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Delonging to the same tribe are not ablə to bility of character of the Indian, and his total, understand each other.
inability to accommodate himself to new arThe civilized Tapuyo of Pará differs jo no rangements, will infallibly lead to his extincessential poini, in plıysical or moral qualities, tion, us imunigrants, endowed with more from the Indian of the interior. He is inore supple organizations, increase, and civilizastoutly built, being better fed than some of tion advances in the Amazon region. But, Diem; but in this respect there are great as the different races amalgamate readily, differences among the tribes themselves. He and the offspring of white and Indian often presents all the chief characteristics of the become distinguished Brazilian citizens, American red man. The skin of a coppery there is little reason to regret the fate of the brown color, the features of the face broad, race. Formerly the Indian was harshly and the hair black, thick, and straight. He is treated, and even now he is so in many parts generally about the middle height, thick-set, of the interior. But, according to the laws has a broad inuscular chest, well-shaped but of Brazil, he is a free citizen, having equal somewhat thick legs and arms, and small privileges with the whites ; and there are bands and feet. The cheek bones are not very strong enactments providing against the generally prominent; the eyes are black, and enslaving and ill-treatment of the Indians. seldom oblique like those of the Tartar races The residents of the interior, who have no of Eastern Asia, which are supposed to have higher principles to counteract instinctive sprung froin the same original stock as the seifishness or antipathy of race, cannot comAmerican red man. The features exhibit prehend why they are not allowed to compel scarcely any mobility of expression ; this is Indians to work for them, seeing that they connected with the excessively apathetic and will not do it of their own accord. The inundemonstrative character of the race. They evitable result of the copflict of interests benever betray, in fact they do not feel keenly, tween a European and a weaker indigenous the emotions of joy, grief, wonder, fear, and race, when the two come in contact, is the 80 forth. They can never be excited to en. sacrifice of the latter. Iu the Pará district, thusiasm ; but they have strong affections, the Indians are no longer enslaved, but they especially those connected with family. It are deprived of their lands, and this they is commonly stated by the whites and ne- feel bitterly, as one of them, an industrious groes that the Tapıyo is ungrateful. Bra- and worthy man, related to me. zilian mistresses of households, who bave much experience of Indians, have always a On our second visit to the mills we stayed long list of instances to relate to the stranger, ten days. There is a large reservoir and also showing their base ingratitude. They wer- a natural lake near the place, both containtainly do not appear to remember or think ing aquatic plants, whose leaves rest on the of rep:ying benefits, but this is probably be- surface like our water-Jilies, but they are not cause they did not require, and do not value, so elegant as our nymphæa, either in leaf or such benefits as their would-be masters con- flower. On the banks of these pools grow fer upon them. I have known instances of quantities of a species of fan-leaved palmattachment and fidelity on the part of Indians tree, the Caraná, whose stems are surrounded toward their inasters, but these are excep- by whorls of strong spipes. I sometimes tional cases. All the actions of the Indian took a montaria and paddled myself alone show that his ruling desire is to be let alone ; down the creek. One day I got upset, and he is attached to his home, his quiet monot. hau to land on a grassy slope leading to an onvus forest and river life; be likes to go to old plantation, where I ran about naked towns occasionaily, to see the wonders intro- whilo my clothes were being dried on a bush. duced by the white man, but he has a great The creek Iritirí is not so picturesque as repugnance to living in the midst of the many others which I subsequently explored. crowd; he prefers handicraft to field labor, Toward the Magoary the banks at the edge and especially dislikes binding himself to reg- of the water are clothed with mangrove ular labor for hire. He is shy and uneasy bushes, and beneath them the muddy banks, before strangers, but if they visit his abode, into which the long roots that hang down be treats them weil, for he has a rooted ap- from the fruit before it leaves the branches preciation of the duty of hospitality ; there strike their fibres, swarm with crabs. On is a pride about him, and being naturally the lower branches the beautiful bird, Ardea formal and polite, he acts the host with great helias, is found. This is a small heron uf dignity. He withdraws from towns as soon exquisitely graceful shape and mien ; its as the stir of civilization begins to inake it- plumage is minutely variegated with bars self felt. When we first arrived at Pará, and spots of muny colors, like the wings of many Indian families resided there, for the certain kinds of moths. It is difficult to see mode of living at that time was more like the bird in the woods, on account of its somthat of a large village than a city ; but as bre colors and the shadiness of its dwellingsoon as river stearners and more business ac- places ; but its nute, a soft long.drawn tivity were introduced, they all gradually whistle, often betrays its hiding-place. I took thernselves away.
