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the lamplighter, on his rounds to extinguish Was, unfortunately, not able to ascertain the the lamps, knocked me up to show me & exact relation which subsists between these bua-constrictor he had just killed in the Rug curious spakes and the Saüba ants. I be. St. Antonio, not far from my door. He had lieve, however, they feed upon the Saübas, cut it nearly in two with a large knife, as it for I once found remains of ants in the was making its way down the sandy street. stomach of one of them. Their motions are Sometimes the native hunters capture bog- quite peculiar ; the unililatable jaws, small constrictors alive in the forest near the city. (yes, and curious plated integument also disWe bought one which had been taken in this tinguish them from other snakes. These way, and kept it for some time in a large box properties have evidently some relation to under our veranda. This is not, however, their residence in the subterranean abodes cf the largest or most formidable sei pent fuupd ants. It is now well ascertained by naturalin the Amazous regiun. It is far inferior, in ists, that some of the niost anomalous forms these respects, to the hideous Sucurujú, or among coleopterous ipsects are those which Water Boa (Eunecles marinus), which some- live solely in the nests of ants, and it is curi. times attacks man ; but of this I shall bave ous that an abnormal form of snakes should to give an account in a subsequent chapler. also be found in the society of these insects.
It frequently happened, in passing through The neighborhood of Pará is rich in inthe thickets, ihat å snake would fall from sects. I do not speak of the number of inthe boughs close to me. Once I got for a dividuals, which is probably less than one few moments completely enlapgled in the meets with, excepting ants and Termites, in fulds of one, a wonderfully slender kind, summer days in temperate latitudes ; but the being nearly six feet in length, and not more variety, or in other words, the number of than hulf an inch in diameter at its broadest species, is very great. It will convey sume part. It was a species of Diyophis. The idea of the diversity of butterflies when I majority of the spakes seen were innocuous. mention that about 100 species of that tribe One day, however, I trod on tbe tail of a are found within an hour's walk of the young serpent belonging to a pery poisonous town; while the total vumber found in the kind, the Jararaca (Craspedoecphalus atrox). British Islands does not exceed 66, and the It turned round and bit my trousers ; and a whole of Europe supports only 321, Sume young Indian lad, who was behind me, dex. of the most showy species, such as the swalterously cut it through with his knife before low-tailed kinds. Papilio Polycaon, Tboas, it had time to free itself. In some seasons Torquatus, and others, arc scen flying about spakes are very abundant, and it often struck the streets and gardens; sometimes they me as strange that accidents did not occur come through the open windows, attracte:) more frequently than was the case.
by flowers in the apartments. Those species Among the most curious snakes found here of Papilio which are most characteristic of were the Amphisbænæ, a genus allied to the the country, 80 conspicuous in their velvetyslow worm of Europe. Several species occur black, green, and rose-colored hues, wbich at Pará. Those brought to we were generally Linnæus, in pursuance of his elegant system nut much more tban a foot in length. They of nomenclature-nurning the different kinds are of cylindrical shape, having, properly after the heroes of Greek mythology-called speaking, no neck; anci ihe blunt tail, which Trojans, never leave the shades of the forest. is only about an inch in length, is of the same The splendid metallic blue Morphos, some of ebape as the head. This peculiar form, which measure seven inches in expanse, are added to their habit of wriggling backward generally confined to the shady värley of the as well as forward, bas given rise to the fable forest. They sometimes come forth into the that they have two heads, one at each ex- broad sunlight. When we first went to look tremity. They are extremely sluggisb in at our new residence in Nazareth, a Morplio (beir molions, and are clothed with scales Menelaus, une uf the most beautiful kinds, that have the form of small imbedded plates was seen slapping its huge winds like a bird arranged it rings round the body. The eye along the veranda. This species, however, is so small as to be scaicely perceptible. They although much admired, looks dull in culce live habitually in the subterranean chambers by the side of its congener, the Morpho Rho. of the Saüba ant ; only coming out of their tenor, whose wings, on the upper face, ale abodes occasionally in the night time. The of quite a dazzling lustre. Rhetenor usually natives call the Amphisbæna the “Mai das prefers the broad sunny roads in the foresi, Saübas," or Mother of the Saübas, and be- and is an almost unattainable prize, on aclieve it to be poisonous, although it is per- count of its lofty flight ; for it very rare); feciiy harmless. It is one of the many curi. descends ncarcr the ground than about twcny ous animals which have become the subject feet. When it comes