, and their influence is soon seen in the dull, routine school, in the easily-satisfied teacher, the memoriter recitation, the unthinking, careless pupil, the lounging, slouching, gum-chewing boy or girl, who had better never have seen the inside of a school room. The teacher who tires of her work, sees nothing but evil in the hearts and winds of the boys and girls,

praying for the calm haven of rest in the quiet office with its revolving chair and comfortable lounge, may, perchance, obtain a principal's certificate, but is not wanted at the head of one of our public schools.

The teacher, even when upborne by a deep love and a fond hope for her pupils, will often find the hours wearying and wearing; the vigilance of the principal must be ceaseless and untiring. The teacher, with her little ones ever under her eye, with ready discernment, soop learns of their childish ways, their natures and tendencies, and how to check their wayward fancies and thoughtless errors, and direct them into the right paths. With those of maturer years and more fixed habits of thought and action the principal has to do, and become equally familiar with their characters and dispositions-a task requiring a deeper study and a more profound philosophy to perceive the real causes of their success or fail,ure in teaching and discipline, and guide the wanderers, often unconsciously, into better ways, and to more assured success, and these, too, seen only at intervals and for brief periods.

Instead of a single grade of work, he must be alike acquainted with the entire course of study, in its general outline, and in its smaller de. tails, as ready to suggest a device for the toddling of six, as for the studious and thoughtful youth of fourteen, or even the tried and sometimes trying teacher of untold years.

Elis is the life, the impulse of the school; its controlling and directing power; its inspiration and its hope; adjusting and harmonizing its various parts, encouraging here and checking there, making his presence felt for good by teacher and pupil at once, omnipresent in his in. fluence, never obtrusive, but alive to the working of all the mental and material machinery entrusted to his care.

Nowhere but in the school-room, seeing and hearing, with keen observation and nice discernment, can this knowledge, this power and influence be acquired.

Meditations in the office, and theories worked out at the desk furnish little material to nourish the minds and souls of teachers or pupils. There are few things more useless for the furnishing of a school than the office principal.

The organization of the school-the distribution of the pupils to their several rooms under the appointed teachers hardly need be mentioned as the first business of the principal; and yet the manner of its doing strikes the keynote, as it were, of the year, indicating to the observant eye of teacher and pupil, the character of the year's work whether it is to be prompt, firm, and harmonious in its action, or weak, dawdling, and discordant.

In truth, the whole scheme of organization should be clearly and defi. nitely wrought out in the mind of the principal before the opening morning, as far as the conditions can be kuown, with alternatives ready at his command for possible contingencies.

The plan of the school should be as clearly defined in his thought as

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that of a coming battle in the mind of the commander, prepared, howerer, for this or that movement, should the necessity occur, but ready with well-digested devices and ample forces, in case of any unforeseen exigencies. With wise and calm decision and prompt action, should he put his plans into operation, unruffled by the countless questions and suggestions of pupils and parents, every teacher in her place, every pupil promptly to his seat, ready for the work, so that almost with the morning bell, the whole school may start off like the machinery of a vast factory at the touch of the lever that puts it all in motion, with no jarring, no friction, no undue tension, but quietly, smoothly, strongly, all in perfect accord for the working out of earnest, industrious, wellinformed, self-controlled, intelligent, and worthy characters.

Little adjustments may afterwards be made from day to day, as characters and attainments may suggest, but by Tuesday morning, at the farthest, the school should be in good working order, with carefully prepared programmes on the black-board, with teachers ready for their assigned work, and pupils knowing their allotted parts, and eager to engage in them.

With scarce forty weeks in the year, we can not afford to spend all, or most of the first, in getting ready; and to whom shall we look for the realization of this possible ideal, but to the well-equipped, the wisely experienced, the alert, vigilant, calm, high-minded principal.

If it were true that “we learn to do by doing,” which it is not, save in a very narrow and limited sense, the principal's work would now be well-nigh complete, and he might sit back in calm composure to observe with silent satisfaction the growing prosperity of his school.

“ We learn to do by doing” is one of those aphoristic half-truths well suited to catch the ear and delude the mind of the unthinking. We may acquire a mechanical facility by repeated doings of what we already know how to do; but we learn to do by learning how other people do, and by the aid of this knowledge, striving to do something better. The mere continuous doing of what we can do dulls the intellect, deadens the inventive powers, and stifles progress. If it were true, tiere were no need of principal, or normal school, or any school. Froebel and Pestalozzi, Mann and Hopkins might be put aside, and our children be left to learn to do by doing, not by instruction, by skilful training, nor by study and reading the wisdom and historic records of the past. No, my friends; by the mere doing, the generations of men would not attain to the school crayon or the ham sandwich in a thousand years.

The whole past of our race, with its trials and its failures, its sufferings and successes, is ours, and are we to put aside all the teachings of the writhing centuries and learn to do by doing over again what the ages bave condemned, and strive to reach, by our unaided efforts, what the poorest laborer has as his own?

Some years since, to a suggestion of mine with regard to teaching geography, the teacher replied: “I have taught this subject in this way for fourteen years, and I think I know.” She had learned to do by doing, and was just fourteen years behind the times. But she still had sense; she does not teach in just that way to-day.

Not very much does the best and the brightest of us learn, but what we learn from those who have gone before us. The one thing that has placed us in the fore-front of our race is, that when we have learned one thing we have made it the stepping-stone to something better, ever toiling onward and upward to the ultimate good of humanity, ever sought and never reached.

With the organization of tho school, the work of the principal has but just begun. Here is the starting point from which he is to advance to acknowledged success, or fall back into the ranks of the called, but not chosen.

Yes, my fellow teachers, though yours is the work, as has been my continual theme, and stronger and stronger my belief as the years go by, the principal is the school; the school is what he makes it.

The organization is his, the plan of the work is his, and his the spirit that shall animate, the methods that shall execute, and the character that shall control.

But what is the power of one over a thousand? What can the principal do for the individual pupils ? And yet, just here, I feel, is the field of his usefulness; not in direct, personal influence, but largely through his teachers must he be made known to them; and yet, to no pupil, boy or girl, should his entrance into the school-room be an unimportant event.

To the pupils are his best efforts pledged, but by his teachers must his purposes be performed. With his assistants, by his wise conduct, his earnest purpose, his faithful discharge of duty, by his appreciation of excellence and worthy endeavor, his recognition of merit, and kindly charity toward unintentional error, he must be in full and hearty accord.

His censures should be without bitterness or humiliation, his suggestions timely and sympathetic, his personal interest undisguised. The strong, successful teacher deserves his approval, and the young and inexperienced his encouragement and advice. His personal sympathy in troubles, his aid in difficulties, and his tender guidance out of the meshes of mistaken efforts, will not return to him void of kind respect and unfailing loyalty. And I have sometimes expressed the thought which has wrought itself into my belief, that the principal who can not by his discretion, his nice discernment, his thorough devotion to his school and its duties, his interest in the success of pupil and teacher, win the approval and thorough respect of his teachers, during the year, or at the most the second year, is sadly lacking in some element of a successful principal.

They may doubt the wisdom of some of his measures, but only to put forth the stron er efforts to conquer success; he may meet with unmer.

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