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this neighborhood, the males of which pro duced. This differs in each of the three duce a very loud and not unmusical noise by allied families abuve mentioned. In the rubbing together the overlapping edges of crickets the wing- cases are symmetrical ; their wing-cases. The notes are certainly both have straight edges and sharpis scorert the loudest and most extraordiuary that I nervures adapted to produce the stridulation. ever heard produced by an orthopterous in. A distinct portion of their edges is not, theresect. The natives cal it tbe Tanaus, in allu. fore, set apart for the elaboration of a soundsion to its music, which is a sharp, resonant producing instrument. In this family the stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-ni, wing-cases lie that on the back of the insect, ta-na-ná, succeeding each other with little and overlap each other for a considerable intermission. It seems to be rare in the portion of their extent. In the Locustidæ neighborhood. When the natives capture the same members have a sloping position on one, they keep it in a wicker-work cage for each side of the body, and do not overlap), the sake of hearing it sing. A friend of except to a small extent near their bases; it mine kept one six days. It was lively only is out of this small portion that the stridu. for two or three, and then its loud note could lating organ is contrived. Greater resonance be heard from one end of the village to the is given in most species by a thin transparent other. When it died, he gave me the speci- plate, cuvered by a membrane, in the centre men, the only one I was able to procure. It of the overlapping lobes. In the Grasshop. is a member of the family Locustidæ, a group pers (Acridiidæ) the wing-cases meet in a intermediate between the Crickets (Achetida) straight suture, and the friction of portions and the Grasshoppers (Acridiidæ). The total of their edges is no longer possible. But nao length of the body is two inches and a quar- ture exhibits the same fertility of resource ter; when the wings are closed, the insect here as elsewhere ; and, in cuntriviny other has an inflated vesicular or bladder-like methods of supplying the males with an in. shape, owing to the great convexity of the strument for the production of call-notes, in. thin, but firm, parchmenty winy.cases, and dicates the great importance which she at. the color is wholly pale green. The instru- taches to this function. The music in the ment by which the Tananá produces its males of the Acridiidæ is produced by the music is curiously contrived out of the ordi- scraping of the long hind thighs against tlie nary nervures of the wing.cases. In each horny nervures of the outer edges of the wing-case the inner edge, near its origin, bag wing-cases, a drum-shaped organ placed in a horny expansion or lobe ; on one wing (6) & cavity near the insertion of the thighs being this lobe las sharp raised margins ; on the adapted to give resonance to the tones. other (a), the strong nerrure which traverses I obtained very few birds at Obydus. the lobe on the other side is crossed by a There was no scarcity of birds, but they were number of fine sharp furrows like those of a mostly common Cayenne species. In early file. When the insect rapidly moves its moruing the woods near my house were quite wings, the file of the one lohe is scraped animated with their songs-an unusual thing sharply across the horny milrgin of the other, in this country. I heard here for the first thus producing the sounds, the parchmenty time the pleasing wild notes of the Carashué, wing.cases and the hollow drum-like spaco a species of wild thrush, probably the Mimus which they enclose assisting to give resonance lividus of ornithologists. I found it afterward to the tones. The projectiug portions of both to be a commou bird in the scattered woods wing.cases are traversed by a similar strong of the campo district near Santarem. It is a nervure, but this is scored like a file only in much smaller and plainer-colored bird than one of them, in the other remaining perfectly our thrush, and its song is not so loud, smooth. Other species of the family to varied, or so long sustained ; but the tone is which the Tananá belongs have similar of a sweet and plaintive quality, which har. stri:lulating organs, but in uone are these so movizes well with the wild and silent wood. highly developed us in this insect; they ex. lands, where alone it is heard, in the mornist always in the males only, the other ser ings and evenings of sultry tropical days. In having the edges of the wing.cases quite course of time the song of this humble thrush straight and simple. The mode of produce stirred up pleasing associations in my mind, ing the sounds, and their object, have been in the saine way as those of its more highly. investigated by several authors with regard endowed congeners formerly did at honie. to certain European species. They are the There are several allied species in Brazil ; in call-notes of the males. In the common the southern provinces they are called Sa. field-cricket of Europe, the male has been ob. biahs. The Brazilians are not insensible to served to place itself, in the evening, at the the charms of this their best songster, for I entrance of its burrow, and stridulate until a often heard some pretty verses in praise of feinale approaches, when the louder notes the Sabiah, sung by young people to the acare succeeded by a more subdued tone, while companiment of the guitar. I found several the successful musician caresses with his an- times the nest of the Carashué, which is built tennæ the mate he has won. Any one who, of dried grass and slender twigs, and lined will take the trouble, may observe a similar with mud ; the egys are colored and spotted proceeding iņ the common house.cricket. like those of our blackbird, but they are cunThe nature and object of this insect music siderably smaller. I was much pleased with are more uniform than the structure and situ. a brilliant little red-headed mannikin which ation of the instrument by which it is pró- I shot here (Pipra cornuta). There were

