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lowing day we entered the Anapú, and on about the tunes whichi harmonize well with, the 30th of September, after threading again and in fact are born of, the circumstances of the labyrinth of channels communicating be. the canne-man's life : tbe echoing channels, tween the Tocantins and the Mojú, arrived the endless gloomy forests, the solemo nights, at Pará.

and the desolate scenes of broad and stormy

waters and falling banks. Whether they I will now give a short account of Cametá, were invented by the Indians or introduced the principal town on the banks of the Tocan. by the Portuguese it is hard to decide, as tips, which I visited for the second time in many of the customs of the lower classes June, 1849 ; Mr. Wallace, in the same month, of Portuguese are so similar to those of departing from Pará to explore the rivers the Indians that they have become blend. Guamá and Capim. I embarked as passen- cd with them. One of the commonest ger in a Cametả trading-vessel, the St. julin, songs is very wild and pretty. It has for A small schooner of thirty tons burden. I refrain the words “ Mai, Mai,” (“ Mother, had learned by this time that the only way to mother''), with a long drawi on the second attain the objects for which I had come to word. The stanzas are very variable. The this country was to accustoni myself to the best wit on board starts the verse, improvisways of life of the humbler classes of the in- ing as he goes on, and the others join in the habitants. A traveller on the Amazons gains chorus. They all relate to the lonely river little by being furnished with letters of life and the events of the voyage ; the shoals, recommendation to persons of note, for in the wind ; buw far they shall go before they the great interior wildernesses of forest and stop tu sleep, and go forth. The sonorous river the canoe-men bave pretty much their native names of places, Goajará, Tucuman. own way ; the authorities cannot force them dúha, etc., add greatly to the charm of the to grant passages or to hire themselves to wild music. Suinetimes they bring in the travellers, and therefore a stranger is obliged stars thus : to ingratiate bimself with them in order to

A lud está sahindo, get conveyed from place to place. I

Mai, Mail thoroughly enjoyed the journey to Cametá ; A lua está sahindo,

Mai, Mai! the weather was again beautiful in the ex.

As sete estrell:8 estao chorando, treme. We started from Pará at sunrise on

Mai, Mai! the 8th of June, and on the 10th emerged

Por s'acharem desamparados, from the parrow channels of the Anapú into

Mai, Mail the broad Tocantins. The vessel was so full

The moon is rising, of cargo, that there was no room to sleep in

Mother, Mother! the cabin ; so we passed the nights on deck.

The moon is rising,

Moiher, Mother! The captain, or supercargo, called in Portu.

The seven stars (Ple ades) are weeping, gliese cabo, was a mameluco, named Manoel,

Mother, Mother !

To find themselves forsaken, fi quiet, good humored person, who treated

Mother, Mucher ! me with the most unaffected civility during the three days' journey. The pilot was also I fell asleep about ten o'clock, but at four & mameluco, named John Mendez, a hand- in the inorning John Mendez woke me to come young fellow, full of life and spirit. enjoy the sighi of the little schooner tearing He had ou board a wire guitar or viola, us it through the waves before a spanking breeze, is here called ; and in the bright moonlight The night was transparently clear and almost nights, as we lay at anchor hour after hour cold, the moon appeared sharply defined waiting for the tide, he enlivened us all with against the dark blue sky, and a ridge of songs and music. He was on the best of foam marked where the prow of the vessel terms with the cabo, both sleeping in the was cleaving its way through the water. game hammock elung between the musis. I The men bad made a fire in the galley, to passed the nights wrapped in an old sail out. make tea of an acid herb called crva cidreira gide the roof of the cabin. The crew, five in a quantity of which they have gathered at the number, were Indians and half-breeds, all of last landing-place, and the times spackled whom treated their two superiors with the cheerily upward. It is at such times as ihese most amusing familiarity, yet I never sailed that Ainazon travelling is evjoyable, and one in a better managed vessel ihan the St. John, no longer wonders at the love which many,

