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caught a bough, in his descent, with his distinguish from the surrounding soil. One powerful claws, and remained suspended. kind has a long forked tail. In the day-time Our Indian lad tried to climb the tree, but they are concealed in the wooded ilhas, where was driven buck by swarms of stinging I very often saw them crouched and sleeping upts; the poor little fellow slid down in a on the ground in the dense shade. They sad predicament, and plunged into the brook make no nest, but lay their eggs on the bare to free himself. Two days afterward I ground. Their brecding time is in thu rainy found the body of the sloth on the ground : souson, and fresh eggs are found from Dethe animal having dropped on the relaxation cember to June. Later in the evening the of the muscles a few hours after death. In singular notes of the goat-suckers are heard, one of our voyages Mr. Wallace and I saw one species crying Quro, Quao, another a sloth (B. infuscatus) swimming across a Chuck-co-cu-cao ; and these are repeated at river, at a place where it was probably 300 intervals far into ihe night in the most mo yards broad. I believe it is not generally notonous manner. A great number of toads known that this animal takes to the water. are seen on the bare sandy pathways sook Our men caught the beast, cooked, and ate after sunset. One of them was quite a color him.

sus, about seven inches in length and three ir In returning from these trips we were height. This big fellow would never move sometimes benighted on the campos. We ou; of the way until we were close to him. did not care for this un inovnlit nights, when If we jerked him out of the path with a stick, there wils nu danger of losing the path. The he would slowly recover himself, and then great heat felt in the middle hours of the turn round to have a good impudent stare. . day is much mitigated by four o'clock in the I have counted as many as thirty of these afiernoon; a few birds then make their ap- monsters within a distance of half a mile. pearance ; small ilocks of ground duves run

CHAPTER IX. about the stony billucks ; parrots pass over and sometimes settle in the ilhas; pretty

VOYAGE UP THE TAPAJOS. liitla finches of several species, especially one Preparations for voyage-First day's fail-Loes of

bout-Altar do Chao-Modes of obtaining fish-Dif. and somewhat resembling our yellow.lam ficulties with crew-Arrival at Aveyros - Excursions

in the neighborhood-White Cebng and habits and mer, but, I believe, not belonging in the

dispositions of Cebi monkeyg-Tame parrot-Missame genus, hup about the grass, enlivening sionary settlement-Enter the River Cupali--Adveit the place with a few musical notes. The ture with an anaconda-Smoke-dried monkey--Bo.

constrictor-Village of Mundurucú Indians, and inCarashué (Mimus) also then resumes its mel.

cursion of a wild tribe-Falls of the Coparí - Hva low blackbird-like song; and two or three cinthine macaw-Re-emerge into the broad Tapajor species of humming-bird, pone of which, -Descent of river to Santarem. however, are peculiar to the district, flit Juno. 1852.-I will now proceed to re about from tree to tree. On the other hand, late the incidents of my principal excursion the little blue and yellow-striped lizards, up the Tapajos, which I began to preparo which abound among the herbage during the for after residing about six months at Sanscorching heats of mid-day, retreat toward tarem. this buur to their hiding-places ; together I was obliged, this time, to travel in a with the day-flying insects and the numerous vessel of my own; partly because trading campo-butterflies. Some of these latter re- canves large enough to accommodate a natusemble greatly our English species found in rulist very seldom pass between Santarem healtby places, namely, a fritillary, Argyunis and the thinly-peopled settlements on the (Euptoieta) Hegesiu, and two smaller kinds, river. and partly because I wished to ex. which are deceptively like the little Nemeo. plore districts at my ease far out of the bius Lucing. After sunset the air becomes ordinary truck of traders. I soun found x delightfully cool and fragrant with the aroma suitable canoe-a two-masted cuberta, of of fruits and flowers. The nocturnul ani. about six tong' burden, strongly built of mals then come forth. A monstrous hairy Itaühu or stonewood, a timber of which all spider, tive inches in expanse, of a brown the best vessels in the Amazons country are color, with yellowish lines along its stout constructed, and said to be more durabla legs—which is very common here, inhabit. than teak. . This I hired of a merchant at ing broad tubular galleries smoothly lined the cheap rate of 500 reis, or about one shilwith silken web-may be then caught on ling and twopence per day. I fitted up the the watch at the mouth of its burrow. It is cabin. which, as usual in canoes of this only seen at night, and I think does not wan

ni class, was a square structure with its floor der far from its den ; the gallery is about

ut above the water-line, as my sleeping and

he two inches in diameter, and runs in a slant. ing direction, about two feet from the sur.