was told by the Indians that it builds in trees, These characteristics of the Pará Indians and that the nest, which is made of clay, is are applicable, of course, to some extent, to beautifully constructed. It is a favorite petthe Mamelucos, who now constitute a great bird of the Brazilians, who call it Pavao proportion of ihe population. The inflexi (pronounced pavaong), or peacock. I often
had opportunities of hserving its habits. It ons religious services in the churches, 8000 becomes tame, and walks about the To those who had witnessed similar cerefloors of houses, picking up scrups of food, munies in the southern countries of or catching insects, which it secures by walk Europe, there would be nothing remarkable ing gently to the place where they setile, and perhaps in these doings, except their taking spearing them with its long slender beak, It place amid the splendors of tropical nature ; allows itself to be handled by children, and but to me they were full of novelty, and will answer to its namie, “ Pavao i Pavao !” were besides interesting as exhibiting much walking up with a dainty, circumspect gait, that was peculiar in the manners of the and taking a fly or beetle from the band people. The festivals celebrate either the
During these rambles by land and water inniversaries of events concerning saints, or we increased our collections considerably those of the more important transactions in Before we left the mills we arranged a joint the life of Christ. To them have been addexcursion to the Tocantins. Mr. Leavens ed, since the Independence, many gala days wished to ascend that river to ascertain if the connected with the events in the Brazilian reports were true, that cedar grew abundant national history ; but these have all a semily between the lowermost cataract and the religious character. The holidays had bemouth of the Araguaya, and we agreed to ac- come su numerous, and interfered so much company him. While we were at the mills, with trade and industry toward the year 1852, a Portuguese trader arrived with a quantity of that the Brazilian Government was obliged worm-eaten logs of this cedar, which he had to reduce them; obtaining the necessary gathered from the floating timber in the cur- permission from Rome to abolish several rent of the main Amazons. The tree pro. which were of minor importance. Many of ducing this woud, which is named cedar on those which have been retained are declining account of the similarity of its aroma to that in importance since the introduction of rails of the true cedars, is not, of course, a cunifer. ways und steamboats, and the increased deous tree, as no member of that class is found yotion of the people to commerce ; at the in equatorial America, at least in the Ama. time of our arrival, however, they were in zons region. It is, according to Von Martius, full glory. The way they were managed the Cedrela odorata, an exogen belouging tu was in this fashion. A general manager or the same order as the mahogany-tree. The “Juiz" for each festa was elected by lot wood is light, and the tree is therefore, on every year in the vestry of the church, and falling into the water, floated down with the to him were handed over all the parapher. river curreuts. It must grow in great quan. Dalis pertaining to the particular festival tities somewhere in the interior, to judge which he was chosen to manage ; the image from the number of uprooted trees annually of the saint, the banners, silver crowds, and carried to the sea ; and as the wood is much so forth. He then employed a number of esteemed for cabinet-work and canoe-build- people to go the round of the parish and col. ing, it is of some importance to learn where lect alms toward defraying the expenses. It & regular supply can bo obtained. We were was considered that the greater the amount glad of course tu arrange with Mr. Leavens, of money spent in wax-candles, fireworks, who was familiar with the language, and an music and feasting, the greater the honor adept in river-navigation ; so we returned to done to the saint. If the Juiz was a rich Pará to ship our collections for England, and man, he seldom sent out alms-gatherers, but prepare for the journey to a new region. celebrated the whole affair at his own ex
penge, which was sumetimes to the extent of CHAPTER ILL.
