« EelmineJätka »
was scattered in some numbers amid the lower down, I suppose the currents are die rest, a few solitary specimens shooting up' verted through some of the numerous chantheir smuoth columns above the other trees. pels which we passed on our right, and which The graceful Assai palm grew in little traverse, in their course, tuward the sea, the groups, forming feathery pictures set in the north-western part of Marajó. In the even. rounder foliagą of the mass. The Ubussú, ing of the 29th we arrived at a point where lower in height, showed only its shuttlecock- another channel joins the Jabuiú from the shaped crowns of huge divided fronds, north-east. Up this the tide was flowing ; which, being of a vivid pale-green, contrasted we turned westward, and thus met the flood forcibly against the sombre hues of the sur- coming from the Amazons. This point is rounding foliage. The Ubussú grew here in the object of a strange superstitious observ. great numbers; the equally remarkable ance on the part of the canoe-men. It is said Jupatí palm (Rhaphia tædigera), which, like to be haunted by a Pajé, or Indian wizard, tbe Ubussú, is peculiar to this district, oc whom it is necessary to propitiate, by deposcurred more sparsely, throwing its long iting some article on the spot, if the voyager shaggy leaves, forty to fifty feet in length, in wishes to secure a safe return from ihe broad arches over the canal. An infinite di “sertað," as the interior of the country is versity of smaller-sized palms decorated the called. The trees were all budg with rags, water's edge, such as the Marajá-i (Bactris, shirts, straw hats, bunches of fruit, and so many species), the Ubim (Geonoma), and a forth. Although the superstition doubtless few stately Bacábas (Enocarpus bacaba). originated with the aborigines, yet I ubThe shape of this last is exceedingly elegant, served, in both my voyages, that it was only the size of the crown being in proper pro- the Portuguese and uneducated Brazilians portion to the straight smouth stem. The wbo deposited anything. The pure Iudians leaves, down even to the bases of the glossy gave pothing, and treated the whole affair as petioles, are of a rich dark-green color, and a humbug ; but they were all civilized free from spines. “The forest wall”-I am Tapuyos. extracting from my journal“ under which On the 301h, at nine P.M., we reached a we are now moving, consists, besides palms, broud channel called Macaco, and now left of a great variety of ordinary forest-trees. the dark, echoing Jaburú. The Macaco From the highest branches of these down to sends off bradchics toward the north-west the water sweep ribbons of climbing plants, coast of Marajó. It is merely a passage of the most diverse and ornamental foliage among a cluster of islands, between which a possible. Creeping convolvuli and others glimpse is occasionally obtained of the broad hare made use of the slender lianas and hang. waters of the main Amazuns. A brisk wiod ing air-roots as ladders to climb by. Now carried us rapidly past its monotonous and then appears a Mimosa or other tree hav- scenery, and early in the morning of the 1st ing similar fine pinnate foliage, and ibick of October we reached the entrance of the masses of Ingá border the water, from whose Uituquára, or the Wind-hole, which is 15 branches hang long bean-pods, of different piles distant from the end of the Jaburú. shape and size, according to the species, This is also a winding channel, 35 miles in some of them a yard in length. Flowers length, tbreading a group of islands, but it is there are very few. I see, now and then, a much nariower iban the Macaco. gorgeous crimson blossom on long spikes On emerging from the Uituquára on the ornamenting the sombre foliage toward the 2d, we all went ashore—the men to tisli in a summits of the forest. I suppose it to be small creek, Joao da Cunha and I to shoot long to a climber of the Combretaceous or birds. We saw a flock of scarlet and blue der. There are also a few yellow and violet macaws (Macrocercus macao) feeding on the Trumpet-flowers (Bignoniæ). The blossoms of fruits of a hacaba palm, and looking like a the Ingás, although not conspicuous, are del cluster of flaunting banners bencath its darkicately beautiful. The forest all along offers green crown. We landed about fifty yards 80 dense a front that one never obtuius a from the place, and crept cautiously through glimpse into the interior of the wilderness." the forest, but before we reached ihem they