three males seated on a low branch, and hope ant one. ping slowly backward and forward, near to On leaving the port of Obydog we crossed one another, as though engaged in a kind of over to the right bank, and sailed with a dance. In the pleasant airy woods surround. light wind all day, passing numerous houses, ing the sandy shores of the pool behind the each surrounded by its grove of cacao trecs. towú, the yellow-bellied Trogon (T. viridis) On the 20th we made sluw progress. After W:43 very common. Its back is of a brilliant passing the high land at the mouth of the metallic green color, and the breast steel Trombetas, the banks were low, clevey, or blue. The natives call it the Suruquá do earthy on both sides. The breadth of the Ygapó, or Trogon of the flooded lands, in river varies hereabout from two and a half to contradistinction to the various red-breasted three miles, but neither coast is the true terra species, which are named Suruquás da terra firma. On the northern side a by-channel firma. I often saw small companies of half runs for a long distance juland, communicata dozen individuals, quietly seated on the ing with the extensive lake of Fury; on the lower branches of trees. They remained south, three channels lead to the similar almost motionless for an hour or two at a fresh water sea of Villa Franca ; these are time, simply moving their heads, on the in part arms of the river, so that the land watch for passing insects, or, as seemed they surround consists, properly speaking, of more generally to be the case, scanning the islands. When this description of land is neighboring trees for fruit, which they dart not formed wholly of river deposit, as some. off now and then, at long intervals, to se times happens, or is raised above the level of cure, returning always to the same perch. the highest fivods, it is called Ygapó allo, and CHAPTER VII.

is distinguished by the natives from the true

islands of mid-river, as well as from the terra THE LOWER AMAZONS-OBYDOS TO MANAOS, firma. We landed at one of the cacao planOR THE BARRA OF THE RIO NEGRO.

lations. The house was substantially built ; Departure from Obydos-River Banks and By-chanthe walls formed of strong upright posis, nels-Cacao Planters-Daily Life on Board our Ves sol-Great Storm-Sand Island and its Birds---Hill

Jathed across, plastered with mud, and wbite. of Parentins-Negro Trader and Mauhés Indians washed, and the roof tiled. The family Villa Nova, its Inhabitants, Forest, and Animal were mamelucos, and seemed to be an ave. Productions--Cararancú--A Rustic Festival Lake

sage sample of the poorer class of cacao-grow. of (carannú - Violúca Flics - Serpa Christmas Holiclavs--River Madeira-A Mameluco Farmer

ers. All were loosely dressed and barefooted Mural Indians -- Rio Negro-Description of BarraDesccul to Pará-Yellow Fever.