several hundred pounds Each festival Įusted PARÁ.
nine days (a novena), and in many cases re
freshmants for the public were provided every Religious holidays-Marmoset monkoya Serpents- evening. In the sinaller towns a ball took Insects.
place two or three eyenings during the noveBEFORE leaving the subject of Pará, where na, and on the last day there was a grand I resided, as already stated, in all eighteen dinner. The priest, of course, had to be paid months, it will be necessary to give a more very liberally, especially for the sermon dedetailed account of several matters connected livered on the saint's day or termination of with tbe customs of the people and the nat- the festivals, sermons being extra duty in ural history of the neighborhood, which havo Brazil. hitherto been only briefly mentioned. I re- Thoro was much differenco as to the acceso serve an account of the trade and improved sories of these festivals between the interior condition of Pará in 1859 for the end of this towns and villages and the capital ; but little narrative.
or no work was done anywhere while they During the Ørst few weeks of our stay lasted, and they tended much to demoralize many of those religious festivals took place, the people. It is soon perceived that religion which occupied so large & share of the time is rather the amusement of the Paruenses and thoughts of the poople. These were than their serious exercise. The ideas of the splendid affairs, wherein artistically-arranged majority evidently do not reach beyond the processions through the streets, accompanied balief that all the procordings are, in cach by wbuusands of people, military displays, case, in brunor of the particular wooden image the clatter of fireworks, and the clang of enabrined at the church. The uneducated military music, were superaddod to pompe Portuguese immigrants seemed to me to have very degrading notions of religion. I have At night, wben festivals are going on in often travelled in the company of these shin. the grassy squares around the suburban ing examples of European enlightenment. churches, there is rcally much to admire. A They generally carry with them, wherever great deal that is peculiar in the land and tbo they gö, a small image of some favorite saint life of its inhabitants can be seen best at in their trunks; and when a syuell or any those times. The cheerful white church is other danger arises, their first impulse is to brilliantly lighted up, and the music, not of rush to the cabin, take out the image and a very solemn description, peals forth from clasp it to their lips, while utiering a prayer the opeu windows and doors. Numbers of for protection. The negroes and mulattoes young gaudily-dressed negresses line the are similar in this respect to the low Portu: path to the church doors with stands of guese, but I think they show a purer devo. liqueurs, sweetmeats, and cigarettes, which tivnal feeling; and in conversation I have they sell to the outsiders. A short distance always found them to be more rational in re- off is heard the rattle of dice-boxes and rouligious views than the lower orders of Portu- lette at the open-air gambling stalls. When guese. As to the Indians, with the excep- the festival happens on moonlit nights, the tion of the more civilized families residing whole scene is very striking to a new-comer. near the large towns, they exhibit no relig- Around the square are groups of tall palmious sentiment at all. They have their own trees, and beyond it, over the illuminated patron saint, St. Thomé, and celebrate has an- houses, appear the thick groves of mangoes niversary in the orthodox way, for they are near the suburban avenues, from which comes fond of observing all the formalities; but the perpetual ringing din of insect life. The they think the feasting to be of equal impor. soft tropical moonlight lends a wonderful tance with the church ceremonies. At some charm to the whole. The juhabitants are all of the festivals masquerading forms a large out, dressed in their best. The upper classes, part of the proceedings, and then the Indians who come to enjoy the fine evening and iho really shiny. They get up capital imitations general cheerfulness, are seated on chairs of wild animals, dress themselves to repre. around the doors of friendly houses. There Bent the Caypór and other fabulous creatures is no boisterous conviviality, but a quiet tin. of the forest, and act their parts throughout joyment seems to be felt everywhere, and a with great cleverness. When St. Thomé'y gentle courtesy rules among all classes and festival takes place, every employer of In- colors. I have seen a splendidly dressed dians knows that all his inen will get drunk. colunel, from the President's palace, walk up The Indian, generally too shy to ask directly to a mulatto and politely ask his permission for cashaça (rum), is then very bold; he asks to take a light from his cigar. When the for a frasco at once (two bottles and a half), service is over, the church bells are set ring. and says, if interrogated, that he is going to ing, a shower of rockets mounts upward, fuddle in honor of St. Thomé.