The length of the Jaburú channel is about flew off with loud barsh screams. At a wild85 miles, allowing for the numerous abrupt fruit tree we were more successful, as my bends which occur between the middle and companion hot an anacá (derotypus coronathe northern end of its course. We were tus), one of the most beautiful of the parrot three days and a hulf accomplishing the pas. family. It is of a green color, and was a sage. The banks on each side seemed to be bood of feathers, red bordered with blue, at composed of hard river-mud, with a thick the back of its head, which it can elevate or covering of vegetable mould, so that I should depress at pleasure. The anacá is the only imagine this whole district originatei in a new-world parrot which nearly resembles the gradual accumulation of alluvium, through cockatoo of Australia. It is found in all the which the endless labyrinths of roannels lowlands throughout the Amazons region, have worked their deep and narrow beds. but is not a common bird anywhere. Few The flood-tide, as we travelled noithward, be- persons succeed in taming it, and I never saw came gradually of less assistance to us, as it une that had been taught to speak. The nacaused only a feeble current upward. The tives are very fond of ihe bird nevertheless, pressure of the puters from ibe Amazons and keep it in their houses for the sake of hero makes itself fo't. As this is not llic care seeing the irascible creature expand its beau
tiful frill of feathers, which it readily does
when excited. The men returned with a a cloudlegs sky. , large quantity of fish. I was surprised at the From the mouth of the Xingú the route great variety of species ; the prevailing kind followed by vessels leads straight across the was a species of Loricaria, a foot in length, river, here ten miles broad. Toward mid. and wholly encased iu bony armor. It night the wind failed 118, when we were close abounds at certain seasons in shallow water. to a large sh al called the Baixo Grande. We The flesh is dry, but very palatable. Tiey lay here becaineid in the sickening heat for brought also a small alligator, which they two days, and when the trade-wind recom. called Jacaré curún, and said it was a kind menced with the rising moon at ten p.m. on found only in shallow creeks. It was not the 6th, we found ourselves on a lee-shore. more than two feet in length, although full. Notwithstanding all the efforts of our pilot grown, according to the statement of the In. 10 avoid it, we ran aground. Fortunately, diaus, who said it was a “mai d'ovos," or the bottom consisted ouły of soft mud, so m)ther of eggs, as they had pillaged the that by casting anchor to windward, and pest, wbich they had found near the edge of hauling in with the whole strength of crew the water. The eggs were rather larger than and passengers, we got off after spending an a hen's, and regularly oval in shape, present. uncomfortable night. We rounded the point ing a rough bard surface of sbell. Unfortu. of the shoal in two fathoms water; the head nately, the alligator was cut up ready for of the vessel was then put westward, and by cooking when we returued to the schooner, sunrise we were bounding forward before a and I could not therefore make it note of its steady brecze, all sail set and everybody in peculiarities. The pieces were skewered and good humor. roasted over the fire, each man being his The weather was now delightful for seve. own cook I never saw this species of alli. ral days in succession, the air transparently gator afterward,
clear, and the breeze cool and invigorating. October 31.--About midnight the wind, for At daylight, on the Oth, a chain of blue hiils, which we lid loug been waiting, spraug up, the Serra de Almeyrim, appeared in the dis. the nien weig!ed anchor, and we were soon lance, on the north bank of the river. The fairly embarked on the Amazons. I rose sight was most exhilarating after so long a long before sunrise, to see the great river by sojourn in a flat country. We kept to the moonlight. There was a spanking breeze, southern shore, passing in the course of the and the vessel was bounding gayly over the day the mouths of the Urucuricáya and the Waters. The channel along which we were Aquiquí, two chaunels which communicate sailing was only i narrow arm of the river, with the Xingú. The whole of this southern about two miles in width ; the total breadth coast hence to near Santarem, a distance of at this point is more than twenty miles, but 130 miles, is lowland and quite upinhabited. the stream is divided into three parts by a It is intersected by short arms or back-waters series of large islands. The river, notwith- of the Amazons, which are called in the standing this linnitativn of its breadth, had a Tupí Jangriage Paraná mirims, cr little riv. myst majestic appearance. It did not prc. ers. By keeping to these, small capves can sent that lake-like aspect wbich the waters of travel a great part of the distance without the Pará and Tocantins affect, but had all being much exposed