« EelmineJätka »
ever the creek, and revealed groups of arbo- of our bed, and when I awoke, in the middle rescent auiums standing like rows of spcctres of a dream about home scenes, the day was on its banks. We had a glimpse now and beginning to dawn. My clothes were quite then into the black denths of the forest. wet with the dew. The birds were astir, the where all was silent excént the shrill stridu- cicadas had begun their music, and the lation of wood crickets. "Now and then a Urania Leilus, a strange and beautiful tailed sudden plunge in the water ahead would and gilded moth, whose habits are those of a startle us. caused by heavv fruit or some butterfly, commenced to fly in flocks over the nocturnal animal dropping from the trees. tree-tops. Raimundo exclaimed, “ Claroia () The two Indians here rested on their paddles, dia !" " The day brightens !” The change and allowed the canoe to drift with ihe lide. was rapid ; the sky in the east assumed su:A pleasant verfume came from the forest. denly the loveliest azure color, across which which Raimundo said proceeded from a cane. Streaks of thin white clouds were painted. field. He told me that all this land was it
Call this land was It is at such moments as this when one feels owned by large proprietors at Pará, who had how beautiful our earth truly is ! The chanreceived prants from time t time from the nel on whose waters our little boat was foatGovernment for political services. Raimun. ing was about two hundred yards wide : do was quite in a talkative lyumor ; he re
others branched off right and left, surroundlatel to me many incidents of the ume of the ing the group of lonely islands which termi" Cabanagem" is the revolutionary days of nate the land of Carnapijó. The forest on 1835-6 are popularly called. He said he had all sides formed a lofty hedge without a been much suspected himself of being a rebel,
break ; below, it was fringed with mangrove but declared that the suspicion was unfound. bushes, whose sniall foliage contrasted with ed. The only complaint he had to make the large glossy leaves of the talier trees, or against the white man was, tbat he monopo
the feather and fan-shaped fronds of palmis. lized the land without having any intention
Being now arrived at our destination, Raior prospect of cultivating it. He had been
muudo turned up his trousers and shirtturned out of one place where le bad squat
sleeves, took his long hunting-knife, and ted and cleared a arcre piece of forest. I be leaped ashore with the dogs. He had to cut lieve the law of Brazil at this time was that a gap
that a gap in order to enter the forest. We exthe new lands should become the property of pected
of pected to find Pacas and Cutías ; and the those who cleared and cultivated them, if meth
S them if method adopted to secure them was this : At their right was not disputed within a given the present early hour they would be seen term of years by some one who claimed the feeding on fallen fruits, but would quickly. proprietorship. This land law has since been on hearing a noise, betake themselves to their repealed, and a new one adopted, founded on
burrows : Raimundo was then to turn them that of the United States. Raimundo spoke out by
Oke out by means of the dogs, and Joaquim ani of his race as the red-skins. " pelle vermel. I were to remain in the boat with uur guns. ho;" they meant well to the whites, and only
ready to shoot all that came to the edge of the begged to be let alone. "God" he said. stream--the habits of both animals, when “ had given room enough for us all.” It
hard-pressed, being to take to the water. was pleasant to hear the shrewd, good-natured
We had not long to wait. The first arrival fellow talk in this strain. Our companion,
was a Paca, a reddish, nearly lailless Rodent, Joaquim, hail failen asleep ; the night air
spotted with white on the sides, and intermewas cool, anl the moonlight lit up the fea
diate in size and appearance betweeu a hug tures of Ritimuundo, revealing a more ani.
andia hare. My first shot did not take effect; maied expression than is usually observable
the animal dived into the water and did not in Indian couwenances. I always noticed reappear. A second was brought down by that Iu lians were more cheerful on a voyage, I
muy coin panion as it was rambling about especially in the coul hours of night and under the
na under the mangrove bushes. A Cutia next morning than when ashore. There is some appeared ; this is also & Rodent, about onethin' in their constitution of body which third the size of the Paca : it swims, but does makes them feel excessively depressed in the not dive, and I was fortunate enough to shoot hot hours of the day, especially inside their it. We obtained in this way two more Pacas houses. Their skin is always hot to the and another Cutia. All the time the cogs touch. They certainly do not en lure the were yelping in the torest. Shortly after: heat of their own climate so well as the ward Raimundo made his appearance, and whites. The negroes are totally different in
told us to paddle to the other side of the this respect; the heat of mid-day has very
islunii. Arrived there, we landed and preJittle effect on them. and they dislike the cold pared for breakfast. It was a pretty spot-a nights on the river.