working apartments. My chests, filled with

ne sur. sture-boxus and trays for specimens, were face of the soil. As soon as it is night, ar

soon as it 18 night, arranged on each side, and abuve them were swarins of goat-suckers suddenly make their shelves and pegs to hold my little stock of appearance, whecling about in a noiseless, useful books. guns, and came bags. boards ghostly manner, in chase of night-flying in and materials for skinping and preserving sects. They sonictimes descend and settle animals. botanical press and papers, drying 'on a low branch, or even on the pathway Cages for insects and birds, mod si forth. A close to where one is walking, and then, rush mxt was spread on the floor, and my squatting dowu on their heels, are difficult to rolled-up hammock, to be used only when

sleeping ashore, served for a pillow. The This forms the limit of the river view from arched covering over the hold in the forepart Santarem, and here we had our last glimpse, of the vessel contained, besides a sleeping at a distance of seven or eight miles, of the place for the crew, my heavy chests, stock of city, a bright line of tiny white buildings salt provisions and groceries, and an assort. resting on the dark water. A strutch of wild, ment of goods wherewith to pay my way rocky, uninhabited coast was before us, and among the half-civilizeri or savage inbabit. we were fairly within the Tapajos. ants of the interior. The goods consisted Our course lay due west for about twenty nf caschaça, powder and shot, a few pieces miles. The wind increased as we neared of coarse checked-cotton cloth and prints, Point Cururú, where the river bends from fish-books, axes, large knives, barpoons, its northern course. A vast expanse of arrow heads, looking glasses, bends, and other water here stretches to the west and south, small wares. José and myself were busy and the waves with a strong breeze run very for many days arranging these matters. We high. As we were doubling the point the had tu salt the meat and grind a supply of cable which held our montaria in tow astern coffee ourselves. Cooking utensils, crock- parted, and in endeavoring to recover the ery, water jars, & set of useful carpenter's boat, without which we knew it would be tvols, and many other things had tu be pro- difticult to get ashore on many parts of the vided. We put all the groceries and olher cuast, we were very near capsizing. We perishable articles in tin Canisters and boxes, tricd to tack down the river, a vain attempt having found that this was the only way of with a strong breeze and no current. Our preserving them from d mp and insects in ropes snapped, the sails flew to rags, and ibis climate. When all was done, our canoe the vessel, which we now found was defi. looked like a little filouting workshop.