In crossing to Cametá we had to await the buth natives and strangers, have for this flood-tide in a channel called Entre-as-Ilhus, wandering life. The little schooner sped which lies between two islands in mid-river, rapidly on with booms bent and sails stretched and John Mendez, being in good tune, gave to the utmost. Just as day dawned, we ran us an extempore song, consisting of a great with scarcely slackened speed into the port number of verses. The canoe-men of the of Cametá, and cast anchor. Amazons have many songs and choruses, with which they are in the habit of relieving the I stayed at Cametá until the 16th of July, monotony of their slow voyages, and which and made a considerable collection of the nga are known all over the interior. The cho. tural productions of the neighborhood. The ruses consist of a simple strain, repeated town in 1849 was estimated to contain about almost to weariness, and sung generally in 5000 inhabitants, but the municipal district unison, but sometimes with an attempt at of which Cametá is the capital numbers barmony. There is a wildness and sadness 20,000; this, however, comprised the whole

of the lower part of the Tocantins, which sent to attack the place. The town not only is the most thickly populated part of we became the refuge for all loyal subjects, but province of Pará. The productions of was a centre whiuce large parties of volun. the district are cacao, india-rubber, and teers sallici forth repeatedly to attack tho Brazil uuts. The most remarkable feu anarchists in their various strongholds. ture in the social aspeot of the pince is the The forest behind Cametá is traversed by hybrid uature of the whole population, the several broad roads, which lead over undu. amalgamution of the white and Indian races lating ground many miles into the interior, being here complete. The aborigines were They pass generally under shade, and part originally very numerous on the western of the way through gruves of coffee and hank of the Tocantins, the principal tribe orange trees, fragrant plantations of cacao, having been the Camutas, from which the and iracts of second-growth woods. The narcity takes its name. They were a superior row brook-watered valleys, with which the nation, settled, and attached t agriculture, land is intersected, alone bave remained and received with open arms the white immi- clothed with primeval forest, at least neur grants who were attracted to the district by the town. The houses along these beautiful its fertility, natural beauty, and the healthful. roads belong chiefly to mameluco, mulatto, ness of the climate. The Portuguese settlers and Indian families, each of which has its were nearly all males, the Indian women own small plantation. There are only a few were good-looking and made excellent planters with larger establishments, and these wives ; so the natural result has been, in the have seldom more than a dozen slaves. Becourse of two centuries, a complete blending sides the main roads, there are endless by. of the two races There is now, however, a paths which thread the forest and communi. considerable infusion of negro blood in the cate with isolated houses. Along these the mixture, several hundred African slaves have traveller may wander day after day without ing been introduced during the last seventy leaving the slaude, and everywhere meet with years. The few whites are chiefly Portu. cheerful, simple, and hospitable people. guese, but there are also two or three Brazil. Soon after landing I was introduced to the ian families of pure European descent. The most distinguished citizen of the place, Dr. two consists of three long streets, running Angelo Custodio Correia, whom I have parallel to the river, with a few shorter oues already mentioned. This excellent man was crossing them at right angles. The houses a favorable specimen of the highest class of are very plain, being built, as usual in this native Brazilians. He had been educated in country, simply of a strong framework, filled Europe, was now a member of the Brazilian up with mud, and coated with white plaster. Parliament, and had been twice president of A few of them are of two or three stories. his native province. His manners were less There are three churches, and also a small formal, and his goodness more thoroughly theatre, where a company of native actors, at genuine, perhaps, iban is the rule generally the time of my visit, were representing light with Brazilians. He was admired and loved, Portuguese plays with considerable taste and as I had ample opportunity of observing, ability. The people have a reputation all throughout all Amazonia. He sacrificed his over the province for energy and persever- life in 1855, for the good of his fellow towns. ance ; and it is often said that they are as men, when Cametá was devastated by the keen in trade as the Portuguese. The lower cholera ; having stayed behind with a few classes are as indolent and sensual here as in heroic spirits to succor invalids and direct other parts of the province, a moral condition the burying of the dead, when nearly all the not to be wondered at in & country where chief citizens bad filed from the place After perpetual summer reigns and where the be bad done what he could be embarked for necessaries of life are so easily obtained. But Pará, but was himself then attacked with they are light-hearted, quick-witted, commu• cholera, and died on board the steamer before nicative, and bospitable. I found here a no he reached the capital. Dr. Angelo received tive poet, who had written some pretty verses, me with the usual kindgess which he showed sbowing an appreciation of the natural beali- to all strangers. He procured me, unso. ties of the country, and wus told that the licited, a charming country house, free of Archbishop of Bahia, the Primate of Brazil, rent, hired a muallo servant for me, apd thus was a native of Cametá. It is interesting to relieved me of the many appoyances and de And the mamelucos displaying talent and en- lays attendant on a first arrival in a country terprise, for it shows that degeneracy does town where even the name of an inu is un not necessarily result from the mixture of kpowd. The rocioba thus given up for my white and Indian blood. The Cametuenses residence belonged to a friend of his, Senhor boast, as they have a right to do, of theirs José Raimundo Furtado, a stout florid-com. being the only large town which resisted suc- plexioned gentleman, such a one as might be cessfully the aparchists in the great rebellion met with any day in a country town in Eng. af 1835-6. While the whites of Park were land. To bím also I was indebted for many submilling to the rule of half-8avage revolu. acts of kinduese. tionists, ibe mamelucos of Camele placed The rocinba was situated near & broad, themselves under the leadership of a coura. grassy road bordered by lofty woods, which geous priest, named Prudencio, armed leads from Cametá to the Aldeia, a village themselves, fortified the place, and repulsed two miles distant. My Arst walks were along the large forces which the insurgents ul Pará this road. From it branches another similar