to the heavy seas of the the swing, so to speak, of a vast fluwing main river. The coast throughout has a stream. The ochre-culored turbid waters most desolate aspect; the forest is not su v&offered also a great contrast to the rivers be- ried as on the higher land, and the waterlonging to the Pará system. The cbannel frontage, which is destitute of the green formed a splendid reach, sweeping from mantle of climbing plants that form so rich south-west to north-east, with a horizon of a decoratiun in other parts, is encumbered at water and sky both up stream and down. every step with piles of fallen trees, peopled At eleven A. M we arrived at Gurupá, a small by white egrets, ghostig storks, and solitary village situated on a rocky bank 30 or 40 feet herons. In the evening we passed Almey. high. Here we landed, and I had an oppor. rim. The hills, according to Von Martius, tunity of rambling in the neighboring woods, who landed here, are about 800 feet above which are intersected by numerous path- the level of the river, and are thickly wooded ways, carpeted with Lycopodia growing to a to the summit. They commence on the east height of 8 or 10 inches, and enlivened by by a few low, isolated, and rounded elevapuinbers of glossy blue butterflies of the tions ; but toward the west of the village Tbeclidæ or hair-streak family. At five they assume the appearance of elongated P.M. we were again under weigh. Soon ridges, which seem as if they had been after sunset, as we were crossing the mouth planed down to a uniform height by some ex. of the Xingú, the first of the great tributaries terpal force. The next day we passed in of the Amazons, 1200 miles in length, a succession a series of similar flat-topped black cloud arose suddenly in the north-east. hills, some isolated and of a truncated-pyraJoað da Cunba ordered all sails to be taken midal shape, others prolonged to a length of in, and immediately afterward a furious several miles. There is an interval of low squall burst forth, tearing the waters into country between these and the Almey rim foam, and producing a frightful uproar in range, which has a total length of about 25 the neighboring forests. A drenching rain miles; then commences abruptly the Serra followed, but in half an hour all was again de Marauquá, which is succeeded in a simi. calm, and the full moon appeared sailing in lar way by the Volha Pubre range, the Serrag
de l'apa na-quára, and Pirala-quárii. All at right angles, and contains about 2500 in. these furn astr:kins contrast 1.!) the Serra de habitants. It lies just witbin the mouth of Almeysim in heiug quite destitule of trees. the Tapajos, and is divided into two parts, They dave steep rugged sides, apparvnily the town and ide aldeia or village. The clothed with short herbage, but here and houses of the white and trading classes are there exposing bare white patches. Tieir substantially built, many being of two and total length is about 40 miles. In the rear, three stories, and all whitewashed and tiled. toward the interior, they are succeeded by The aldeia, which contains the Indian porother ranges of hills, communicating with tion of the population, or did so formerly, the central mountain-chain of Guiana, which consists mostly of nud huts, thatched with divides Brazil from Cayenne.
palm-leaves. The situation of the town is As we sailed along the southern shore, dur. very beautiful. The land, although but tag the 6th and two following days, the slightly elevated, does not form, strictly table-topped hills on the opposite side occu. speaking, a portion of the alluvial river pied most of our attention. The river is from plains of the Amazons, but is rather a northfour to five miles broad, and in some places ern prolongation of the Brazilian continental long, low, wooded islands intervene in mid- land. It is scantily wooded, and toward the stream, whose light - green vivid verdure interior consists of undulating campos, which formed a strangely beautiful foreground to are connected with a series of hills extending the glorious landsc pe of broad stream and southward as far as the eye can reach. I gray mountain. Ninety miles beyond subsequently made this place my headquar. Almeyrim stands the village of Monte Alegre, ters for three years. An account of its neigh. wbich is built near the summit of the last borhood is therefore reserved for another hill visible of this chain. At this point the chapter. At the first sight of Santarem, une viver bends a little toward the south, and the cannot help being struck with the advantages hilly country recedes from its shores to reap- of its situation. Although four hundred pear at Obydos, greatly decreased in height, miles from the sea, it is accessible to vessels about a hundred miles farther west.