sailing along, it occaof mythical stories with the natives. They sionally faps its wings, and then the blue bay the ants treat it with great affection, and surface flashes in the sunlight, so that it is that if the spake be taken away from a nest, visible a quarter of a mile off. There is the Saübas will forsake the spot. I once another species of this genus, of a satinytook one quite wbole out of the body of a white hue, thc Morpho Uraneis ; this is young Jararaca, the poisonous species already equally difficult to obtain ; the male only has alluded to, whose body was su distended with the saliny lustre, the female being of a paleits contents that the skin wus stretched out lavender color. It is in the height of the dry to a film over the contained Amplisbæna. I season that the greatest number and variety of butterflies are found in the woods ; espe." species ; on the other band the purely arbocially when a shower falls at intervals of a real kinds were rather numerous. The confew days. An infinite number of curious and trary of this happens in nurthern latitudes, rare species may then be taken, most diversi. where the great majority of the species and fied in habits, mode of flight, colors, and genera are exclusively terrestrial. The arbcmarkings : some yellow, others bright red, real forms are distinguished by the structure green, purple, and blue, and many burdered of the feet, which have broadl spongy soles or spangled with metallic lines and spots of and toolheil claws, enabling thein to climb a silvery or goldeu lustre. Some have wings over and cling to branches and leaves. The trausparent as glass ; one of these clear-wings remarkable scarcity of ground beeiles is, is especially beautiful, namely, the Hetæra doubtless, attributable to the number of anis Esmeralda ; it has one spot only of opaque and Termites which people every inch of surcoloring on its wings, which is of a violet and face in all shady places, and which woull rose hue ; this is the only part visible when most likely destroy the larvæ of Coleoptera. the insect is flying low over dead leaves, in Moreover these active creatures have the the gloomy shades where alone it is found, same functions as Coleoptera, and thus renand it then looks like a wandering petal of a der their existenco innecessary. The large flower.
propürtion of ciimbing forms of carnivorvis Bees and wasps are not especially numer- beeiles is an interesting fact, because it ous near Pará, and I will reserve an account affordy another instance of the urboieal char. of their habits for a future chapter. Many acter which animal forms tend to assume in species of Mygale, those monstrous hairy equinoctial America, a circumstance which spiders, half a foot in expanse, which attract points to the slow adaptation of the Fauna 10 the attention so much in museums, are found a forest-clad country, throughout an immense in sandy places at Nazareth. The different lapse of geological time. kinds have the most diversified habits. Some
CHAPTER IV. construct, among the tiles or thatch of bouses, dens of closely-woven web, which, in THE TOCANTINS AND CAMETÁ. texture, very much resembles fine muslin ; Preparations for the journey--The Day of Goajará
Giove of fan-leaved palins-The lower Tocantinsthese are often seen crawling over the walls
Skerch of the river- Visia alezre-Baiao -Rapidsof apartments. Others build similar nests in Boat journey to the Guarila taiis-Native lite on trues, and are known to attack birds. One the Tocantins-Second journey lu Camctá. very robust fellow, the Mygale Blondii, bur- August 26th. 1818.—Mr. Wallace and I rows into the earth, forming a broad slint- started to-day on the excursion which I have ing gallery, about two feet long, the sides of already meutioned as having been planned which he lines beautifully with silk. He is with Mr. heavens, up the river Tocantins, nocturnal in his habits. Just before sunset whose mouth lies about furty-five miles in a he may be seen keeping watch within the straight line, but cighty miles following the mouth of his tunnel, disappearing suddenly, bends of the river channels, to the south-west when he hears a heavy foot-tread near bis of Pará. This river, as before stated, has a hiding-place. The number of spiders orna. course of 1000 miles, and stands third in rank mented with showy colors was somewhat re. anong the streains which form the Amazons markable. Some double themselves up at system. The preparations for the journey the base of leaf-stalks, so as to resemble tow. cook a grcal deal of time and trouble. We er-buds, and thus deceive the insects on which bad first to hire a proper vessel, a two-masted they prey. The most extraordinary-looking vigilinga twenty-seven feet long, with a flat spider was a species of Acrosoma, which had prow and greath breadth of beam, and fitted t.wo curved bronze-colored spines, an inch to live in hcary seas ; for altirough our voy. and a half in length, proceeding from the tip age was only a river trip, there were vast seaof its abdomen. It spins a large web, the like expanscs of water to traverse. It was monstrous appendages being apparently p') not decked over, but liail two arched awnings impediment to it in its work ; but what their formed of strong wickerwork, and thatched use can be I am unable to divine.