clean, while, sanddy beach beneath the shade We arrived at our hunting ground about
of wide-spreiding trees. Joaquim made a half-past four. The channel was here
fire. He first scraped fine shavings from the broader, and presented several ramifications.
midrib of a Bacaba palm-leaf ; these he piled It vet wanted an hour and a half to daybreak. into little heap in a dry place, and then 80 Raimundo recommended me to have a struck a light in,
struck a light in his bamboo tinder-box with nan. We buth stretched ourselves on the a piece of an old file and a fint, the tinder benches of the canoe and fell asleep. letting being a felt-like, soft substance manufactured the boat drift with the tide, which was now by an ant (Polyrhachis bispinosus). By gen. slack. I slept well, considering the hardness tle blowing the shavings ignited, dry sticks
were piled on them, and a good fire soon re- boat was very small and heavily laden ; and sulted. He then singed and prepared the when, after rounding a point, I saw the great cutía, finishing by running a spit through the breadth we had to traverse (seven miles), I body, und fixing one end in the ground in a thought the attempt to cross in such a slight slanting position over the fire. We had vessel foolhardy in the extreme. The waves brought with us a bag of farinha and a cup ran very high : there was no rudder ; Raicontaining a lemon, à dozen or two of fiery mundo steered with a paddle, and all we bad red peppers, and a few spoonfuls of salt. to rely upon to save us from falling into the We breakfasted heartily when our cutía was trough of the sea and being instantly swamped roasted, and washed the meal down with & were his nerve and skill. There was just calabash full of the pure water of the river. room in the boat for our three selves, the
After breakfast the dogs found another dogs, and the game we had killed ; and when cutía, which was hidden in its hurrow two between the swelling ridges of waves in so or three feet beneath the roots of a large tree, frail a shell, our destruction seemed inevitaand took Raimundo nearly an hour to disin- ble; as it was, we shipped a little water now ter it. Soon afterward we left this place, and then. Joaquim assisted with his paddle crossed the channel, and, paddling past two to steady the boat; my time was fully occuislands, obtained a glimpse of the broad river pied in baling out the water and watching between them, with a long sandy spit, on the dogs, which were crowded together in which stood several scared ibises and snow. the prow, yelling with fear, one or other of white egrets. One of the islands was low them occasionally falling over the side and and sandy, and half of it was covered with causing great commotion in scrambling in gigantic arum-trees, the often-mentioned again. Off the point was a ridge of rocks, Caladium arborescens, which presented a over which the surge raged furiously. Raistrange sight. Most people are acquainted mundo sat in the stern, rigid and silent; his with the little British species, Arum macula- eye steadily watching the prow of the boat. tum, wbich grows in hedge-bottoms, and It was almost worth the risk and discomfort many, doubtless, have admired the larger of the passage to witness the seamanlike kinds grown in hot-houses ; they can there- ability displayed by Indians on the water. fore form some idea of a forest of arums. The little boat rode beautifully, rising well On this islet the woudy stems of the plants with each wave, and in the course of an hour near the bottom were eight to ten inches in and a balf we arrived at Caripí, thoroughly diameter, and the trees were twelve to fifteen tired and wet through to the skin. feet high, all growing together in such a On the 16th of January the dry season manner that there was just room for a man came abruptly to an end. The sea-breezes, to walk freely between them. There was a which had been increasing in force for some cauoe in-shore, with a man and a woman ; days, suddenly ceased, and the atmosphere the man, who was hooting with all his might, became misty ; at length heavy clouds collect. told us in passing that his son was lost in ed where a uniform blue sky bad for many the “aningal” (arum-grove). He had strayed weeks prevailed, and down came a succession while walking ashore, and the father had of heavy showers, the first of which lasted a been an hour waiting for him in vain. whole day and night. This seemed to give a