of heavy tonnage coming straight from the We crossed the river three times between Ailantic. The liver has only two slight Monte Alegra and the next tuwn, Santarem. bends between th's port and the sea, and for In the middle the waves ran very high, and five or six months in the year the Amazon. the vessel lurcheu fearfully, hurling every- jan trade-wind blows with very little interthing that was not well secured from one side ruption, so that sailing ships coming from of the deck to the other. On the morniug of foreign countries could reach the place with the 9th of October, a gentle wind carried us little difficulty. We ourselves had accom. along a “ remanso," or still water, under the plished two hundred miles, or about half the southern shore. These tracts of quiet water distance from the sea, in an ill-rigged vessel, are fregment on the irregular sides of the in three days and a half. Alihough the land stream, and are the effect of counter move in the immediate neighborhood is perhaps ill ments caused by the rapid current of its cen- adapted for agriculture, an immense tract of tral parts. At uine A.M, we passed the mouth rich soil, with forest and meadow land, lies of a Paraná-inirim, called Manica, and then in the opposite banks of the river, and the found a sudden change in the color of the Tapajos leads into the heart of the mining water and aspect of the banks. Instead of provinces of interior Brazil. But where is the low and swampy water-frontage which the population to come from to develop the had prevailed from the mouth of the Xingú, resources of this fine country? At present we saw before us a broad sloping beach of the district within a radius of twenty-five white sand. The forest, instead of being an miles contains barely 6500 inhabitants ; beentangled mass of irregular anıl rank vegeta bind the town, toward the interior, the countion as hitherto, presented a rounded outline, try is uninhabited, and jaguars roam nightly, and created an impression of repose that was at least in the rainy season, close up to the very pleasing. We now approached, in ends of the suburbau streets. fact, the mouth of the Tapajos, whose clear From information obtained here, I fixed olive-green waters here replaced the muddy upon the next town, Obydos, as the best current against which we liad so long been place to stay at a few weeks, in order to in. sailing. Although this is a river of great ex- vestigate the natural productions of the north tent--1000 miles in length, and, for the last side of the Lower Amazons. We started at eighty miles of its course, four to ten in sunrise on the 10th, and being still favored breadth-its contribution to the Amazons is by wind and weather, made a pleasant pas. not perceptible in the middle of the stream. sage, reaching Obydus, which is nearly fifty The white turbid current of the main river miles distant from Santarem, by midnight. flows disdainfully by, occupying ncarly the We sailed all day close to the southern shore, whole breadth of the channel, while the and found the banks here and there dotted darker water of its tributary seems to creep with houses of settlers, each surrounded by elong the shore, and is no longer distinguish its plantation of cacao, which is the staple * ble four or five miles from its mouth. product of the district. This coast has an
We reached Santarem at 11 A.M. The evil reputation for storms and mosquitoes, nwns has a clean and cheerful appearance but we fortunately escaped both. It was refrom the river. It consists of three long markable that we had been troubled by mos. streets, with a few sleeve es crossing them quitoes only on one night, and then to a small
degree, during the whole of our voyage square leagues' extent in the campos, or grass.
I landed at Obydos the next inorning, and land districts, which border the Lago Grande then bid adieu to my kind friend Joao da and other similar inland lakes, near the vil. Cunla, who, after landing my baggage, got lages of Faro and Alemquer. These campos up his anchor and continued on his way. bear a crop of nutritious grass ; but in cerThe town contains about 1200 inhabitants, tain seasons, when the rising of the Amazons and is airily situated on a high bluff, ninety exceeds the average, they are apt to be floodor one hundred feet above the level of the ed, and then the large herds of half-wild catriver. The coast is precipitous for two or tle suffer great mortality from drowning, three miles hence to the west. The cliffs hunger, and the alligators. Neither in cat. consist of the parti-colored clay, or Tabl. tle keeping nor cacao-growing are any but tinga, which occurs so frequently through- the laziest and most primitive methods fol. out the Amazons region ; the strong current lowed, and the consequence is, that the proof the river sets full against them in the sea. prietors are generally poor. son of high water, and annually carries away large portions. The clay in places is strati. The forest at Obydos seemed to abound in fied alternately pink and yellow, the pink monkey's, for I rarely passed a day without beds being the thickest, and of much harder seeing several. I noticed four species : the texture than the others. When I descended