but stu lure picturesque road, which runs are clothed come off when touched, and cause 10 Curimá aud Pacajá, iwo small serilements, & peculiar and almost maddening irritation. several miles risiant, in the beart of the for. The first specimen that I killed and prepared est. The Curimá road is beautiful in the ex. was handled incautiously, and I suffered ter. ireme. Abcut half a mile from the house ribly for three days afterward. I think this where I lived it crosses a brook ilowing is uot owing to any poisonous quality resid. through a deep dell, by means of a long rus- ing in the hairs, but to their being short and tic wooden bridge. The virgin forest is here hard, and thus getting into the fine creases left untouched ; numerous groups of slender of the skin. Some Mygales are of immense palms, mingled with lofiy wees overiun with size. Que day I saw the children belonging creepers and parasites, fill the shady glen to an Indian family, who collected for ine, and arch over the bridge, forening one of the with one of these monsters secured by a cord most picturesque scenes imaginable. A lit. round its waist, by which they were leading te beyond the bridge there was an extensive it about the house as they would a dog. giove of orange and other trees, which yield. The only monkeys I observed at Cametá ed me a rich harvest. The Aldeia road runs were the Couxio (Pitheciu Satanas)-> largo parallel to the riser, the land from the border species, clothed with long brownish-black of the road to the indepted shore of the To- hair-and the tiny Midas argentatus. The cantius forming a long slope, which was also Couxio has a thick bushy tail, and the hair richly wooded; this slope was threaded by of the head, which looks as if it had been numerous shady paihs, and abounded in beau- carefully combed, sits on it like a wig. It tiful insecis and birds. At the opposite or inbabits only the most retired parts of the southern end of the town there was a broad forest, on the terra firma, and I observed road called the Estrada da Vacaria ; this ran nothing of its habits. The little Midas argenalong the banks of the Tocantins at some tatus is one of the rarest of the American distance from the river, and continued over monkeys ; indeed, I bave not heard of its hill and daie, thrcugh bamboo thickets and being found anywhere except near Cametá, Puim swamps, for about fifteen miles. where I once saw three individuals, looking