cient in ballast, heeled over frightfully. Cou. I could get little information about the trary to José's advice, I ran the cuberta juto river, except vague accounts of the difficulty a litile bay, thinking to cast anchor there in:/ of the navigation and the famitu or hunger wait for the boat coming up with tbe wind; which reigned on its banks. As I have he. but the anchor dragged on the smooth sandy fore mentioned, it is about a thousand miles bottom, and the vessel went broadside on t;) in length, and fluws from south to north ; in the rocky beach. With a little dexterous magnitude it stands the sixth among the management, but not until after we had sus. tribuluries of the Amazons. It is navigable, taiuel anme severe bumps, we managed to however, by sailing vessels only for about get out of this difficulty, cloaring the rocky 180 miles above Santarem. Tue hiring of point at a close shave with our jib-sail. men to navigate the vessel was our greatest Soon after we drifted into the smooth water trouble. José was to be my helmsman, and of a sheltered bay, which leads to the charmwe thought three other hauds would be the ingly situated village of Altar do Chao ; and fewest with which we could venture. But we were obliged to give up our attempt to all our endeavors to procure these were recover the niuntaria. fruitless. Santarem is worse provided with The little settlement, Altar do Chao (Allar Indian canoeinen than any other town on of the ground, or Earth altar), owes its singu. the river. I found on applying to the lar name to the existence, at the entrance tradesmen to whom I had brought letters of to the harbor, of one of those strange flatintroduction, and to the Brazilian authori. topped hills which are so common in this ties, that almost any favor would be sooner part of the Amazons country, shaped liko granted than the loan of bands. A stranger, the high altar in Roman Catholic churches. however, is obliged to depend on them ; for It is an isolated one, and much lower in it is impossible to find an Indian or half. beight than the similarly truncated hills and casto whom some one or other of the head. ridges near Almeyrim, being elevated prohmen do not claim as owing bim money or ably not more than 300 feet above the level labor. I was afraid at one time I should of the river. It is bure of trees, but covered have been forced to abandon my project on in places with a species of fern. At the head this account. At length, after many rebuffs of the bay is an inner hurbur, which comand disappointments, José contrived to en. municates by a channel with a series of lakes gage one man, a mulattto, nained Pinto, x lying in the valleys between hills, and native of the mining country of Interior stretching far into the interior of the land. Brazil, who knew the river well ; and with The village is peopled almost entirely by these two I resolved to start, hoping to meet serni-civilized Indians, to the number of sixty with others at the first village on the road. or seventy families ; and the scattered houses

We left Santarem on the 8th of June. are arrangeil in brvad streets on a strip of The waters were then at their highest point, greensward, at the foot of a high, gloriously and my canoe had been anchored close to wooded ridge. the back door of our house. The morning I was so much pleased with the situation of was cool, and a brisk wind blew, with which this settlement, and the number of raro We sped rapidly past the whitewashed birds and insects wbich tenanted the forest, houses and thatched Indian huts of the sub- that I revisited it in the following year, and urbs. The charming little bav of Mapiré spent four months making collections. The Was soon left behind ; we then doubled Point houses in the villagu swarmed with vermin ; Maria Jusepha, a headland formed of high bats in the thatch ; fire-ants (formiga de fogo) cliffs of Tabatinga clay, cupped with forest. under the floors ; cockroaches and spiders

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sleeping ashore, served for a pillow. The This forms the limit of the river view from arched covering over the hold in the forepart Santarem, and here we had our last glimpse, of the vessel contained, besides a sleeping at a distance of seven or eight miles, of the place for the crew, my heavy chests, stock of city, a bright line of tiny white buildings ault provisions and groceries, and an assort- resting on the dark water. A stretch of wild, ment of goods wherewith to pay my way rocky, uninhabited coast was before us, and among the half-civilized or savage inbabit. we were fairly within the Tapajos. ants of the interior. The goods consisted Our course lay due west for about twenty nf caschaça. powder and shot, a few pieces miles. The wind increased as we neared of coarse checked-cotton cloth and prints, Point Cururú, where the river bends from fish-books, axes, large knives, barpoons, its northern course. A vast expanse of arrow heads, looking glasses, beads, and other water here stretches to the west and sonth, small wares. José and myself were busy and the waves with a strong breeze ruu very for many days arranging these matters. We high. As we were doubling the point tho had tu salt the meat and grind a supply of cable which held our montaria in tow astern coffee ourselves. Cooking utensils, crock- parted, and in endeavoring to recover the ery, water jars, & set of useful carpenter's boat, without which we knew it would be tools, and many other things had tu be pro- difticult to get ashore on many parts of the vided. We put all the groceries and other cuast, we were very near capsizing. We perishable articles in tin Canisters and boxes, tried to tack down the river, a vain attempt having found that this was the only way of with a strong breeze and no current. Olir preserving them from d mp and insects in ropes snapped, the sails flew to rags, and inis climate. When all was done, our canoe the vessel, which we now found was defilooked like a little flouting workshop.