the bands strike up, and parties of colored In the city of Pará, the provincial govern, people in the booths begin their dances. iment assists to augment the splendor of the About ten o'clock the Brazilian national air religious holidays. The processions which is played, and all disperse quietly and soberly atraverse the principal streets consist, in the to their homes.
first place, of the image of the saint, and At the festival of Corpus Christi there was those of several other subordinate ones be a very pretty arrangement. The large green longing to the same church ; these are borne square of the Trinidade was lighted up all on the shoulders of respectable householders, round with bonfires. On one side a fine who volunteer for the purpose : sometimes pavilion was erected, the upright posts conyou will see your neighbor the grocer or the sisting of real fan-leaved palm-trees, the carpenter groaning under the load. The Mauritia flexuosa, which had been brougbt priest and his crowd of attendants precede from the forest, stems and heads entire, and the images, arrayed in embroidered robes, fixed in the ground. The buoth was illumiand protected by magnificent sunshades--no nated with colored lamps, and lined with red wseless ornament here, for the heat is very and white cloth. In it were seated the ladies, great when the sun is not obscured. On each not all of pure Caucasian blood, but preseniside of the long line the citizens walk, clad ing a fine sample of Pará beauty and fashion. in crimson silk cloaks, and holding each a The grandest of all these festivals is that large lighted wax candle. Behind follows a held in honor of Our Lady of Nazureth : it regiment or two of foot soldiers with their is, I believe, peculiar to Pará. As I have bands of music, and last of all the crowd, the said before, it falls in the second quarter of colored people being cleanly dressed and pre- the moon, åbout the middle of the dry sea. serving a grave demeanor. The women are son-tbat is, in October or November-and always in great force, their luxuriant black lasts, like the others, nine days. On the · hair decorated with jasmines, white orchids, first day a very extensive procession takes , and other tropical flowers. They are dressed place, starting from the cathedral, whither
in their usual holiday attire, gauze chemises the image of the saint has been conveyed . and black silk petticoats ; their necks are some days previously, and terminating at : adorned with links of gold beads, which the chapel or hermitage, as it is called, of the when they are slaves are generally the prop. saint at Nazareth, a distance of more than erty of their mistresses, who love thus to dis- two miles. The whole population turps out play their wealth.
on this occasion. All the suldiers, both of
the line and the National Guard, tuke part in church. In the middle of it, a scroll is sudit, each battalion accompanied by its land of denly unfolded from the pulpit, on which is music. The civil authorities also, with the an exaggerated picture of the bleeding Christ. President at their head, and the principal This art is accompanied by loud groans citizens, including many of the foreigu resin which come from stout-lunged individuais dents, join in the line. The boat of the ship- concealed in the vestry and engaged for the wrecked Portuguese vessel is carried after purpose. The priest becomes greatly ex: the saint on the shoulders of officers or men citeil, and actually sheds tears. Ou one uf of the Brazilian navy, and along with it are the-e occasions I squeezed myself into tlic borne the other symbuls of the miracles crowil, and watched the effect of the spectatwhich Our Lady is supposed to have per- cle on the audience. Old Portuguese niin formed. The procession starts soon after and Brazilian women seemed very much the sun's heat begins to moderate-that is, affected-sobbing, beating their breasts, and about half-past four o'clock in the afternoon. telling their heads. The negroes behaver When the image is deposited in the chapel themselves with great propriety, but seemed the festival is considered to be inaugurated, moved more particularly by the pomp, the and the village every evening becomes the gilding, the dresses, and the general display. resort of the pleasure-loving population, the Young Brazilians laughed. Several aborig. holiday portion of the programme being pre- iues were there, coolly looking on. One ceded, of course, by a religious service in the 'old Indian, who was standing near me, said, chapel. The aspect of the place is then that in a derisive manner, when the sermon was (if a fair ; without the humor and fun, but, over. “It's all very good ; better it could not at the same time, without the noise and be'' (Está tudo bom ; melhor nað pude ser). (arseness, of similar bulidays in England. The negroes of Pará are very devout. They Large rooms are set apart for panoramic and have built, by slow degrees, a fine church, other exhibitions, to which the public are as I was told, by their own upaided exeradmitted gratis. In the course of cach even- tions. It is called Nossa Senhora do Rosario, ing large displays of fireworks take place, or Our Lady of the Rosary. During the all arranged according to a published pro- first weeks of our residence at Pará, 1 fregramme of the festival.