At Cametá I chanced to verify a fact relat- like so many white kittens, running along a ing to the habits of a large hairy spider of the branch in a cacao grove ; in their motions cenus Myyale, in a manner worth recording. they resembled precisely the Midas ursulus The species was M. avicularia, or one very already described. I saw afterward a pet closely allied to it; the individual was nearly animal of this species, and heard that there two inches in length of body, but the legs were many so kept, and that they were expanded seyen inches, and the entire body esteemed as great treasures. The one menand legs were covered with coarse gray and tioned was full grown, although it measured reddish hairs. I was attracted by a move-only seven inches in length of body. It was mcnt of the monster on a tree-trunk ; it was covered with long white silky hairs, the tail close beneath a deep crevice in the tree, across being blackish, and the face nearly naked and which was stretched a dense white web. The flesh-colored. It was a most timid and sensi. lower part of the web was broken, and two tive little tbing. The woman who owned it small birds, finches, were entangled in the carried it constantly in her bosom, and no pieces ; they were about the size of the Eng- woney would induce her to part with her lish siskin, and I judged the two to be male pet. She called it Mico. It fed from her and female. One of them was quite dead; mouth, and allowed her to fondle it freely, the other lay under the body of the spider pot but the nervous little creature would not per: quite dead, and was smeared with the filthy mit strangers to touch it. If any one atliquor or saliva exuded by the monster. I tempted to do so, it shrank back, the whole druve away the spider and took the birds, body trembling with fear, and its teeth chatbut the second one soon died. The fact of tered while it uitered its tremulous frightened species of Mygale sallying forth at night, tones. The expression of its feaiures was mounting trees, and sucking the eggs and like that of its more robust brother, Midas young nf humming-birds, has been recorded ursulus ; the eyes which were black, were Inng ago by Madame Merian and Palisot de full of curiosity and mistrust, and were Beauvois ; but, in the absence of any con- always kept fixed on the person who attempt. firmation, it has come to be discredited. ed to advance toward it. From the way the fact has been related it in the orange groves and other parts hum. would appear that it had been merely derived ming-birds were plentiful, but I did not no from the report of natives, and had not been tice more than three species. I saw one day witnessed by the narrators. Count Langs- a little pygmy belonging to the genus Phaedorff, in his" Expedition into the Interior of thornis in the act of washing itself in a brook. Brazil,” states that he totally disbelieved the perched on a thin branch, one end of which story. I found the circumstance to be quite was under water. It dipped itself, then fluta novelly to the residents hereabout. The tered its wings and preened its feathers, and Mygales are quite common insects; some seemed thoroughly to enjoy itself, alone in species make their cells under stones, others the shady nook which it had chosen-a place form artistic tunnels in the earth, and some overshadowed by broad leaves of ferus and build their dens in the thatch of houses. The Heliconiæ. I thought, as I watched it, that natives call them Aranhas carangueijeiras, there was no need for poets to invent elves or crab-spiders. The hairs with which they and gnomes, while nature furnishes 2018

with such marvellous little sprites ready to eral of these short and sharp storms daring baud.

the past month. At midnight, when we em.

barked, all was as calm as though a ruffle had My return.journey to Pará afforded many never disturbed air, forest, or river. The incidents characteristic of Amazonian travel. boat sped along like an arrow to the rhythmic ling. I left Cainetá on the 16th of July. paddling of the four stout youths we bad My luggage was embarked in the morning with us, who enlivened the pasasge with in the Santa Rosa, a vessel of the kind called their wild songs. Mr. Patchett and I tried cuberta, or covered canoe. The cuberta is to get a little sleep, but the cabin as so very much used on these rivers. It is not small and encumbered with boxes placed at decked, but the sides forward are raised, and all sorts of angles, that we found sleep im. arched over, so as to admit of cargo being possible. I was just dozing when the day piled high above the water-line. At the dawned, and, on awaking, the first object I stern is a neat square cabin, aiso raised, and saw was the Santa Rosa, at anchor besido a between the cabin and covered forepart is a green island in mid-river. I preferred to narrow piece decked over, on which are make the remainder of the voyage in com. placed the cooking arrangements. This is pany of my collections, so bade Mr. Patchett called the tombadilha or quarterdeck, and good-day. The owner of the Santa Rosa, when the canoe is heavily laden it goes un- Senhor Jacinto Machado, whom I had not der water as the vessel heels over to the wind. seen before, received me aboard, and apolo. There are two masts, rigged with fore and gized for having started without me. He aft sails. The foremast has often, besides, was a white man, a planter, and was now a main and top sail. The forepart is planked taking his year's produce of cacao, about over at the top, and on this raised deck the twenty tons, to Pará. The canoe was very crew work the vessel, pulling it along, when heavily laden, and I was rather alarıued to there is no wind, by nieans of the long oars see that it was leaking at all points. The already described.