of the house, the floor of which was simply A TRADER of Obydos, uamed Menna, was the well-trodden earth : and here hammocks about proceeding in a cuberta laden with were slung between the bare upright sup. merchandise to the Rio Negro, intending to ports, a large rush mat being spread on the stop frequently on the road, so I bargained ground, upon which the stout mation-like with him for a passage. He gave up a part mistress, with a tame parrot percbed upon of the toldo, or fore-cabin as it may be called, her shoulder, sat sewing with two pretty lit. and here I slung my hammock and arrapged tle mulatto girls. The master, coolly clad in my boxes, so as to be able to work as we shirt and drawers, the former loose about the went along. The stoppages I thought would neck, lay in bis hammock smoking a loug, be an advantage, as I could collect in the gaudily-painted wooden pipe. The house. woods while he traded, and thus acquire a hold utensils, earthenware jars, water-pots, knowledge of the productions of many places and saucepans, lay at one end, near which on the river which, in a direct voyage, it was a wood fire, with the ever-ready coffeewould be impossible to do. I provided a pot simmering on the top of a clay tripod. stock of groceries for two months' consump. A large shed stood a short distance off, em. tion ; and, after the usual amount of unneces. bowered in a grove of banana, papaw, anii sary fuss and delay on the part of the owner, mango trees ; and under it were the ovens, we started on the 19th of November. Penna troughs, sieves, and all otber apparatus for took his family with him ; this comprised a the preparation of mandioca. The cleared smart, lively mameluco woman, named, space around the house was only a few yards Catarina, whom we called Senhora Katita, in extent ; beyond it lay the cacao piantisand two children. The crew consisted of tions, which stretched on each siile parallel three men, one a sturdy Inclian, another to the banks of the river. There was a path Cafuzo, godson of Penna, and the third, our through the forest which led to the mandioca best hand, a steady, good-natured mulutto, fields, and several miles beyour to other named Joaquim. My boy Luco was to houses on the banks of an interior channel. assist in rowing and so forth. Penna was a We were kindly received, as is always the timid middle-aged man, a white with a slight case when a stranger visits these cut-of-thecross of Indian ; when he was surly and übe way habitations, the people being invariably stinate, he used to ask me to excuse him on civil and hospitable. We had a long chat, account of the Tapuyo blood in his veins. took coffee, and on departing one of the He tried to make me as comfortable as the daughters sent a basketful of oranges for our circumstances admitted, and provided a large usc dowu to the canoe. stock of eatables and drinkables ; so that al. The cost of a cacao plantation in the together the voyage promised to be a plcas. Obydos district is after the rate of 240 reis or ) sixpence per tree, which is much higher than A sheet was the only covering required, be: at Cametá, where I believe the yield is not so sides our regular clothing : for the decrease great. The forest here is cleared before of temperature at night on the Amazons in planting, and the trees were grown in rows. uever so great as to be felt otherwise than :s The smaller cultivators are all very poor. & delightful coolness, after the sweltering Labor is scarce ; one family generally man. beat of the aiternoons, We used to line aces its own small plantation of 10,000 to when the first gleam of dawn showed itself 15,000 trces, but at the barvest time neigh. above the long dark line of forest. Our bors assist cach other. It appeared to me to clothes and hammocks were then generally be an easy, pleasant life; the work is all soaked with dew, but this was not felt to be done under shade, and occupies only a few an inconvenience. The Indian Manoel used weeks in the year. The incorrigible nonchu to revive himself by a plunge in the river, lance and laziness of the people alone pre- under the bows of ihe vessel. It is the habit vent them from surrounding themselves with of all Iudians, imale and female, to bathe all the luxuries of a tropical country. They early in the morning ; they do it sumetimes might plant orchards of the choicest fruit- for warmth's sake, the temperature of the trees around their houses, grow Indian corn, water being often considerably higher than and rear cattle and hogs, as intelligent settlers that of the air. Puona and I lolled in our from Europe would certainly do, instead of hammocks, while Katita prepared the indisindolently relying solely on the produce of pensable cup of strong coffee, which she did their small plantations, and living on a with wonderful cclerity, smoking meanwhile meagie diet of fish and farinha. In prepar- her early morning pipe of tobacco. Liberal ing the cacau they have not devised any owners of river craft allow a cup of coffee means of separating the seed well from the sweetened with molasses, or a ration of pulp, or ärying it in a systematic way; the cashaça, to each man of their crews ; Penna consequence is that, although naturally of gave them coffce. Wben all were served guod quality, it moulds before reaching the the day's work began. There was seldom merchants' stores, and does not fetch mure any wind at this early hour; so if there was than half the price of the same article grown still water along the shore the men rowed, if in other parts of tropical America. The not, there was no way of progressing but by Amazons region is the original home of the espia. In some places the currents ran with princ.pal species of chocolate tree, the Then. great force close to the banks, especially broma cacao ; and it grows in abundance in where these receded to form long bays or the forests of the upper river. The cultivate enscadas, as they are called, and then we ed crop appears to be a precarious one ; little made very little lead way. In such places or no care, however, is bestowed on the the banks consist of loose earth, a rich crum. trees, and even weeding is done very in- bly vegetable inouli, supporting a growth of efficiently. The plantations are generally most luxuriant forest, of which the currents old, and bave been made on the low ground almost daily carry away large portions, 80 near the river, which renders them liable to that the stream for several yards out is in. inundation when this riscs a few inches more cumbered with fallen trees, whose branches than the average. There is plenty of higher quiver in the current. When projecting land quite suitable to the tree, but it is un points of land were encountered, it was in cleared, and the want of labor and enterprise possible, with our weak crew, to pull the prevents the establishment of new planta- cuberta against the whirling torrents which tions.

