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Although unaided by any special appropriations, and absolutely de. pendent upon the slender resources of the Bureau for the preparation of Circulars of Information, the work has been extended from Virginia, the oldest of American Commonwealths, throughout all the Southern States, where monographs are either completed or well advanced. The report on North Carolina has lately been published. The returns from South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida are already in the hands of the Government Printer. The work has not been restricted to the South. In anticipation of the historical interest connected with the observance of the centenary of the settlement of the old North-West Territory organ. ized inquiry was early extended beyond the Ohio River. A monograph upon the History of Higher Education in Wisconsin, prepared by Mr. David Spencer, under the general direction of Prof. William F. Allen, of the University of Wisconsin, has been accepted and sent to the Public Printer. At a meeting of the American Historical Association, held in the National Museum during the Christmas holidays, an introductory paper upon the whole subject of Higher Education in the North-West was read by Prof. George W. Knight, of the Ohio State University at Columbus, a graduate of the University of Michigan and author of a scholarly monograph upon Federal Land Grants for Education in the North-West Territory, published among the Papers of the American Historical Association, Vol. I. More elaborate monographs, based upon pioneer work in a vast and unknown field, and representing the history of colleges and universities in the States of Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan, will soon be completed.

Here upon this desk lies a manuscript History of Higher Education in the State of Indiana, mother of the President recently inaugurated. This history was prepared by Prof. J. A. Woodburn, of the State University at Bloomington, who has studied for two years in Baltimore, While no brief description can do justice to an exhaustive and laborious work, it may be summarized as representing

(1) The services of the old Continental Congress and of the Federal Government towards education in the old North-West Territory.

(2) The early beginnings of higher education in the Territory of Indiana and the rise of State seminaries and academies, with their growth into the State University.

(3) The work of the State normal school and of the various polytechnio and industrial institutions in the State of Indiana.

(4) The organization and early history of the denominational colleges and of other institutions of learning in Indiana.

(5) The development of the school system and the final union or ar. ticulation of the same with the colleges and the University.

Work of this kind has been pushed not only throughout the NorthWest but through the South-West. It has been carried beyond the Mississippi River, to the Pacific slope. The leading idea has been to do pioneer work in the West and South, where almost nothing has been

hitherto accomplished towards a systematic history of colleges and universities. But the older sections of country have not been left out of consideration. State monographs are in preparation or contemplation in all of the New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. Everywhere the attempt has been made to secure the co-operation of good men and scholarly investigators, with proper historical training for the work entrusted to their hands, and with a scientific spirit rising above all considerations of sectional, or sectarian, or economic interest. In all cases the work has virtually been a labor of love. The funds available for this wide-reaching and important undertaking have barely sufficed to pay expenses actually incurred, to say nothing of properly compensating local contributors for their time and painstaking research.

An illustration of the practical value to the whole country of investigations like these lies upon the desk before you. Here is an elaborate monograph, wbich has occupied many months of patient toil, on the History of Federal and State Aid to Higher Education. The work was done by Dr. F. W. Blackmar, for several years a professor in a California college and now Professor of Historyin the University of Kansas. Some of the State superintendents of education here present have doubtless received numerous inquiries from Dr. Blackmar, who for the past three years has been studying in Baltimore. When this monograph begins to come forth in proof from that tomb of manuscripts, the Government Printing Office, some of you will probably be asked to look over the portions concerning your own State, as Dr. Dickinson has already done for Massachusetts, Mr. Hine for Connecticut, Dr. Murray for New York, etc.

Without anticipating the interesting facts and figures contained in this important monograph, facts which have been kept back from individual applicants for information until results could be published to the public at large, it may be said that the work describes :

(1) The attitude of every American colony and State in this Union towards the higher education, considered from an historical point of view.

(2) The chief legislative enactments by colonial courts and State leg. islatures concerning the establishment and encouragement of higher education.

(3) The history of all financial aid and support given to higher education by every colony and State in this country. The author has

. found out, from a laborious examination of original statutes, the actual amounts of money appropriated and of lands granted for education by each of the several States and by the Federal Government, throughout our entire history. There is not a practical educator, college president, or trustee in the land who will not appreciate the importance and utility of such a financial history of higher education in America.

(4) The monograph further shows the progress, development, and


present tendencies of higher education in these United States. The history is given of West Point Military Academy, of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, of the Congressional Library, of the Smithsonian Institution, the National Museum, and of the United States Bureau of Education, together with all the financial relations of the General Gov. ernment towards science and education since the beginning of our life as a nation.