quently observed a line of negroes and neThe various ceremonies which take place gresses, late at night, marching along the during Lent seemed to me the most impress. streets, singing a chorus. Each carried (1 ive, and some of them were exceedingly his or her head a quantity of building malewell arranged. The people, buth performers rials-stones, bricks, mortar, or plauks. I and spectators, conduct themselves with found they were chiefly slaves, who, after more gravity on these occasions, and there is their hard day's work, were contributing a no holiday-making. Performauces repre- little toward the construction of their church. senting the last events in the life of Christ The materials had all been purchased by their are enacted in tbe churches or streets, in own savings. The interior was finished such a way as to remind one of the old mira- about a year afterward, and is decorated, I cle plays or mysteries. A few days before thought, quite as superbly as the other Good Friday, å torchlight procession takes churches which were constructed, with far place by night, from one church to another, larger means, by the old religious orders more in which is carried a large wooden image of than a century ago. Annually the negrues Christ bent under the weight of the cross. celebrate the festival of Nossa Senhora do The chief members of the Government assist, Rosario, und generally make it a complete and the whole slowly moves to the sound of success. muilled drums. Adouble procession is mun. med a few days afterward. The image of I will now add a few more notes which I St. Mary is carried in one direction, and tliat have accumulated on the subject of the natof the Saviour in another. The two images ural history, and then we shall have done,
meel in the middle of one of the most beauti. for the present, with Pará and its neighboriful churches, which is previously filled to ex- hood.
(ess with the multitude anxious to witness I have already mentioned that monkeys the affecting meeting of mother and son a were rare in the immediate vicinity of Pará. few days before the crucifixion. The images I met with three species only in the forest are brought face to face in the middle of the near the city; they are shy animals, and church, the crowd falls prostrate, and the avoid the neighborhood of towns, where they lachrymose sermon is delivered from the are subject to much persecution by the inpulpit. The whole thing, as well as many habitants, who kill them for foud. The only other spectacles arranged during the few suc- kind which I saw frequently was the little ceeding days, is highly theatrical, and well Midas ursulus, one of the Marinosets, a calculated to excite the religious emotions of family peculiar to tropical America, and the people, although, perhaps, only tempo. differing in many essential points of structure rarily. On Good Friday the bells do not and habits from all other apes. They are ring, all musical sounds are inte:dicted, and small in size, an.1 more like squirrels than the hours, night and day, are announced by true monkeys in their manner of climbing. the dismal noise of wooden clappers wielded The nails, except those of the hind thumbs, by negroes stationed near the different are long and claw-shaped like those of squir. churches. A sermon is delivered in each rels, and the thumbs of the fore extremities, or hands, are not opposable to the other fin. within reach. The expression of countegers. I do not mean to imply that they have nance in these small monkeys is intelligent a near relatiouship to squirrels, which belong and pleasing. This is partly owing to the to the Rudents, an inferior order of mam- open racial angle, which is given as one of m:113 ; their resemblance to those animals is 60° ; but the qnick movements of the head, merely a superficial one. They have two and the way they have of inclining it to one molar teeth less in exch jaw than the Cebidæ, side when their curiosity is excited, contrib the other family of American inunkeys ; they ute very much to give them a knowing ex. agree with thein, however, in the sideway pression. position of the nostrils, a character which On the Upper Amazons I once saw a tame distinguishes both from all the monkeys of individual of the Midas leoninus, a species the old world. The body is long and slender, first described by Humboldt, which was still cluthed with soft hairs, and the tail, which is more playful and intelligent ihan the one just nearly twice the length of the trunk, is not described. This rare and beautiful little prehensile. The hind limbs are much larger monkey is only seven inches in length, exin volume than the anterior pair. The Midus clusive