cient in ballast, heeled over frightfully. Con. I could get little information about the trary to José's advice, I ran the cuberta into river, except vague accounts of the difficulty a litile bay, thinking to cast anchor there an: of the navigation and the famitu or hunger wait for the boat coming up with the wind; which reigned on its banks. As I have be. but the anchor dragged on the smooth sandy fore mentioned, it is about a thousand miles bottom, and the vessel went broadside on t:) in length, and fluws from south to north ; in the rocky beach. With a little dexterous magnitude it stands the sixth among the management, but not until after we had sus. tribularies of the Amazons. It is navigable, tained some severe bumps, we managed to however, by sailing vessels only for about get out of this difficulty, clearing the rocky 180 miles above Santarein. Tue hiring of point at a close shave with our jib-sail. men to navigate the vessel was our greatest Soon after we drifted into the smooth water trouble. José was to be my helmsman, and of a sheltered bay, which leads to the charmwe thought three other hauds would be the ingly situated village of Altar do Chao ; and fewest with which we could venture. But we were obliged to give up our attempt to all our endeavors to procure these were recover the montaria. fruitless. Santarem is worse provided with The little settlement, Altar do Chao (Altar Indian canoeien than any other town on of the ground, or Earth altar), owes its singu. the river. I found on applying to the lar name to the existence, at the entrance tradesmen to whom I had brought letters of to the harbor, of one of those strange flatintroduction, and to the Brazilian authori- topped hills which are so common in this ties, that almost any favor would be sooner part of the Amazons country, shaped like granted than the loan of hands. A stranger, the high altar in Roman Catholic churches. however, is obliged to depend on them ; for It is an isolated one, and much lower in it is impossible to find an Indian or half. beight than the similarly truncated bills and casto whom some one or other of the head. ridges near Almeyrim, being elevated prolmen do not claim as owiny bim money or ably not more than 300 feet above the level labor. I was afraid at one time I should of the river. It is bure of trees, but covered have been forced to abandon my project on in places with a species of fern. At the head this account. At length, aflor many rebuffs of the bay is an inner harbor, which comand disappointments, José contrived to en. municates by a channel with a series of lakes gage one man, a mulattto, named Pinto, a lying in the valleys between hills, and Dutive of the mining country of Interior stretching far into the interior of the land. Brazil, who knew the river well; and with The village is peopled almost entirely by these two I resolved to start, hoping to meet serni-civilized Indians, to the number of sixty with others at the first village on the road. or seventy families ; and the scattered houses