These matters are here communicated to the assembled superintendents of education from all parts of the Union because it is important that you should appreciate their scope and significance, and because yoù are in a position to strengthen and uphold the highest work of the Bureau of Education. The Bureau was originally founded, in the year 1867, "for the purpose of collecting such statistics and facts as shall show the condition and progress of education in the several States and Territories" (Barnard's First Aunual Report, 1867-68, p. 63. Garfield's speech). What better method could there possibly be of showing the condition or progress of education in these United States than by an historical review of the origin, growth, development, and present ten. dencies of American institutions of learning, beginning with the highest, as did our forefathers, with colleges and universities, and gradually enlarging the horizon of inquiry until the whole field of secondary and common school education is embraced in the retrospect? The broaden. ing plains are best seen from the hill-tops. Unless American educators see to it that the higher education is properly recognized in our State and National reports, our whole system of educational inquiry will degenerate into common school statistics and essays on pedagogical methods. The Bureau of Education ought to take a commanding place in the educational work of the country. By the highest kind of original investigations, at home and abroad, it ought to win the respect and confidence of the best men engaged in educational work, whether college presidents or superintendents of schools. Why is it that the interests of labor and of agriculture can be raised to the dignity of Departments in the United States Government, with a Secretary of Agriculture hold. ing a Cabinet office, while the educational interests of the Republic are allowed to remain upon a lower level ? Simply because the educators of this country are content with that level, because they do not exert one-half the compelling energy of either the farmers or the laborunions. The Bureau of Education ought to become a ministry of pub. lic instruction, with a recognized place in the Cabinet and with a constantly energizing influence proceeding from the capital of this country throughout the length and breadth of the land, stimulating the colleges and the universities, as well as the school systems of the whole country, by publishing the results of organized inquiry. The present Commis. sioner of Labor touches the vital interests of American labor and of all American society by his reports on the condition of working classes and on the statistics of divorce. The Bureau can attain au honorable


and influential position in the educational life of the country only by keeping the vantage-ground already gained, by pursuing higher lines of activity, by pressing boldly forward for larger appropriations and higher objects, and by enlisting the cordial support of the best friends of ed. ucation throughout all these States. Thus gradually the pressure of public opinion will be brought to bear upon Congressmen, and Congress and the nation will recognize at last that the interests of public education are quite as important to the entire American people as are the interests of any one class, like our American farmers or our American workingmen, however honorable the aims of both classes may be.

Strengthen all existing foundations of the higher education in America, whether in the individual States or at Washington. Bring the representatives of public school systems and of our American colleges and universities into more hearty and efficient alliance. Co-operate with every respectable agency for the higher education of the American people, whether by summer schools, teachers' institutes, the distribution of good literature in popular form, or by the institution of home reading circles and university extension lectures, now so popular in the manufacturing towns and mining districts of England. Break down the antagonism between mental and manual labor. Make in. dustrial and technical education as honorable as classical culture and the learned professions. Teach the science of government and social science, European as well as American history in the public schools. Then shall we all have greater respect and toleration for our fellowmen; then will all begin to appreciate the necessity of supporting all forms of education, even the highest, by the combined efforts of society and the State. A noble popularity must be given to science and art in America. The people of every State should be led to see that the higher learning is not for the benefit of a favored few, but that it is beneficial and accessible to the sons of citizens, of whatever station. In the proper co-ordination of the common school system with the high school and university, the Western States are leading this republic to a more thoroughly democratic state of society, with fewer artificial distinctions of culture, with more of the spirit of human brotherhood than the world has hitherto seen. The Eastern colleges and universities will continue to train professors and to develop science, but the West and South will apply both men and ideas to democratic uses. The whole country needs this popularization of culture. With universal suffrage and the sovereignty of the people at the basis of our political life, popular intelligence must be cultivated so that it may be both able and willing to hold fast all that is good in human history, not only civil and religious liberty, but all that makes for happiness and righteousness in a great nation.

PROFESSOR POWELL: It is known to the members of this Depart. ment, but not to the mass of the people of the United States, that Wash. ington, with its various departments, is to-day a vast university, doing a great educational work in this country. And I want to say that I be. lieve that by no other instrumentality is the Government doing so much good educationally, as through its Bureau of Education. I believe it has been true ever since the establishment of that Bureau. The reasons are obvious to you all. In consideration of the remarks that have been made I wish to offer the following resolution :

Resolved, That the monographs published and in preparation by the Bureau of Education upon the history of colleges and higher institutions in the several States are worthy of special consideration; and that, in the opinion of this Department, similar studies of the history of elementary and common school education would be of lasting value and interest.

Ex-COMMISSIONER EATON: It is very delightful to me to see this ripening of fruit, this coming of results. It is very fortunate that the body here present are pressing, with resolutions, this publication of information which has been so long delayed. But they need to do more. It is not enough to say that we prize these publications and this work here, in words, and then drop the idea. It needs to be pressed where it will tell upon the source of the funds by which this publication must be effected. Now, it is not merely that the Commissioner devises these plans and these experts carry them out in the preparation of this valuable material; it may lay months and years and finally become dead matter unless there is money for the printing of these monographs in the possession of the Government. This idea of historical treatment of education was fully outlined, in all its details, at Philadelphia. Three thousand dollars were spent in sending a man personally to the different colleges and universities of the country to arouse within them the historic spirit. They had not prepared their histories. There was to be not only an exhibition at Philadelphia of education in the different States, of what these States could present, but history written and printed and very full notes of some hundred and fifty colleges were secured. Then what happened? The money failed; and if the money should fail here at this point, the resolution and monographs would become dead matter; and this is the point I urge, that we see our members of Congress, that we move upon the source of money by which this endeavor will be perfected. It is true that while I said this material accumulated became dead matter in a sense, a large amount of it has become public. The history of the University of New York came out of this collection of material; and so with the historic publication in reference to several other institutions; but the great body of it has been of no special service to the country on this account. Now don't let the money fail. And let me say here that all of this work is embarrassed, not merely for lack of money to publish, but to pay services. Why should these men sacrifice their time and endeavor for our benefit and that of the country while there is so much money to be had for everything else? The teachers need to emphasize their demands, as the friends of labor emphasize their demands. Have we not seen a bureau in their interest come into being in a very short

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