with palm-leaves. We had then to store it Coleoptera, or beetles, at first seemed to be with provisions for three months, the time very scarce. This apparent scarcity has we at first intended to be away ; procure the been noticed in other equatorial countries, necessary passports ; and, lastly, engage & and arises, probably, from the great heat of crew. Mr. Learens, having had much exthe sun not peruitting them to exist in ex. perience in the country, managed all these posed situations, where they form such con. matters. He brought two Indians from the spicuous objects in Europe. Many Lundred rice-mills, and these induced another to enroll species of the different families can be found, bimself. We, on our parts, took our cook, when they are patiently searched for in the Isidoro, and a young Indian lad, named Anshady places to which they aru confined. It tonio, who had attached himself to us in the is vain tu look for the Geodeplaga, or car- course of our residence at Nazareth. Our nivorous beetles, under stones, or anywhere, principal man was Alexandro, one of bir. indeed, in open, sunny places. The terres. Leavenis's lodians. He was an intelligeut trial forms of this interesting family, which and well-disposed young Tapuyo, an expert abound in England and tempcrate countries sailor and an indefatigable hunter. To bis generally, are scarce in the neighborhood of fidelity we were indebied for being enabled Pará, in fact I met with only four or five to carry out any of the objects of our roy.
age. Being a native of a district near the opposite way into the water systein of the capital, Alexandro was a civilized Tapuyo, a Tocantins. Small vessels like ours take this citizen as free as his white neighbors. He ruute in preference to the stormy passage by spoke only Portuguese. He was a spare- way of the main river, although the distance built man, rather under the middle height, is considerably greater. We passed through with fine regular features, and, what was the canal yesterday, and to-day have been unusual in Indians, the upper lip decorated threading our way through a labyrinth of nar. with a mustache. Three years afterward I row chavnels, their banks all clothed with the euw him at Pará in the uniform of the Na- same magnificent fortst, but agreeably varied tionai Guard, and he called on me often to by houses of planters and settlers. We passeri talk about old times. I esteemed him as a many quite large establishments, besides one · quiet, sensible, manly young fellow.
pretty little village called Santa Anna. Ail We set sail in the evening, after waiting these channels are washed through by the several hours in vain for one of our crew. Il tides the ebb, contrary to what takes placo was soon dark, the wind blew stiffly, and the in the short canal, setting toward the Tocan. tide rushed along with great rapidity, carry. tins. The water is almost tepid (717° Fahr.), ing us swiftly past the crowd of vessels and the rank vegetation all around seems which were anchored in the port. Tbe reeking with moisture. The country, howcanoe rolled a good deal. After we had ever, as we were told, is perfectly healtby. made five or six miles of way the tide turned, Some of the houses are built on wooden piles and we were obliged to cast anchor. Not driven into the mud of the swamp. long after, we laid ourselves down all three In the afternoon we reached the end of the together on the mat, which was spread over last channel, called the Murutipucú, wlrich the floor of our cabin, and soon fell asleep. runs for several miles between two unbroken
('n awaking at sunrise the next morning, lines of fan-leaved palms, forming with their we found ourselves gliding upward with the straight stems colossal palisades. On roundtide, along the Bahia or Bay, as it is called, ing a point of land we came in full vicw of of Goajará. This is a broad channel lying the Tocantins. The event was announced between the mainland and a line of islands by one of our Indians, who was on the lookwhich extend some distance beyond the city. out at the prow, shouting, “La está o Paraná. Into it three large rivers discharge their uassú !” “Behold the great river !" It waters, namely, the Guainá, the Acará, und was a grand sight-a broad expanse of dark the Mojú ; so that it forms a kind of eui; waters dancing merrily to the breeze ; the estuary within the grand estuary of Pará. 11 opposite shore, a narrow blue line, miles is nearly four miles broad. The left vunk, away. along which we were now sailing, was beall. We went ashore on an island covered with tiful in the extreme ; not an inch of soil was palm-trees, to make a fire and boil our ketto be secn; the water frontage presented a ile for tea. I wandered a short way inlan:1, compact wall of rich and varied forest, rest. and was astounded at the prospect. The land ing on the surface of the stream. It seemed lay below the upper level of the daily tides, to form a tinished border to the water scene, so that there was no underwood, and the wbere the dome-like, rounded shapes of ex- ground was bare. The trees were almost all ogenous trees which constituted the mass of one species of Palm, the gigantic fan. formed the groundwork, and the endless di. leaved Mauritiu flexuosa ; on the borders versity of broad-leaved Heliconiæ and Palnis only was there a small number of a second