Couitá (Ateles paniscus), the Chrysothrix the river ja 1859, a German Major of En. sciureus, the Callithrix torquatus, and our gineers, in the employ of the Government, old Pará friend, Midas ursulus. The Coaitá told me that he had found calcareous layers, is a large black monkey, covered with coarse thickly studded with marine shells inter- hair, and having the prominent parts of the stratified with the clay. On the top of the face of a tawny flesh-colored hue. It is the Tabatinga lies a bed of sand, in some places largest of the Amazouian moukeys in stature, several feet thick, and the whole formation but is excelled in bulk by the " Barrigudo" rests on strata of sandstone, which are ex- (Lagothrix Humboldtii) of the Upper Ama. posed only when the river reaches its lowest zons. It occurs throughout the lowlands of level. Behind the town rises a fine rounded the Lower and Upper Amazons ; but does Lill, ani a range of similar elevations extends not range to the south beyond the limits of siz miles westward, terminating at the mouth the river plains. At that point an allied spe. vf the 'Trombetas,a large river flowing through cies, the white-whiskered Coaitá (Ateles marthe interior of Guiana. Hills and lowlanils ginatus) takes its place. The Coaitás are alike are covered with a sombre rolling for. Called by zoologists spider-monkeys, on acest. The river here is contracted to a breadth count of the length and slenderness of their of rather less than a mile (1738 yards), and body and limbs. In these apes the tail, as a the entire volume of its waters, the collective prehensible organ, reaches its highest degree product of a score of mighty streams, is of perfection ; and on this account it would, poured through the strait with treinendous perhaps, be correct to consider the Coaitás velocity. It must be remarked, however, as the extreme development of the American that the river valley itself is not contracted type of upes. As for as we know, from liv. to this breadth, the opposite shore not being ing and fossil species, the New World nas continental land, but a low alluvial tract, progressed no farther than the Coaitá, toward subject to inundation more or less in the ihe production of a higher form of the Quad. rainy season. Behind it lies an extensive rumanous order. The tendency of nature lake, called the Layo Grande da Ville here has been, to all appearance, simply to Franca, which communicates with the Ama. perfect those organs which adapt the species zons buth above and below Obydos, and has more and more completely to a purely arbotherefore the appearance of a hy-water or un real life ; and no nearer approach has been old channel of the river. This lake is about inade toward the more advanced forms of anthirty-five miles in length, and from four to thropoid apes, which are the products of the ten in width ; but its waters are of little Old World solely. The flesh of this monkey depth, and in the dry season its dimensions is much esteemed by the natives in this part are much lessened. It has no perceptible of the country, and the military comman. current, and does not therefore now divert dant at Obydos, Major Gama, every week any portion of the waters of the Amazons sent a negro hunter to shoot one for his from their main course past Obydus.
table. One day I went on a Coaitá hunt, I remained at Obydos from the 11th of Oc- borrowing a negro slave of a friend to show tober to the 19th of November. I spent me the way. When in the deepest part of a three weeks here, also, in 1859, when the ravine, we heard a rustling sound in the trees place was much changed, through the influx overhead, and Manoel soon pointed out a of Portuguese immigrants and the buiiding Coaitá to me. There was something humau. of a fortress on the top of the bluff. It is like in its appearance, as the lean, dark one of the pleasantest towns on the river. shaggy creature moved deliberately among The houses are all roofed with tiles, and are the branches at a great height. I fired, but mostly of substantial architecture. Most of unfortunately only wounded it in the belly. the Obydos townsfolk are owners of cacao It fell with a crash, headlong, about twenty plantations, which are situated on the low- or thirty feet, and then caught a bough witin lands in the vicinity. Some are large cattle its tail, which grasped it instantaneously, 80 proprietors, and possess estates of many that the animal remained suspended in mid. air. Before I could reload it recovered itself, culiar to tropical America, having long nar. and mounted nimbly to the topmost branches, ruw wings, were very abundant. The pre. out of the reach of a fowling-piece, where vailing ground color of the wings of these we could perceive the poor thing apparently msects is a deep black, and on this are deprobing the wound with its fingers. Coaitás picted spots and streaks of crimson, white, are more frequently kept in a taare state than and bright yellow, in different patterns an any other kind of monkey. The Indians are cording to the species. Their elegant shupe, very fond of them as pets, and the women showy colors, and slow, sailing mode of often suckle them when young at their flight, make them very attractive objects, and breasts. They liecome attached to their mag. their puribers are so great that they form ters, and will sometimes follow them on the quite a feature in the physiognomy of tho ground to considerable distances. I once forest, compensating for the scarcity of flow. saw a most ridiculously tame Coaitá. It was ers. Next to the Heliconii, the Cata. an old female, which accompanied its owner, grammas (C. nstarte and C. peristera) were a trader on the river, in all his voyages. By the most conspicuous. These have a very way of giving me a specimen of its intelli. rapid and short flight, settling frequently and gence and feeling, its master set to and rated remaining stationary for a long time on the