set round them; anid m such cases we hai We passed the last houses in the Oby. to cross the river, drifting often with the cure dos district on the 20th, and the river rent, a mi or two lower down on the oppia scenery then resumed its usual wild and sol. site shore. There generally sprung up a light itary character, wbich the scattered human wind as thy day advanced, and then we took habitations relieved, althougii in a small lee down vur haminocks, hoisted all sail, and gree. We soon fell into a regular mode of bowled away merrily. Penna generally pre life on board our litlle ark. Penna would ferred to cook the dinner ashore, when there not travel by night ; indeed, our sinill crew, was little or no wind. About mid-day va wearied by the day's labor, required rest, and these calm days we used to look out for a We very rarely had wind in the night. Wo nice shady nook in the furest, with cleared used to moor the vessel to a tree, giving out space sufficient to make a tire upon. I theri plenty of cable, so as to sleep ut i distance had an hour's hunting in the neighboring from the banks and free of mosquitoes, wilderness, and was always rewarded by the which although swarming in the forest, rarely discovery of some new species. During the game many yards out into the river al this greater part of our voyage, however, we season of the year. The strong current, at a stopped at the house of soine settler, and distance of thirty or forty yards froin the made our fire in the port. Just before dip. Duast, steadied the cuberta head to strpam, ner it was our habit 1-) take a bath in the and kept us from drifting ashore. We all river, and then, according to the universal slept in the open air, as the local of the cal custom on the Amazous, where it seems 10 ins Wild stifling in the early part of the niglit. be suitable on account of the weak fish diet, Penna, Scuhora Katiti, and I, slung vui we each took half a teacupful of neat hammocks in triangle between the mainminst cashaça, the “ abre" or " opening," as it is and two stout poles fixed in the saisid deck. called, and set to on nro iness of stewed pirarech, beans, and bacon. Once or twice being dashed to pieces. The moon set, and a weck we had fowls and rice ; at supper, & black pall of ciouds spread itself over the after sunset, we often had fresh fish caught dark forests and river ; a frig'itful crack of by our men in the evening. The morpings thunder now bursts over our beads, and were cool and pleasant until toward mid down fell the drenching rain. Joaquim leaped day ; but in the afternoons the heat became ashore through the drowning spray with a almost intolerable, especially in gieamy, strong pole, and tried to pass ihe cuberta squally weather, such as generally prevailer!. found a small projecting point, while we on We then crouched in the shade of the sails; deck aitleed in keeping her off avd lengthened or went down to our hammocks in the cabin, the calle. We succeeded in getting free, choosing to be half stifled rather than expose and the stout.built bont full off inio the strong ourselves on deck to the sickening beat of current l'arther away from the shoie, the sun. We generally ceased Travelling Joaquim swingieg himself dexterously about nine o'clock, fixing upon a safe spot aboard by the bowsprit as it passed the point. wherein to secure the vessel for the night. It was fortupate for us that we baprepid 10 The cool evening hours were delicions ; be on a sloping clayey bank, where there flocks of whistling ducks (Anas autumnalis), was no fear of falling trees'; a few yards parrots, and hoarsely - screamius macaws, farther on, where the shore was perpentie: pair by pair, flew over from their feeding to ular and formed of ciumbly carth, large por. their resting places, as the glowing san tiods of loose soil, with all their superincum. plunged abruptly beneath the horizon. The bent mass of forest, were being washed brief evening chorus of animals then began, away ; the npionr ilins occasioned adding to the chief performers being the howling mon. the horrors of the storm. keys, whose frightful unearthly roar deeneurd The violence of the wind abated in the the feeling of solitude which crept on us course of an hour, but the deluge of rain darkness closed arvund us. Soon after, the continued until about three o'clock in the fireflies in great diversity of species came morning; the sky being lighten up by al. forth and flitied about the trees. As night inost incessant flashes of milil Jighining, advanced, all became silent in the forest, and the thunder realiny frim sive to side save the occasional booting of trec-frogs, or without interruption. Our clothing, bamthe monotonous chirping of wood-crickets n (ks, and goods were thoroughly soaked by and grasshoppers.