each kind differing in stem, crown, and kind, the equally remarkable Ubussú palm fronds—the rich embroidery. The morning Manicaria saccifera). The Ubussú has erect, Wis calm and cloudless ; and tbe slanting uncut leaves, twenty-five feet long, and six beams of the early sun, strikiug full on the feet wide, all arranged round the top of a front of the forest, lighted up the whole most four-feet high stem, so as to form a figure gloriously. The only sound of life whicla like that of a colossal shuttlecock. The fanreached us was the call of the Serracúra leaved palms, wbich clothed nearly tlie entire (Gallinula Cayennensis), a kinil of wild fowl; islet, bad huge cylindrical smooth steiris, all else was so still that the voices of bourmon three feet in diameter, and about a huudred. could be plainly heard, from canoes passing feet high. The crowns were formed ci euor. a mile or two ciistant from us. The sun soin mous clusters of fan-shaped leaves, the stalks, gains great power on the water, bul with it the alone of which moasured seven to tía ftet in sea-breeze increases in strengih, moderaujpg length. Nothing in the vegetable world. the heat which would otherwise be almost iu could be more imposing than this grove of supportable. We reached the end of the palms. There was no underwood to obstruct. Goajará about midday, and then piered the the view of the long perspective of towering nàrruwer channel of the Mojú. Up this we columns. The crowns, which were densely travelled, partly rowing and partly sailing, packed together at an immense height uver.. between the same unbroken walls of forest, head, shut out the rays of the sun ; and the until the morning of the 28th.
gloomy solitude beneath, through which the August 29th. The Mojú, & stream little sound of our voices seemed to reverberate, inferior to the Thames in size, is connected could be compared to nothing so well as a about twenty miles from its mouth, by means solemın temple. The fruits of the two palms of a short artificial canal, with a small were scattered over the ground ; those of the stream, the Igarapé-mirim, which fluw's the libussú adhere together by twos and threes.. and have a rough, brown-colored shell; the manufactured. The plantations of mandioca fruit of the Mauritia, on the contrary, is of are always scattered about in the forest, some Sright red bue, and the skin is impressed of them being on islands in the middle of the with deep crossing lines, which give is a re- river. Land being plentiful, and the plough, semblance to a quilted cricket-ball.
as well as, indeed, nearly all other agriculAbout midnight, the tide being favorable tural implenrents, unknown, the suine ground and the breeze strong, we crossed the river, is not planted three years together ; but & taking it in a slanting direction, a distance new piece of forest is cleared every alternate of sixteen miles, and arrived at eight o'clock repr, and the old cleariog suffered to relapse the following morning at Cametá. This is # into jungle. 'town of some importance pleasantly situated We stayed here two days, sleeping ashore on the somewhat high terra firina of the left in the apartment devoted to strangers. As bank of tho Tocantins. I will defer giving usual in Bruzdisa houses of the middle class, an account of the place till the end of this we were riot introduced to the female memnarrative of our Tocantins voyage. We lost bers of the family, and, indeed, suw nothing here another of our men, who got drinking of iberi except at a distance. In the forest with some old companions ashore, and were and thickets about the place we were tolerobliged to start on the difficult journey up ably successful in collecting, finding a numthe river with two hands only, and they in ber of birds and insects which do not occur & very dissatisfied humor with the prospect. at Pará. I saw here, for the first time, the
The river view from Cametá is magnifi- cis blua Chatterer (Ampelis cotinga). It cent. The town is situated, as already men was on the topmost hough of a very lofty tioned, on a high bank, which forins quite a tree, and completely out cf the reach of an considerable elevation for this flat country, ordinary fowling-piece. The beautiful lightand the broad expanse of dark-green waters blue color of its plumage was plainly discerit is studded with low, palm-clad islands; the ible at that distance. It is a dull, quiet bird. prospect down river, however, being clear, A much commoner species was the Cigana or bounded only by a sea-like horizon of or Gypsy (Opisthocomus cristatus), a bird bewater and sky. The shores are washed by longing to the same order (Gallinacea) as our the breeze-tossed waters into little bays and domestic fowl. It is abo:it the size of a creeks, fringed with sandy beaches. The pheasant ; the plumage is dark browr., varied Tocantins has been likened, by Prince Adal. with reddish, and the head is adorned with a bert of Prussia, who crossed its mouth in