Abuut one o'clock we again stopped at the new stimulus to animal life. On the first mouth of a little creek. It was now intense. night there was a tremendous uproar-treely hot. Raimundo said deer were found frogs, crickets, goat-suckers, and owls all here ; so he borrowed my gun, as being a joining to perform a deafening concert. One more effective weapon than the wretched kind of goat-sucker kept repeating at interarms called Lazarinns, which he, in common vals throughout the night a phrase similar to with all the native hunters, used, and which the Portuguese words, “ Joað corta pao,”sell at Pará for seven or eight shillings “John, cut wood;" a phrase which forms apiece. Raimundu and Joaquim now stripped the Brazilian name of the bird. An owl in themselves quite naked, and started off in one of the Genipapa trees muttered now and different directions through the forest, going then a succession of syllables resembling the naked in order to move with less noise over word “ Murucututú.” Sometimes the croak. the carpet of dead leaves, among which they ing and hooting of frogs and toads were so stepped so stealthily that not the slightest loud that we could not hear one another's rustle could be heard. The dogs remaiued voices within doois. Swarns of dragon-flies in the canoe, in the neighborhood of which I appeared in the daytime about the pocls of employed myself two hours entomologizing. water created by the rain, and ants and terAt the end of that time my two companions mites came forth in the winged state in vast returned, having met with no game whatever numbers. I noticed that the winged termites,
We now embarked on our return voyage, or white ants, which came by hundreds to the Raimundo cut two slender poles, one for å lamps at night, when alighting on the table, mast and the other for a sprit : to these he often jerked off their wings by a voluntary rigged a sail we had brought in the bout, for movement. On examination I found that we were to return by the open river, and ex. the wings were not shed by the roots, for a pected a good wind to carry us to Caripí. As small portion of the stumps remained attached soon as we got out of the channel we began to the thorax. The edge of the fructure was to feel the wind-the sea-breeze, which bere in all cases straight, nut ruptured ; there is, makes a clean sweep from the Atlantc. Our in fact, a natural seam rossing the member
toward its root, and at this point the long were found on flowers, on trunks of trees, or wing naturally drops or is jerked off when flying about the new clearings. One small the insect has no further use for it. The species (Coremia hirtipes) has a tuft of hiir white ant is endowed with wings simply for on its hind legs, while many of its sister spee the purpose of flying away from the colony cies have a similar ornament on the antennæ. peopled by its wingless companions, to pair It suggests curious reflections when we see witi individuals of the same or other colonies, an ornament like the feather of a grenadier's and thus propagate and disseminate its kind. cap situated on one part of the body in one The winged individuals are mules and fe- species, and in a totally different part in males, while the great bulk of their wingless nearly allied ones. I tried in vain to discover fraternity are of no sex, but are of two castes, the use of these curious brush-like decorasoldiers and workers, which are restricted to tions. On the trunk of a living leguminous the functions of building the bests, nursing, tree, Petzell found a number of it very and defending the young brood. The two rare and handsome species, the Platystersexes mate while on the ground after the nus bebræus, which is of a broad shape, wiugs are shed ; and then the married colored ochreous, but spotted and striped couples, if they escape the numerous enemies with black, so as to resemble a domino. which lie in wait for them, proceed to the On the felled trunks of trees, Swarms task of founding new colonies. Ants and of gilded-green Longicornes occurred, of white ants have much that is analogous in small size (Chrysoprasis), which looked like thcir modes of life ; they belong, however, miniature musk-beetles, and, indeed, are to two widely different orders of insects, closely allied to those well-known European strongly contrasted in their structure and insects. manner of growth.