the streams of water which trickled through We made but little progress on the 20th Betweeu the planks. In the morning all was and two following days, on account of the quict; but an opaque, leaden mass of clonds unsteadiness of the wind. The dry season overspread the sky, throwing a gloom orer hari beco of very brief duration this rear; it the wild landscape that had a must dispiritgenerally lasts in this part of the Amazons ing effect. These squalls from the west are from July to January, with a short interval always expectert about the time of the breakof showery weather in November. The river ing tip of the dry season, in these central ought to sink thirty or thirty-five feet belut parts of the Lower Amazons. They genere its highest point; this year it had declined ally take place abont the heginning of Feb. only about iwenty-five feet, and the Noveni- ruary, so that this year they had enmmenced ber rains threatened to be continuous. The much earlier than usual. The soil and clidrier the weather, the stronger blows the east ate are much drier in this part of the coun. wind; it now failed us altogether, or blew try than in the region lying farthier to the gently for a few hours merely in the after- west, where the denser forests and more noons. I had hitherto seen ihe great river watey, humid soil produce a considerably only in its sunniest aspect; I was now ahont cover atmosphere. The storms may be to witness what it could furnish in the way therefore attributed to the rush of cold moist of storms.

air froni i!p river, when the regular trade. On the night of the 22d the moon appeared wind coining from the sea tras slackened or with a misty halo. As we went to rest, & ceased to blow. fresh watery wind was blowiny, and a dark On the 20th we arrived at a large sand. pile of clouds gathering up river in a di- bank connected with an island in mid-river, rection opposite to that of the wind. I in front of an inlet called Maracánassí. thought this betokened nothing more than a llere we anchored and spent half a day heavy rain, which would send us all in a ashore. Penua's object in stopping was simi hurry to our cabins. The men mooted the ply to enjoy a ramble ou the sands with the vessel to a tree alongside a hard clayey bank, chillren, and give Senhora Katità an oppor. and after supper als were soon fast asleep. tunity to wash the linen. The sund-bank was scattered about the raised deck. About now fast going under water with the rise of eleven o'clock I was awakened by a horrible the river ; in the middle of the dry season iu uproar, as a hurricane of wind suddenly is about a mile long and half a mile in widih. swept over from the opposite shore. The The canoe-men delight in these open spaces, cuberta was hurled with force against the which are a great relief to the monotony of clayey hapk; Penna shouted out, as he the forest that clothes the land in every started to his legs, that a trovoada de cima, other part of the river. Further westwar:1 or a squall from up river, was upon us. We they are inuch more frequent, and of larger took down our hammocks, and then all extent. They lie generally at the upper end bands were required to save the vessel from of islands ; in fact, the latter originate in ac