crest of long feathers. It is a remarkable 1846, to the Ganges. It is upward of ten bird in many respects. The bind toe is not miles in breadth at its mouth; opposite placed high above the level of the other toes, Cametá it is five miles broad. Mr. Burchell, as it is in the fowl order generally, but lies the well-known English traveller, descended on the same plane with them ; the shape of the river from the mining provinces of in: the foot becomes thus suited to the purely terior Brazil some years before our visit. arboreal habits of the bird, enabling it to Unfortunately, the utility of this fine stream grasp firmly the branches of trees. This is a is impaired by the numerous obstructions to distinguishing character of all the birds in its navigation in the shape of cataracts and equinoctial America which represent the rapids, which commence, in ascending, at fow) and pheasant tribes of the old world, about 120 miles above Cametá, as will be and affords another proof of the adaptation suen in the sequel.
of the Fauna to a forest region. The Cigang August 30th. Arrived, in company with lives in considerable flucks on the lower trees Senhor Laroque, an intelligent Portuguese and bushes bordering the streams and lagoons, merchant, at Vista Alegre, fifteen wiles above and feeds on various wild fruits, especially Cametá. This was the residence of Senhor the sour Goyava (Psidium sp.). The natives latonio Ferreira Gomez, and was a fair samsay it devours the fruit of arborescent Arums ple of a Brazilian planter's establishment in (Culadium arborescens), which grow in ihis part of the country. The buildings crowded masses around the swampy bauks covered a wide space, the dwelling house of lagoons. Its voice is a harsh, grating being separated from the place of business, hiss ; it makes the noise when alarmed, all and as both were built on low, flooded ground, the individuals sililating as they fly heavily the communication between the two was by away from tree to tree, when disturbed by means of a long wooden bridge. From the passing canoes. It is polygamous, like other office and visitors' apartments a wooden pier members of the same order. It is never, extended into the river. The whole was however, by any chance, seen on the ground, raised on piles àbote high-water mark. and is nowhere domesticated. The flash has There was a rude mill for grinditig sugar- an unpleasant odor of musk combined with cane, worked by bullocks; but cashaça, or wet hides A smell called by the Braziliang jum, was the only article nianufaciured from cetinga ; it is, therefore, ubeatable. If it be the juice. Behind the buildings was a small as capalatable to carr:vorous animals as it is piece of ground cleared from the forest, and to man, the immunity from persecution planted with fruit-trees, orange, lemon, gin which it would thereby enjoy would account japa, guyava, and others; and beyond this, for its existing in such great numbers a brcail path through a neglected plantation throughout the country. of cofiicani cacao, led to several large slieds, We lost here another of our crew ; and at bere the farinha or mandioca meal was thus, & the commencement of our voyage. bad before the prospect of being forced to the water-level with bag and bagyogo, crossreturn, from scieer want of bands to matage ing broad reaches of river. Most of them the canoe. Senhor Gomez, to wlivin we had have houses also on the terra firma, and rebrought letters of introduction from Senbor side in the cool palm-swamps of the Ygajú Jono Augusto Currcia, a Brazilian gentleman islands, as they are called, only in the hot and uf high standing at Pará, tried what he could dry season. They live chief ý on fish, sheil. do try indtice the canoe-men of his neighbor fish (among which were large Ampullariæ, hood to engage with us, but it was a vain en whose flesh I found, on trial, to be a very deavor. The people of these parts seemed to tough morsel), the never-failing farinlia, and be abore working for wages. They are nat- the fruits of the forest. Anyoug the latter the urally jódolent, and besides, have all sume fruits of the palm-tree occupied the chief little business or plantation of their own, place. The Assai is the most in use, but this which gives them a livelihood with indepen. forms á universul articlo of diet in all parts of dence. It is difficult to obtain hands under the country. The fruit, which is perfectly any circumstances, but it was particularly so rouudi, and about the size of a cherry, conia our case, from being foreigners, and sus. tains but a small portion of pulp lying bepected, as was natural among ignorant peuple, tween the skin and the hard kernel. This is of being strange in our labiis. At length made, with the addition of water, into a out liosi lent us two of his slates to help us thick, violet-colored beverage, which stains ('n another stage, namely, to the village of the lips like blackberries. The fruit of the Baiao, where we had great hopes of liaving Miriti is also a common article of food, althis, our urgent want, supplied by the mili- though the pulp is suur add uppalatable, at lary commandant of the district.