At length, on the 12th of February, I left I amassed at Caripí a very large collection Caripí, my negro and Indian neighbors bid. of beautiful and curious insects, amounting ding me a warm “ adeos.” I had passed a altogether to about twelve hundred species. delightful time, notwithstanding the many The number of Coleoptera was remarkable, privativus undergove in the way of food. seeing that this order is so poorly represented The wet season had now set in ; the lownear Pará. I attributed their abundance to lands and islands would soon become flooded the number of new clearings made in the vir daily at high water, and the difficulty of obgin forest by the native settlers. The felled taining fresh provisious would increase. I timber attracts lignivorous insects, and these intended, therefore, to spend the next three draw in their train the predaceous species of months at Pará, in the neighborhood of various families. As a general rule, the which there was still much to be done species were smaller and much less brilliant in the intervals of fine weather, and then in colors than those of Mexico and South start off on another excursion into the inBrazil. The species tvo, although numerous terior. were not represented by great numbers of individuals ; they were also extremely nimble,
CHAPTER VI. and therefore much less easy of capture than
TIE LOWER AMAZONS- PARÁ TO OBYDOS. insects of the same order in temperate cli. mates. The carnivorous beetles at Caripí Modes of Travelling on the Amazons-Dreparations
for Voyage-Life on Board a large Trading-vesselwere, like those of Pará, chiefly arboreal,
The Narrow Channels joining the Pará to the AmaMost of them exhibited a beautiful contriv. zons-First sight of the Great River-Gurupá -The ance for enabling them to cling to and run
Great Shoal--Flat-topped Mountains-Santaremover smooth or flexible surfaces, such as
Obydos. leaves. Their tarsi or feet are broil, and At the time of my first voyage up the Am. furnished beneath with a brush vf shiort, stiff azons-nainely, in 1849-nearly all commu. hairs, while their claws are toothed in the nication with the interior was by means of form of a comb, adapting them for clinging small sailing-vessels, owned by traders residto the smooth edges of leaves, the joint of ing in the remote towns and villages, who the foot which precedes the claw being cleft seldom came to Pará themselves, but inLo Ho to allow free play to the claw in grasp. trusted vessels and cargoes to the care of ing. The common dung-beetles at Caripí, half-breeds or Portuguese cabos. Sometimes, which flew about in the evening like the indeed, they risked all in the bands of tho O trupes, the familiar "shardborue beetle Indian crew, making the pilot, whiu was also . with his drowsy hum" of our English lanes, steersman, do duty as supercargo. Now aud were of colossal size and beautiful colors. then, Portuguese and Brazilian merchants at One kind had a long spear-shaped horn pro- Pará furnished young Portuguese with mer. jecting from the crown of its head (Phanæus chandise, and dispatched them to the interior, lancifer). A blow from this fellow, as he to exchange the goods for produce among came heavily flying along, was never very the scattered population. The means of com pleasant. All the tribes of beetles which feed munication, in fact, with the upper parts of on vegetable substances, fresh or decayed, the Amazons had been on the decrease for were very numerous. The most beautiful of some time, on account of the augmenteri these, but not the most common, were the difficulty of obtaining hands to navigate ves. Longicornes, very graceful insects, having sels. Formerly, when the Government slender bodies and long antennæ, often orna- wished to send any important functionary, mented with fringes and tufts of hair. They such as a judge or a military uominandunt
Into the interior, they equipped a swift-sail. waters of the Mojú. ing galliota, manned with ten or a dozen In- Joao da Cunha, like most of his fellow dians. These could travel, on the average, countrymen, took matters very easily. He in one day farther than the ordinary sailing was going to be absent in the interior several craft could in three. Indian paddlers were years, and therefore intended to diverge from now, however, almost impossible to be ob- his route to visit his native place, Caructá, tained, and Government officers were obliged and spend a few days with his friends. It to travel as passengers in trading-vessels. seemed not to matter to him that he had a The voyage made in this way was tedious in cargo of merchandise, vessel, and crew of the extreme. When the regular east wind twelve persons, which required an economiblew-the “ vento geral,” or trade-wind of cal use of time; “ pleasure first and business the Amazons-sailing-vessels could get along afterward" appeared to be his maxim. We very well ; but when this failed they were stayed at Cametá twelve days. The chief obliged to remain, sometimes many days to- motive for prolonging the stay to this extent gether, anchored near the shore, or progress was a festival at the Aldeia, two miles below laboriously by means of the “espia." The Cametá, which was to commence on the latter mode of travelling was as follows. 