cretions of vegetable matter, formed by in "he shade, and are stimulated to exertion plants and trees growing on a shoal. The only when attracted by passing insects. island was wooded chiefly with the trumpet. This flock of Tamburí-pará were the reverse tree (Cecropia peltata), which has a hollow of dull; they were gamboling and chasing stem and smvoth pale bark. The leaves are each other among the branches. As they similar in shape to those of the horse-chest- sported about, each emitted a few short tunenut, but immensely larger ; beneath they ful notes, which altogether produced a ringare white, and when the welcome trade-wind ing, musical chorus that quite surprised me. blows they show their silvery under sides--a On the 27th we reached an elevated wood. pleasant signal to the weary canoe traveller. en promontory, called Parentins, which now The mode of growth of this tree is curious : forms the boundary between the proviuces of the branches are emitted at nearly right Pará and the Amazons. Here we met a angles with the stem, the branchlets in minor small canoe descending to Santarem. The whorls around these, and so forth, the leaves owner was a free negro named Lima, why, growing at their extremities ; so that the with his wife, was going down the river to total appearance is that of a huge candela. exchange his year's crop of tobacco for Eurobrum.* Cecropiæ of different species are pean merchandise. The long shallow capoe characteristic of Brazilian forest scenery; was laden nearly to the water level. Ile re. the kind of which I am speaking grows in sided on the banks of the Abacaxí, a river great numbers everywhere on the banks of which discharges its waters into the Canomá, the Amazons where the land is low. In the a broad interior channel which extends froin same places the curious monguba-trec (Boni. the river Madeira to the Parentins, a distance baux ceiba) is also plentiful ; the dark-green of 130 miles. Pepna offered him advantagebark of its huge tapering trunk, scored with ous terms, so a bargain was struck, and the gray, forming a conspicuous object. The man saved his long journey. The negro principal palm-tree on the lowlands is the seemed a frank, straightforward fellow ; he Jauari (Astryocaryum Jauurí), whose stem, was a native of Pernambuco, but had settled surrounded by whorls of spines, shoots up to many years ago in this part of the country. a great height. On the borders of the island He had with him a little Indian girl belong. were large tracts of arrow-grass (Gyncrium ing to the Majhés tribe, whose native seat is saccharoides), which bears elegant plumes of the district of country lying in the re:r of feathers, like those of the rced, and grows to the Canoma, between the Madeira and the a height of twenty feet, the leaves arranged Tapajos. The Mauhés are considered, I in a fan-shaped figure near the middle of the think with truth, to be a branch of the great sten. I was surprised to find on the higher Mundurucú nation, having segregated from parts of the sand-bank the familiar foliage of them at a remote period, and by long isolaa willow (Salix Humboldtiana). It is a tion acquired different customs and a totally dwarf species, and grows in patches resem- different language, in a manner which seems bling beds of osiers; as in the Euglish wil. to have been general with the Brazilian abolows, the leaves were peopled bysmall chrys, rigines. The Mundurucús seem to have reomelideous beetles. In wandering about, tained more of the general characteristics of many features reminded me of the sea-shore. the original Tupí stock than the Mauhés. Flocks of white gulls were flying overhead, Senhor Lima told me, what I afterward uttering their well-known cry, and sand- found to be correct, that there were scarcely pipers coursed along the edge of the water. two words alike in the languages of the two Here and there lonely wading.birds were people, although there are words closely stalking about; one of these, tho Curicáca allied to Tupí in both. The little girl had (Ibis melanopis), flew up with a low cackling not the slightest trace of the savage in her noise, and was soon joined by un unicorua appearance. Her features were finely shaped, bird (Palamedea corputa), which I startled the cheek-bones not at all prominent, the lips up from amid the bushcs, whose harsh thin, and the expression of her couutepunce screams, resembling the bray of a jackass, frank and smiling. She had been brought but sbuller, disturbed unpleasantly the soli. only a few weeks previously from a remote tude of the place. Among the willow-bushes setilement of her tribe on the banks of the were flocks of a handsome bird belonging tu Abacaxí, and did not yet know five words of the Icteridæ or troupial family, adorned with Portuguese. The Indians, as a general rule. a rich plumage of black and saffrou.yellow. are very manageable when they are your I spent some time watching an assemblage of but it is a frequent complaint that when they & species of bird called by the natives Tamo reach the age of puberty they become resim buri-pará, on the cecropia-trees. It is the less and discontented. The rooted impaMongsa nigrifrons of ornithologists, and has tience of all restraint then shows itself, and a plain sli ic-colored plumage, with the beak the kindest treatment will not prevent them of an orauge hue. It belongs to the family running away from their masters ; they do of Barbets, most of whose members are re, not return to the malocas of their tribes, but. markable for their dull,inactive temperamento join parties who go out to collect the prodThose species wbich are arranged by orni, uce of the forests and rivers, and lead as thologists under the genus Bucco arc called wanderiny, semi-savage kind of life. by the Indians, in the Tupí language, Tai. We remained under the Serra dos Parentins. assú uirá, or pig-birds. They remain seated all night. Early the next morning a ligh: sometimes for hours together on low brauches mist hung about the tree-tops, and the forest

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