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at all times, developed methods for the accomplishment of its purpose. These have been good relatively, because they have been consistent with the ends sought.

But the teaching of the past has done more; it has, here and there in places innumerable, made a study of itself, and has held itself up, as it were, on props, without the apparent interruption of its work or duty, until, by a study of the child, a purpose has been determined consistent with its true mission, whereon has been built a superstructure which is at once a gratification to the practical man and the ad. miration of the idealist.

It is not to be understood that these three groups of activities are to be developed and taught exclusively in order. For the sake of clearness, however, it will be necessary to so consider them in this paper.

A thorough understanding of psychology can not be given to the normal student at this stage of his development. Fortunately, a thorough knowledge is not necessary for intelligent work in his chosen calling. A few broad principles may be made plain to him and he may be led to understand the application of these to the teaching of the different branches named in the course of instruction, and may be made to understand also those processes and methods by which these branches of information are made to do duty in giving to the child cultivation and information.

Most of the intricate mazes laid down by psychologists are to be scrupulously avoided.

The student can be made to understand in a general way the three great categories of mind-action,-cognitions, emotions, and volitions.

He may be made to understand the three methods of gaining knowledge,-by perception, by induction, and by abception.

He can understand the mental processes employed in gaining information by each of these methods, and may be made to kuow the chainels of knowledge employed by each of these methods, whether orig. inal or symbolic, and, if symbolic, whether primary or secondary,

He can understand what classes of facts may be learned through original channels and what classes must be learned through symbols.

In the application of what he knows of mind-action, he can be made to understand that it is necessary to establish in the mind, by means of the first method and in original channels of knowledge, facts or data with which comparison is made when knowledge is to be gained by either of the other two methods, and may thus be led to appreciate the importance of a broad, systematic, and careful training of the perceptions.

After this much is understood, he will readily see the necessity of a corresponding primary training of the emotions and of the politions, by use of original channels--the establishment of standards for comparison by objective teaching.

He may be led to see the value of example in conduct and environ

ment for the establishment of facts and standards for comparison by which the child's moral nature is to be trained, and to see also the value and to know the proper methods of induction and conclusion in moral training.

The student at this age may be led to see the value of methodical acquisition and careful classification of knowledge in the training of memory.

These mental processes are so simple as to be readily understood by the ordinary high school graduate, and are so broad in their application as to serve as a safe guide in all the work of the school.

A thorough study of the necessity and use of standards of comparison, gained by means of the senses, through original channels of knowledge, leads directly to the determination and establishment of the first steps in each branch of study.

This statement leads to the consideration of the next division of my subject.

The second work of training the teacher is to lead him to understand the course of instruction in all its parts and purposes. The student is not prepared for this work unless he possesses a good knowledge of each branch named therein, academically considered. All knowledge of the su liject and its applications is not necessary.

Now, he should be led to view from the standpoint of an educated person, by turn, each subject considered as a whole, to select therefrom the essentials or framework, that he may see the lines which his teaching must follow in the development of that subject. This analysis re. quires, first, the ability to distinguish between the principal and the subordinate, which proceeds from an intelligent comparison ; second, the courage and good sense to reject for the time being, that unity may be preserved, the numerous interesting facts and processes that are but applications of the knowledge sought to the business, duties, and pleasures of life, and embrace at once that great body of processes and applications called practical that confuse both teacher and pupil, and too often prevent the systematic training of the mind as well as the proper understanding of the subject taught.

Having discovered the outline of essentials, which shall serve as a chart for all the teaching of a subject, the learner next investigates his subject in the light of his knowledge of psychology to determine the order in which his selected parts can be taught. Now he decides that, if the child is to be taught number, he is to begin with numbers of things and not with symbols of numbers of things, and, having been trained in the relation of things numerically compared, he is next to be made proficient in seeing relations of numbers, as represented by their symbols, after which only may he lead the child to make application of this knowledge of relations to the business transactions of life.

Now, in this logical and psychological study of the subject under discussion, the student will find in the application of numerical processes to business transactions many points at which it will be necessary to leave for a time the work in number and establish in the mind of the child facts as standards of comparison by objective teaching, that is, the establishment of a known from which to lead by training the senses in original channels of knowledge; for he sees that leading from the known to the unknown has a broader and sometimes a different application than leading from the known of the subject teaching to the next higher step in logical sequence.

If the study outlining or of which an analysis is making is geography, the pupil sees, after making his logical outline and determining the lines or departments of knowledge by application of the laws of mind. growth, that there must be established in the mind of the child, before he can do intelligent work, by the study of book or map or chart, data as standards for comparison, as diversified as are the kinds of facts to be learned. These, he knows, are established by means of the senses, through original channels of knowledge, and that these channels must be sought in field and valley, on the mountain side, in the mine, in the factory, in the kitchen, in the parlor, in the art gallery, by observation of processes and their effects, by observation of changes, by comparison of material before and after processes.