21st, and which my friend wished to take part The montaria, with twenty or thirty fathoms in. On the day of the festival the schooner of cable, one end of which was attached to was sent down to anchor off the Aldeia, and the foremist, was sent ahead with a couple master and men gave themselves up to rev. of hands, who secured the other end of the elry. In the evening a strong breeze sprang rope to some strony bough or iree-trunk ; the up, and orders were given to embark. We crew then hauled the vessel up to the point, scrambled down in the dark through the after which the men in the boat re-embarked thickets of cacao, orange, and coffee trees the cable, and paddled forward to repeat the which clothed the high bank, and, after run. process. In the dry season, from Aigust to ning great risk of being swamped by the December, when the trade-wind is strong beavy sea in the crowded montaria, got all and the currents slack, a schoner could aboaid by nine o'clock. We made all sail reach the inouth of the Rio Negro, a thuu. amid the “ adeos' shouted to us liy Indian sand miles from Pará, in about forty dirys; and mulatto sweetliearts from the top of the but in the wet season, from January to July, bank, and, tide and wind being favorable, when the east wind no longer biows, and the were 80őn miles away. Amazon pours forth its full volume of Our crew consistedi, as already mentioned, water, flooding the bauks and producing a of twelve persons. One was a young Portutearing current, it took three months to travel guese from the province of Traz os Montes, the same distance. It was a great blessing a pretty sample of the kind of emigrants to the inhabitants when, in 1853, a line of which Portugal sends to Brazil. He was steamers was established, an: this same jour two or three and twenty years of age, and ney could be accomplished, with ease and had been about two years in the country, comfort, at all seasons, in eight days! dressing and living like the Indians, to whom
he was certainly iuferior in mappers. He While preparing for my voyage it hap. could not read or write, whereas one at least pened, fortunately, that the half-brother of of our Tapuyos had both accomplishments. Dr. Angelo Custodio, a young mestizo, He had a little wooden image of Nossa named Jouo da Cunha Correia, was about Senhora in his rough wooden clothes-chest, starting for the Amazons on a trading expe- and to this he always bad recourse when any dition in his own vessel, a schooner of about squall arose, or when we got aground on a forty tons' burden. A passage for me was soon shoal. Another of our sailors was a tawny arranged with him through the intervention white of Cametá ; the rest were ludians, cxof Dr. Angelo, and we started on the 5th of cept the cook, who was a Cafuzo, or halfSeptember, 1849. I intended to stup at one vil breed between the Indian and negro. It is lage on the northern shore of the Lower Am- often said that this class of mestizos is the azons, where it would be interesting to make most evilly disposed of all the numerous collections, in order to show the relations of crosses between the races inhabiting Brazil ; the fauna to those of Pará and the coast re- but Luiz was a simple, good-hearted fellow, gion of Guiana. As I should have to hire a always ready to do one a service. The pilot house or hut wherever I stayed, I took all was an old Tapuyo of Pará, with regular oval the materials for housekeeping - cooking face and well-shaped fealures. I was aston. utensils, crockery, and so forth. To these ished at his endurance. He never quitted were added a stock of such provisions as it the helm night or day, except for two or would be difficult to obtain in the interior ; three hours in the morning. The other Inalso ammunition, chests, store-boxes, a small dians used to bring him his coffee and meals library of natural history books, and a hun. and after breakfast one of them relieved bim dred-weight of copper money. I cngaged, for a time, when he used to lie down on the after some trouble. a mameluco youth to ac quarter-deck und get his two bours' nap. company me as servant--a short, fat, yellow. The Indians forward had things pretty much face:l boy named Luco, whom I had already their own way. No system of watches was employed at Pará iu collecting. We weighed followed ; when any one was so disposed, he anchor at night, and, on the following day, lay down on the deck and went to sleep ; but found ourselves gliding along the dark brown a feeling of good-fellowship seemed always
to exist among them. One of them was a panse. I noticed, both on this and on the ine specimen of the Indian race-aman very ihree subsequent occasions of passing this litte short of six feet high, with remarkable place, in ascending and descending the river, breadth of shoulder and full muscular chest. that the flow of the tide from the cast along His comrades called him the commandant, the estuary, as well as up the Breves, was op account of his having been one of the very strong. This seems sufficient to provo rebel leaders when the Indians and others that no considerable volume of water passes dok Santarem in 1835. They related of him by this medium from the Amazons to the that, when the legal authorities arrived with Pará, and that the opinion of those geog. an armed flotilla to recapture the town, he raphers is an incorrect one, who believe the was one of the last to quit, remaining in the Pará to be one of the mouths of the great river. Little fortress which commands the place to There is, however, another channel connectmike a show of loading the guns, although ing the two rivers, which enters the Pará six the ainmunition had given out loug ago. miles to the south of the Breves. The luwer Such were our travelling companions. We part of its course for eighteen miles is formed lived almost the same as on board ship. Our by the Uanapú, a large and independent river meals were cooked in the galley ; but, where flowing from the suuth. The tidal fluw is practicable, and during our numerous stop- said by the natives tu produce little or no pages, the men went in the montaria to fish current up this river-a fact which seems to near the shore, so that our breakfasts and afford a little support to the view just stated. dinners of salt pirarecu were sometimes vaWe passed the village of Breves at three ried with fresh food.