We left Santarem on the 8th of June. are arrangeil in brvad streets on a strip of The waters were then at their highest point, greensward, at the foot of a high, gloriously and my vanoc had been anchored close to wooded ridge. the back door of our house. The morning I was so much pleased with the situation of was cool, and a brisk wind blew, with which this settlement, and the number of raro We sped rapidly past the whitewashed birds and insects which tenanted the forest, houses and thatched Indian huts of the sub- that I revisited it in the following year, and urbs. The charming little bay of Mapiré spent four months making collections. The was soon left behind ; we then doubled Point houses in the villayu swarmed with vermin ; Maria Jusepha, a headland formed of high bats in the thatch ; fire-ants (formiga de fogo) cliffs of Tabatinga clay, capped with forest. under the floors ; cockroaches and spiders on the Ww.ns. Very few of them had wood- densely wooded, instead of an open campo. en doors and locks. Altar do Clao Was In no part of the country did I enjoy more originally a settlement of the aborigines, and the moonlit vights than here in the dry seawas called Burarí. Ás in all the semi-civi}. son. After the day's work was done I used ized villages, where the original orderly and to go down to the shores of the bay and lie industrious habits of the Indian lave been fnil length on the cool sand for two or three lost without anything being learned from the hours before bedtime. The soft pale light, whites to make amends, the inhabitants live resting on broad sandy beaches and palmin the greatest poverty. The scarcily of fish Thatched huts, reproduced the effect of a in the clear waters and rocky bays of the midwinter scene in the ccid north when a neighborhood is no doubt partly the cause of coating of snow lies on the landscape. A the poverty and perennial hunger which heavy shower falls about once a week, and reign here. When we arrived in the port the shrubby vegetation never becomes our canoe was crowded with the half-naked parched up as at Santarem. Between the villagers--men, women, and children-who jains the heat and dryness increase from day came to beg each a piece of salt pirarucu to day : the weather on the first day after thu "for the love of God.” They are rot quite jain is gleamy, with intervals of melting so badly off in the dry season. The shallow sunshine and passing clouds ; the next day lakes and bays then contain plenty of fish, is rather drier, and the east wind begins to and the boys and women go out at night to blow ; then follow days of cloudless sky, spear them by torchlight, the torches being with gradually increasing strength of breeze made of thin strips of green bark from the When this has continued about a week & leaf-stalks of palms, tied in bundles. Many light mistiness begins to gather about the excellent kinds of fish are thus nbtained, horizon, clouds are formed, grumbling thun. umong them the Pescada, whose white and der is lieard, and then, generally in the nightfloky flesh, when boiled, has the appearance lime, dorn falls the refreshing rain. The and flavor of codfish ; and the Tucunaré sudden chill caused by the rains produces (Cichla temensis), a handsome species with a colds, which are accompanied by the same large prettily-colored eye-like spot ou ils tail. Eymptoins as in our own climate ; with this Many small Salmonidæ are also met with, exceptior the place is very healthy. and a kind of solc, called Aramassá, which June 17th. The two young men returned moves along the clear sandy bottom of the without meeting with my montaria, and I bay. At these times a species of sting-ray is found it impossible here to buy a new one. common on the sloping neach, and bathers The head-nian could find me only one hand. are frequently stung most severely by it. This was a blunt-spoken but willing young The weapon of this fish is a strong blade Indian, named Mapoel. He came cu board with jagged edges, abuut three inches long, this morning at eight o'clock, and we then growing from the side of the long fleshy tail. got up our anchor and resumed our voyage. I once saw a woman wounded by it while the wind was light and variable all day, bathing ; she shrieked frightfully, and was and we made only about fifteen miles by obliged to be carried to her bammock, where seven o'clock in ihe erening. The coast she lay for a week in great pain. I have formed a succession of long shallow bays known strong men to be lamed for many with sandy beaches, on which the waves months by the sting.

broke in a long line of surf. Ten miles There was a mode of taking fish here which above Altar do Chao is a conspicuous lead. I had not before seen employed, but found land, called Point Cajetúba. During a lull afterward to be very common ou the Tapa. of the wind, toward mid-day we ran the jos. This is by using a poisonous liana cuberta aground in shallow water and waded called Timbó (Paullinia pingata). It will ashore, but the woods were scarcely pene. act only in the still waters of creeks and trable, and not a bird was to be seen. The poo's. A few rods, a yard in length, are only thing observed worthy of note was the inashed and soaked in the water, which quantity of drowned winged ants along the quickly becomes discolored with the milky, beach ; they were all of one species, the ter. deleterious juice of the plant. In about half rible formiga de fogo (Myrmica sævissima); an hour all the smaller fishes over a rather the dead or half-dead bodies of which were wide space around the spot rise to the sur. heaped up in a line an inch or two in height face, floating on their sides, and with the and breadth, the line continuing without in. gills wide open. The poigun acts evidently terruption for miles at the edge of the water. by suffocating the fishes ; it spreads slowly The countless thousands had been doulitless in the water, und a very slight mixture cast into the river while flying during a sud. seems sufficient to stupefy them. I was sur- den equall the night hefure, and afterward prised, on beating the water in places where cast ashore by the waves. We found our. no fishes were visible in the clear depths, for selves at seven o clock near the mouth of a many yards round, to find, sooner or later, creek leading to a small lake, called Ara. sometimes twenty-four hours afterward, & máoa-í ; and the wind having died away, we considerable number fluating dead on the anchoreil, guided by the lights ashore, near surface.

the house of a settler named Jeronymu, The climate is ratber more humid than whom I kpew, and who soon after showed that of Santarem. I suppose this is to be at- us a snug little harbor where we could retriubted to the neigubiling country being maiu in safety for the night. The river here

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