Not only does the young teacher learn by this analysis of the subject the logical arrangement of the parts thereof, but he learns also the psychological sequence of the parts; not only does he learn the place of each part, but he learns the relative importance of each part of the study and decides upon the relative time and emphasis to give to it when teaching it, and thus learns that a symmetrical short course is but a part of a symmetrical long course of the same subject. While learning what to teach and deciding the proper sequence of what lie teaches he should be led to investigate anew the sources of information and to determine the practicable means of presenting it, and should be made to prepare much of the material necessary for the proper presentation and development of the subject.

By means of this analysis of the subject and of the processes employed in teaching it (I distinguish between processes and methods of class instruction) the student learns to distinguish between the means by which the subject is developed and the product for which the subject is taught. He learns to make maps and charts, 110t as an end to be exhibited for prizes, but as a means for the development of relative size and position, and takes no pride in sand-maps and product charts, except to show them as a means by which he has trained his pupils to study methodically and understandingly.

The normal student learns by this careful study of relations, values, and purposes, by the classification and arrangement of kuowledge, the place and purpose of objective work, and decides that object teaching is not a branch of education by itself to be taken up as a separate study, but that objective work must form a part of the means by which

every branch of information is taught the child during the formative years of his life.

From the standpoint of him who logically views a subject, every department or branch thereof is seen in its relation to the whole, and every part of information connected therewith is so classified that its value is known and its connection to the subject as a whole is understood. The best teaching is possible only with such a view in mind.

But the teaching contemplated by this paper and demanded by the schools of to-day does not proceed from this logical view, however clear and perfect it may be by partitionings and definitions and illus. trations. A re-arrangement of facts must be made, suited to the possi. bilities of the learner and the requirements of the growing mind.

If a tree felled before the learner were the object of investigation and study, or if the tree were to be reduced to storewood and carried away in armfuls, the thought would be but imperfectly illustrated by it.

The master hand could and would begin work at the base of the tree; the child, however, can begin only at the extremities of the different branches. The treatment of the work by the master is that which proceeds from a logical view, but that which the child can do must proceed from a plan which affords him work suited to his strength and skill. This demands an entirely different arrangement. But only he who can see the logical arrangement is competent to make a new arrangement that is adapted to the growing abilities of the child, and that will ultimate in the mastery and logical arrangement of the whole; or, to bioaden the application of the figure, the tree with its great branches and its many smaller ones shall represent the whole body of facts, by means of which the child is to be trained. Its outer parts, those tender twigs which alone the child can break and carry, belonging to all tho different branches or limbs, so formidable where they unite, are the parts with which the child must begin.

He only who sees this great work in its entirety can properly direct the work of the child that it may always be possible and interesting to him, always profitable and always leading to those combinations and unions of parts that are places in his progress that mark the limits of units of work and also the combinations of units of work into higher units.

No teacher who has studied methods alone can do this work, however proficient he may be; no teacher who has academic information alone can do this work, however broad and diversified that information may be; no teacher with academic information alone, though possessing skill in class management, can do this work aright.

He only can do this work who has a logical view of the information and can make and understand such natural arrangement of it as is suited to the needs and possibilities of the child and as will ultimately lead to and result in a knowledge of the facts and a logical arrangement of them.

This viewing and arranging of the body of facts and processes, called a course of instruction, can be made intelligently only by him who understands at least as much of the philosophy of mind.growth and devel. opment as has been suggested before in this paper, and these two studies-the study of the child and the study of the body of facts and processes to be taught-developed in parallel lines, the study of each aiding in the study of the other, under skilful direction and by careful and adequate observation of children in training, should constitute the chief work and demand the main effort in the normal school course of him who would be a teacher,

I emphasize this part of the work of normal training, because, after varied and close observation I am persuaded that poor work in the schools is due mainly to the absence of an intelligent knowledge of its purpose and value, and I am further persuaded that an enthusiastic chasing up and down the land for institute processes, or for summer school methods, will not result in better work, if they are to be practised by teachers who know not their application and are wholly unable to test their results.

Methods, natural methods, proper methods, intelligent methods, efficient methods, proceed naturally, easily, and inevitably from this in. telligent view of work to be done whenever opportunity offers for its doing.

With this heterodox statement I proceed to the third part of my subject.

It is now necessary to require the pupil to study and arrange smaller units of work by the employment of the same philosophy and the same mental processes used in the analysis of larger subjects. The object of all this is that the pupil-teacher shall know why he does this work in every instance. This why includes the psychological why and the academic why. The pupil-teacher is made unwilling to do work whose double purpose is not seen; unwilling to do work whose parts are not arranged; unwilling to do work that is unsymmetrical; unwilling to do work unsuited to the capacities of the child. The teacher is thus trained to form an intelligent estimate of his own work, for each point developed is a test of the strength of the pupil, which, in turn, is a test of his own success.

The pupil-teacher must learn to teach by teaching; few can learn well by observing the teaching of others. As well attempt to teach a person to sing, or to play an instrument, or to preach a sermon, or to plead a case at law, by observation.

This teaching should be done under circumstances and conditions as nearly like those with which he will be confronted in his regular work of teaching after leaving the normal school as it is possible to make them. He should be put in charge of an entire school, and should be held responsible for its conduct and general management, as well as for the teaching, long enough at one period io develop and teach at least one unit of work in each of the several branches of study, and

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