crew were all in the water, diving about to As I have just said, my luggage was em- feel for the holes, which they stopped with barked in the morning. I was informed that pieces of rag and clay, and an old peglo was we should start with the ebb-tide in the after. baling the water out of the hold. This was noon, so I thought I should have time to a pleasant prospect for a three-days' voyage. pay my respects to Dr. Angelo and other Senhor Machado treated it as the most ordifriends, whose extreme courtesy and good. nary incident possible: “It was always ness had made my residence at Cametá so likely to leak, for it was an old vessel that agreeable. After dinner the guests, accord. bad been left as worthless high and dry on ing to custɔm at the house of the Correias, the beach, and he had bought it very cheap." walked into the cool veranda which over. When the leaks were stopped, we proceeded looks the river ; and there we saw the Santa on our journey, and at night reached the Rosa, a mere speck in the offing miles away, mouth of the Anapú. I wrapped myself in tacking duwn river with a fine breeze. I an old sail, and fell asleep on the raised deck, was now in a fix, for it would be useless at. The next day tie threaded the Igarapé-mirim stempting to overtake the cuberta, and be- and on the 19th descended the Mojí. sides the sea ran too high for any montaria. Senhor Machado and I by this time had be. I was then told, that I ought to have been come very good friends. At every interest. aboard huury before the time fixed for start- ing spot on the banks of the Mujú, he fing, because when a breeze springs up, ves- manned the small boat and took me ashore. :sels start before the tide turns, the last hour There are many large houses on this river, of the flood not being very strong. All my belonging to what were formerly large and precious collections, my clothes, and other flourishing plantations, but which, since the necessaries were on board, and it was indis. Revolution of 1835-6, had been suffered to pensable that I should be at Pará when the go to decay. Two of the largest buildings ibings were disembarked. I tried to hire a were constructed by the Jesuits in the early montaria and men, but was told that it would part of the last century. We were told that be madness to cross the river in a small buat there were formerly eleven large sugar-mills with this breeze. On going to Senhor Law on the banks of the Mojú, while now there roque, another of my Cametá friends, I was are only three. At Burujúba there is a large relieved of my embarrassment ; for I found monastery in a state of ruin ; part of the there an English gentleman, Mr. Patchett, of edifice, bowever, was still inhabited by a Pernambuco, who was visiting Pará and its Brazilian family. The walls are four feet in neighborhood on his way to England, and thickness. The long dark corridors and who, as he was going back to Pará in a gloomy cloisters struck me as very inapprosmall boat with four paddles, which would priate in the midst of this young and radiant start at midnight, kindly offered me a pass. nature. They would be better in place on age. The evening from seved to teu o'clock some barren moor in Northern Europe, than was very stormy. About seven, the night here in the midst of perpetual summer. became intensely dark, and a terrific squall The next turn in the river below Burujába of wind burst forth, which made the loose brought the city of Pará into view. The stiles tly over the house-tops ; to this succeed. wind was now against us, and we were obliged

ed lightning and stupendous claps of thunder, tack about. Toward evening it began to iboth nearly simultaneous. We had had sev. inlow stifiy, the vessel heeled over vers

mnch, and Senhor Machado, for the first prise. One of the largest of these establishtime, trembled for the safety of his cargo; ment is called Caripí. At the time of which I the leaks burst out afresh, when we were yet am speaking it belonged to a Scotch gentle two miles from the shore. He ordered an- man, Mr. Campbell, who had married the other sail to be hoisted, in order to run more daughter of a large Brazilian proprietor. quickly into port, but soon afterward an ex. Most of the occasional English and American tra puff of wind came, and the old boat visitors to Pará had made some stay at lurched alarrr.ingly, the rigging gave way, Caripí, and it had obtained quite a reputa. and down fell boom and sail with a crash, en. tion for the number and beauty of the birds cumbering us with the wreck. We were and iusects found there. I therefore applied then obliged to have recourse to oars ; and for and obtained permission to spend two or as soon as we were near the land, fearing three months at the place. The distance that the crazy vessel would sink before reach from Pará was about 23 miles, round by the ing port, I begged Sephor Machado to send northern end of the Ilha das Onças (Isle of me asbore in the boat, with the more pre. Tigers), which faces the city. I bargained cious portion of my collections.