of the tail. It is named leonivus on ursulus is never seen in large flocks ; three account of the long browo mane wbich deor four are the greatest number observed to. pends from the neck, and which gives it very gether. It seems to be less afraid of the much the appearance of a diminutive lion. neighborhood of man than any other mon. In the house where it was kept it was familiar key. I sometimes saw it in the woods which with every one ; its greatest pleasure seeming border the suburban streets, and once I espied to be to climb about the bodies of different two individuals in a thicket behind the Eng. persons who entered. The first time I went lish consul's house at Nazareth. Its mode in, it ran across the room straightway to the of progression along the main boughs of the chair on which I had sat down, and climbed lofiy trees is like that of the squirrel ; it does up to my shoulder ; arrived there, it turned not ascend to the slender branches, or take round and looked into my face, showing its those wonderful flying leaps which the Ce- little teeth, and chattering, as though it lide do, whose prehensile tails and flexible would say, “Well, and how do you do??? liinils fit them for such headlong travelling. It showed more affection toward its master It confides itself to the larger boughs and than toward strangers, and would climb up trunks of trees, the leng Dails being of great to his head a dozen times in the course of an assistance to the creature, enabling it to cling hour, making & great show every time of & Curely to the bark ; and it is often seen searching there for certain animalculæ. Isipilssing rapidly round the perpendicular cylin. dore Geoffroy St. Hilaire relates of a species drical truuks. It is a quick, restless, timid of this gemus, that it distinguished between little creature, and has a great share of curi. different objecis depicted on an engraving. osity, for when a person passes by under the M. Audouin showed it the portraits of a cat trees along which a flock is running, they and a wasp ; at these it became mach terrialways stop for a few moments to have a fied: whereas, at the sight of a figure of a stare at the intrudor. In Pará, Midas ursulus gragsbopper or beetle, it precipitätell itself is often seen in a tame state in the houses of on the picture, as if to seize the objects there the inhabitants. When full grown, it is represented. about nine inches long, independently of the Although monkeys are now rare in a wild t:til, which ineasures fifteen joches. The state near Pará, a great number may be seen fur is thick, and black in color, with the ex- semi-domesticated in the city. The Brazil. ception of a reddish-brown streak down the ians are fond of pet animals. Monkeys, middle of the back. When first taken, or however, have not been known to breed in when kept tied up, it is very timid and irri. captivity in this country. I counted, in a table. It will not allow itself to be ap- short time, thirteen different species, while proached, but keeps retrcating buckward walking about the Pará streets, either at the when any one attempts to coax it. It is doors or windows of houses, or in the nativo always in a querulous humor, uttering a twit- canoes. Two of them I did not meet with tering, complaining noise ; its dark, watch, afterward in any other part of the country. ful eyes, expressive of distrust, observant of One of these was the well-known Hapalo every movement which tukes place near it. Jacchus, a little creature resembling a killen, When treated kindly, however, as it generally banded with black and gray all over the body is in the houses of the natives, it becomes and tail, and having a fringe of long white very tame and familiar. I once saw one as hairş surrounding the ears. It was soated playful as a kitten, running about the house on the shoulder of a young mulatto girl, an after the negro children, who fondled it to she was walking along the street, and I was their hearts' content. It acted somewhat told bad been captured in the island of Mara. differently toward strangers, and seemed not jo. The other was a species of Cebus, with a to like them to sit in the hammock which remarkably large head. It had ruddy-brown was slung in the room, leaping up, trying to fur, puler on the face, but presenting a bite, and otherwise appuying them. It is blackish tuft on the top of the forehead. generally fed on sweet fruits, such as the In the wet season serpents are common in banada ; but it is also foud of insects, espo- the neighborhood of Pará. One morning, in cially soft-bodied spiders and grasshoppers, April, 1849, after & night of deluging rain, which it will snap up with eagerness whom