least to European tastes. It is boiled, and September 20.-The distunc'è from Vista tben eaten with farinha. Thic Tucumá (Ag. Alegre to Baiao is about twinty-five miles. trocaryum tucuma), and the Mucujá (AcroWe had but lililé wind, and our men were comia lasiusputha), grow vnly on the main. therefore obliged to row the yteater part of land. Their fruits yield a yellowish, fibrous the way. Tlie vars used ju kuch canues as pulp, wbich ile natives eat in the same way ours are made by tyiog a stout saddle to the is the Miriii. Tliey contain so much fatty end of a long pole lig means of wvody sanas. matter that vulturės and dogs devout tliem The men take their stand ou a raised deck, greedily. formed by a fet rough plauks placed over Early on the morning of September 3d we the atched cotering in the fore part of the reached the right or eastern baok, which is Vessel, and pull with their backs to the stern. here from foriy to sixty feet high. The We started at six A.M., and about subset houses were more substaptially built than Teached a point where the west cliannel of the those we had hitherto seeu. We succeeded river, along which we bad been travelling in buying a small turtle ; most of tlie inhabi. sioce we left Cametá, joined a broader mide tauts had a few of these animals, which they dle one, and formed with it a great expansé kept in litile inclosures made with stakes. of water. The islands here seem to furm The people were of the same class every. two pretty regular lines, dividing the great bete, mamelucós. They were very civil ; river into three cbannels. As we progressed we were not able, however, to purchase much slowly, we took tbe montaria and went fresh food from them. I think this was ashote, from time to time, tu tbe houses, owing to their really not having more than which were numervus on the river banks as was absolutely required to satisly their own well as in the larger islands. In low silu. leeds. To tliese districts, where the people alions they had a very unfinished appear depend for animal food solely on fishing, upce, being more frameworks taised high or there is a period of the year when they suffer wouden piles, and thatched with the leaves biinger, so that they are disposed 10 prize of the Ubussú palm. Iu their construction highly a small stock when they bave it. They another palm-tree is made much use of, viz., generally answered in the negative when we the Assai (Euterpe olearcea). The outer part asked, money in hand, whether they had of the stem of this species is hard and tough fowls, turtles, or eggs to sell, “Nao, ba, sinto us horn ; it is split into narrow planks, and que nao posso lhe ser bom;" or, “Nao ha, these form a great portion of the walls and meu coracao.” “We have none; I am sorry I flooring. Tbe residents told us that the weste caubot oblige you ;" or, " There is pone, my eřn channel becomes Dearly dry in the mid heart.” dle of the fine season, but that at high water b eptember 3d to 7th. -At half past eight ja April and May, the river rises to the level A. v. we arrived at Baiso, which is built on a of the liouse-floors. The river bottom is very high Lank, and contains about 400 in. etety where sandy, and the country perfectly habitaüls. We had to climb to the village lilalihy. The people seemed to be all con. up a adder, which is fixed against the bank, tented and happy, but idieness and poverty and on urriving at the top, took possession of were exbibited by many unmistakable signs. & rouin which Seubor Seixas had given orders As to the flooding of their island alodes, to be prepared for us. He himself was away they did not seem to care about that at all. ut his sitio, and would not be here till the They set to be almrst amphibious, or as next day. We were now quite dependent much at home on the water as on land. It on him for men to enable us to continue our was really alarming to see men and women voyage, and so bad no remedy but to wait and children, in little leaky canoes laden to his leisure. The situation of the place, and