for a passage thither with the cabo of a CHAPTER V.

small trading.vessel, which was going past the

place, and started on the 7th of December, CARIPÍ AND THE BAY OF MARAS. 1848. River Park and Bay of Marajo-Jonrney to Carini Negro Observance of Christmas-A German Family - Bats --Ant-eaters - Humming-birds-Excursion to

hy pretty mulatto mistress, the pilot, and five the Murucupí-Domestic Life of the Inhabitants Hunting Excursion with Indians-White Ants. (tailor's apprentices who were taking a holiday

THAT part of the Pará River which lies in trip to Cametá), a runaway slave heavily front of the city, as I have alrearly explained, chained, and myself. The young mamelucos forms a narrow channel, being separated were pleasant, gentle fellows ; they could from the main waters of the estuary hy a read and write, and amused themselves on cluster of islands. This channel is about two) the voyage with a book containing descripmiles broad, and constitutes part of the minor tions and statistics of foreign countries, in esluary of Goajará, into which the three riv. which they seemed to take great interest ers Guainá, Mojú, and Arará (lischarge their one reading while the others listened. At waters. The main channel of the Pirá lies Uirapiranga, a small island behind the Ilha len miles away from the city, directly across das Ouças, we had to stop a short time 10 the river ; at that point, after getting clear of embark several pipes of cashaça at a sugar the islands, a great expanse of water is be. estate. The cabo took the montaria and two held, ten to twelve miles in width : the op- men ; the pipes were rolled into the water posite shore-the island of Marajó - being and Roated to the canoe, the men passing visible only in clear weather as a line of tree- cables round and towing them through a tops dotting the horizon. A little further rough sea. Here we slept, and the following wyward, that is, to the south-west. the main morning, continuing our voyage, entered & land on the right or eastern shore appears ; narrow channel which intersects the land of this is called Carnapijó; it is rocky, covered Carnapijó. At two P.M. we emerged from with the never-ending forest, and the coast, this channel, which is called the Aititûba, which is fringed with broad sandy beaches, or Arrozal, into the broad Bahia, and then describes a gentle curve inward. The broad saw, two or three miles away to the left, the rench of the Pará in front of this coast is red-tiled mansion of Caripí, embosomed in called the Bahia, or Bay of Marajú. The woods on the shores of a charming little bay, coast and the interior of the land are peopled I remained here nine weeks, or until the by civilized Indians and mamelucos, with a 12th of February, 1849. The house was very mixture of free negroes and mulattoes. They large and most substantially built, but conare poor, for the waters are not abundant in sisted of only one story. I was told it was fish, and they are dupenilent for a livelihood built by the Jesuits more than a century ago. solely on their small plantations, and the The front had no veranda, the doors openscaniy supply of game found in the woods. ing on a slightly-elevated terrace, about a The district was originally peupled by vari- hundred yards distant from the broad sandy ous tribes of Indians, of whom the principal beach. Around the residence the ground were the Tupinambás and Nhengahíbas. had been cleared to the extent of two or Like all the coast tribes, whether inhabiting three acres, and was planted with fruit-trees. the banks of the Amazons or the sea-shore Well-trodden pathways through the forest between Pará and Bahia, they were far led to little colonies of the natives, on the more advanced in civilization than the hordes banks of retired creeks and rivulets in the scattered through the interior of the country, interior. I led here a solitary but not un. some of which still remain in the wild state. pleasant life ; for there was a great charm in between the Amazons and the Plata. There the loneliness of the place. The swell of are three villages on the coast of Carnapijó, the river beating on the sloping beach caused and several planters' houses, formerly the an unceasing murmur, which Julled me to centres of flourishing estates, which have sleep at night, and seemed appropriate music now relapsed into forest in consequence of in those mid-day hours when all nature was the scarcity of labor and diminished euter- pausing breathless under the rays of the ver

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