P.M. on the 26th. It consists of about furty September 24th. - We passed Entre-as-Ilhas houses, most of which are occupied by Porn with the morning tide yesterday, and then tuguese shopkeepers. A few Indian families made across to the eastern shore-the start. reside here, who occupy themselves with the iny-point for all canoes which have to tra manufacture of ornamental pottery and verse the broad mouth of the Tocantins, go. painted cuyas, which they sell to traders or ing west. Early this morning we commenced passing travellers. The cuyas - drinking the passage. The navigation is attended cups made from gourds—are sometimes very with danger, on account of the exteusive tastefully painted. The rich black groundsloals in the middle of the river, which are color is produced by a dye made from the cuvered only by a small depth of water at bark of a tree called Comateü, the gummy this seasou of the year The wind was fresh, nature of which imparts a fine polish. The and the schooner rolled and pitched like a yellow tints are made with the Tabatinga zhip at sea. The distance was ahcat fifteen clay ; the red with the seeds of the Urucú, miles. In the middle, the river-view was or analto plant ; and the blue with indigo, very imposing. Toward the north-east there which is plantend round the huts. The art is Was & long sweep of hcrizon clear of land, indigenous with the Amazonian Indiaus, but and on the south-wost stretched a similar it is only the settled agricultural tribes heboundless expanse, but varied with islets longing to the Tupí stock who practise it. clothed with fan-caved palms, which, how. September 27th–30th.–After passing Breves ever, were visible only as isolated groups of we continued our way slowly along a chancolumns, tufted at the top, rising here and nel, or series of channels, of variable width. there amid ihe waste of waters. In tne after. On the morning of the 27th we had a fair noon we rounded the westernmost point; the wind, the breadth of the stream varying from land, which is not terra firma, but simply a about 150 to 400 yards. About midday we group of large islands forming a portion of passed, on the western side, the mouth of the The Tocantins delta, was then about three Aturiazal, through which, on account of its miles distant.
swifter current, vessels pass in descending On the following day (25th) we sailed to from the Amazons to Pará. Shortly afterward the west, along the upper portion of the ward we entered the narrow channel of the Pará estuary, which extends seventy miles Jaburú, which lies twenty miles above the beyond the mouth of the Tocantins. It va- mouth of the Breves. Here commences tho ries in width from three to five miles, but peculiar scenery of this remarkable region. broadens rapidly near its termination, where We found ourselves in a parrow and nearly it is eight or nine miles wide. The northern straight canal, not more than eighty to a hunshire is formed by the Island of Marajó, and dred yards in width, and hemmel in by two is slightly elevated and rocky in some parts. walls of forest, which rose quite perpendicuA series of islands conceals ibe southern larly from the water to a height of seventy shore from view most part of the way. The or eighty feet. The water was of great and whole country, mainland and islands, is c). uniform depth, even close to the banks We ered with forest. We had a good wind all seemed to be in a deep gorge, and the strange day, and about seven P.M. enteret the nar: impression the place produced was augmented row river of Breves, which commences ab. by the dull echoes wakened by the voices of ruptly the extensive labyrinth of channels our Indians and the splash of their paddles. that connects the Pará with the Amizons. The foret was excessively varied. Some of The sudden termination of the Pitrá, at a the trees, the dime-topper giants of the point where it expands to so great it breadth, Leguminous aad Bombaceous orders, reared is remarkable; the water, hiwever, is very their heads far above the average height of shallow uver the greatur portion of the ex. the green walls. The fan-leaved Mirilî palm