it soundly, calling it scamp, heathen, thief, trunks of trees. The colors of their wings • and so forth, all through the copious Purtu- are vermilion and black, the surface haviug
guese vocabulary of vituperation. The poor a rich velvety appearance. The genus owes munkey, quietly seated on the ground, seemed its Greek name Catagramma (signifying "a to be in sure trouble at this display of anger. letter beneath") to the curious markings of It began by looking earnestly at him, then it the underside of the wings, resembling Arawhined, and lastly rocked its body to and fro bic numerals. The species and varieties are with emotion, crying piteously, and passing of almost endless diversity, but the majority its long gaunt arms continually over its fore. inhabit the hot valleys of the eastern parts of biead, for this was its habit when excited, the Andes. Another butterfly nearly alliel and the front of the head was worn quite to these, Callithea Leprieurii, was also very bald in consequence. At length its master abundant here, at the marshy head of the altered his tone. “It's all a lie, my old pool before mentioned. The sings are of a woman; you're an angel, a flower, a good rich dark-blue color, with a broad border of affectionate old creature,”and so forth. Im- silver-green. These two groups of Callithea mediately the poor monkey ceased its wail. and Catagrammu are found only in tropical ing, and soon after came over to where the America, chiefly near the equator, and are man sat. The disposition of the Coaitá is certainly among the most beautiful produc mild in the extreme; it has done of the pain. tions of a region wliere the animals and ful, restless vivacity of its kindred, the Cebi, plants seem to have been fashioned in na and no trace of the surly, untamable temper ture's choicest moulds. A great variety of of its still nearer relatives, the Mycetes, or other beautiful and curious insects adorned bowling monkeys. It is, however, an arrant these pleasant woods. Others were seen thief, and shows considerable cunning in pil- only in the sunshine in open places. As the furiny small articles of clothing, which it con. Waters retreated from the beach, vast pum. ceals in its sleeping-place. The natives of bers of sulplur-yellow and orange colored ithe Upper Amazons procure the Coaitá, butterflies congregated on the moist sand. when full grown, by shooting it with the The greater portion of them helonged to the blowpipe and poisoned darts, and restoring genus Callidryas. They assembled in denselife by putting a little salt (the antidote to lý-packed masses, sometimes two or three itbę Uraii poison with which the darts are yards in circumference, their wings all held -tipped) in its mouth. The animals thus in an upright position, so that The beach caught become tume forthwith. Two fe. looked as though variegated with huds of males were once kept at the Jardin des crocuses. These Callidryades seem to be Plantes of Paris, and Geoffroy St. Hilaire re- migratory insects, and have large powers of lates of them that they rarely quitted each dissemination. During the last two days of other, remaining most part of the time in our voyage the great numbers constantly close embrace, folding their tails round one passing over the river attracted the attention another's bodies. They took their meals to. of every one on board. They all crossed in gether; and it was remarked on such occa. one direction, namely, from north to south, sions, when the friendship of animals is put and the processions were uninterrupted from to a hard test, that they never quarrelled or an early hour in the morning until sunset disputed the possession of a favorite fruit Ali the individuals which resort to the mur. with each other.
gins of savdy beaches are of the male sex.
The females are much more rare, and are The neighborhood of Obydos was rich also seen only on the borders of the forest, wan. . in insects. In the broad alleys of the forest dering from tree to tree, and depositing their ; & inagnificent butterfly of the genus Morpho, eggs on low mimosas which grow in the i six to eight inches in expanse, the Morpho He shade. The migrating hordes, as far as I cuba, was seen daily gliding along at å height could ascertain, are composed only of males, of twenty feet or more from the ground, and on this account I believe their wander Among the lower trees, and bushes numerous ings do not extend very far, kinds of, Helicopiis,a group of kyticitlics pe. A strange kind of wood-cricket is found in